Not Just Classroom!


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Just focussing on classroom learning interventions will always have problems with cost and scale. Not Just Classroom ! presentation proposes a holistic approach to learning in the organisation and outlines strategies to leverage 2.0 technologies in embedding learning in the workplace.

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  • Learning Philosophy (Excerpts from Learning Philosophy, Learning & Development, Human Resources, Princeton University. ) To ensure that  real  learning takes place and endures, we emphasize and encourage a holistic approach by integrating both formal and informal elements. We believe that the most effective way to learn and develop a new skill or behavior is to apply and practice it on the job and in real life situations. Our learning and development philosophy is built upon how individuals internalize and apply what they learn based on how they acquire the knowledge. We rely on the 70/20/10 formula* that describes how learning occurs: 70%  from real life and on-the-job experiences, tasks and problem solving. This is the most important aspect of any learning and development plan. 20%  from feedback and from observing and working with role models. 10%  from formal training. We believe that the key elements to a successful learning process include both the 70/20/10 formula and how individuals internalize and apply what they've learned. Read more about the  learning process .   *  70/20/10 learning concept was developed by Morgan McCall, Robert W. Eichinger and Michael M. Lombardo at the  Center for Creative Leadership  and is specifically mentioned in  The Career Architect Development Planner, 3rd edition,  by Michael M. Lombardo and Robert W. Eichinger. 
  • A model of workplace learning (Excerpts from A model of workplace learning by Jay Cross. , The Model (slightly modified) is shown on the next slide) Experience is still a more important teacher in the workplace than classes or workshops. People retain more when they learn informally, in response to need, because they deem the subject relevant and what they learn is reinforced when they put it into practice. The proportions of formal and informal learning vary with the task at hand, the context for learning, and the psyche of the learner. Generally, informal learning carries anywhere from four to ten times the weight of formal learning. The old model is a wake-up call that says informal learning is important. Instead of acting like it’s not there, we should shape our organizations to nurture it. What’s missing is the how. How do you choose the aspects of informal learning you want to emphasize? The model doesn’t tell you that. You’ve had to select from a separate menu of options, for example. The  70-20-10 model * is more prescriptive. It builds upon how people internalize and apply what they learn based on how they acquire the knowledge. 70%  from real life and on-the-job experiences, tasks and problem solving. 20%  from feedback and from observing and working with role models. 10%  from formal training. I want a model that provides more depth and guidance. Also, I want to emphasize that the desired outcome is not learning; it’s behavior change. Behavior change entails more than mere learning. You can learn a lot but if you don’t apply it, it’s all for naught. Often learning is prescribed when the real issue is not lack of know-how but lack of motivation. Often there’s an opportunity to inject knowledge into the job (performance support) instead of people’s heads (learning) or a mix to the two. It’s important to keep this trade-off in mind. (And it’s crazy to put responsibility for learning and for performance support in different silos because then no one makes the trade-off.) When people are learning from experience, work and learning become indistinguishable. You get better at the job by doing the job. When learning is embedded in work, organizational culture makes a huge impact on learning. You can improve the overall learning platform, what I call a  workscape , by tweaking cultural norms. This involves things like encouraging experimentation and tolerating mistakes, legitimizing conversation as work, making it easier for people to connect with one another, and providing pointers to expertise and expertise. *   70/20/10 learning concept was developed by Morgan McCall, Robert W. Eichinger, and Michael M. Lombardo at the Center for Creative Leadership and is specifically mentioned in  The Career Architect Development Planner 3rd edition by Michael M. Lombardo and Robert W. Eichinger.  I borrowed the description from  Princeton’s HR department .
  • Learning Networks (Excerpts from How to Replace Top-Down Training with Collaborative Learning (3), ) Networks are not only the environment of learning; they’re also the place where problems are solved, discoveries are made, and new knowledge is created. Everyone has personal face-to-face networks: the friends, neighbors, colleagues, and acquaintances we talk with. Most people have electronic personal networks, too: Facebook, discussions groups, and a variety of followers and followed comrades. We rely on our networks to help us learn what’s going on in our worlds. The collaborative organization may replicate those personal connections through social work platforms with customizable workspaces. Each workspace is for a group of connected people – teams, departments, project contributors, and so on. Communities are networks of people who share common interests and identify themselves as cohorts. A community may be a group of professionals (e.g. chefs or chip designers) or people with shared passions (e.g. model railroaders and cyclists) or co-workers from different work teams (e.g. the United Way Committee or neighborhood watch). Communities share knowledge (“Here’s a great recipe for crayfish with foie gras”), help one another (“There’s an opening for a sous-chef at the Fish Trap in Key West”), validate best practices (“Use coddled eggs in Caesar salad to avoid salmonella”), and develop apprentices into professionals (“My salad chef is ready to become a pastry chef”). Communities can exist internally (the United Way Committee) or externally (the chefs). Innovation in Silicon Valley is enhanced when competitors share trade secrets because allegiance to their professional community (“We’re chip designers”) is strong than to their employer (“I work for AMD.”) Many companies enable workers to establish a personal node in the company’s social platform. This is where your individual profile enables people to find you, know what your good at, and share things you may be interested in. Many workers narrate their work on individual blogs. Transparency builds trust. Most information work is carried out by project teams. When team members are unable to meet in the same physical space, they rely on networks to collaborate on getting projects done. Team members who work together, learn together. In time, team members develop strong social ties, trust emerges, and they co-create new knowledge and innovation. Experience is the best teacher and work teams are where it happens. Project Teams have a job to do; communities come together to cooperate and share for the good of the group. Project teams inevitably need to acquire knowledge from outside their small circle. Their individual members are often members of several communities, which they tap for knowledge and guidance. A smart organization supports its internal teams and encourages its people to take part in external teams. Many progressive companies have set up social work platforms that connect all employees to an activity feed that lists activities and pointers from all over the company. Social workspaces are the ultimate silo busters, enabling everyone to be on the same page, accelerating the organization’s cycle time, and letting “the company know what the company knows.” A Note About Internet Access Many companies signal their lack of trust in their employees by denying them access to the greatest assembly of knowledge in the history of humanity, the Internet. To be consistent, they should probably take away their telephones (They might make long distance calls to China!) and pencils (They might waste time playing tic-tac-toe). Bad apples are going to do bad things with or without the Internet, but by hoarding access to the web, you’re not only punishing your good apples, but also hindering their ability to learn. For many people today, working without the net is equivalent to working blindfolded. When companies deny access to the net, employees route around them with smartphones and tablets that bypass corporate IT. The price of criminalizing access to the net is lower morale, the message that it’s okay to break rules (wink, wink), and to give up on hiring the best and the brightest (who will work somewhere they are trusted to act like responsible citizens). Companies should encourage workers to connect to the outside world, for that’s where the customers are. The Internet is an essential library of information for today’s workforce. David Weinberger points out that the web has changed the nature of knowledge itself. Knowledge that was once limited to what you could print on a page is now connected to all manner of evidence, counter-claims, elaboration, and interpretations. The basic idea is that the properties of knowledge that we’ve taken for granted at least in the West for, oh, 2,500 years are not actually properties of knowledge. They’re properties of knowledge when its medium is paper. And when you remove the paper and put things online, it takes on the properties of its new medium—of the Internet. Importantly, knowledge in a network includes differences and disagreements in a way that traditional knowledge is uncomfortable with. Everything is unsettled, everything is argued about, and very few things are ever totally resolved on the Net. There’s a word for companies that deny workers access to the riches of the Internet. That word is  stupid .
  • Working Smarter through Workscaping (Excerpts from Working Smarter through Workscaping, By Jay Cross, May 2010, Working smarter is the key to sustainability and perpetual improvement. Knowledge work and learning to work smarter are becoming indistinguishable. The accelerating rate of change in business forces everyone in every organization to make a choice: learn while you work or become obsolete. The infrastructure for working smarter is called a workscape. It's not a separate function so much as another way of looking at how we organize work. W orkscaping helps people grow so that their organizations may prosper. Workscapes are pervasive. They are certainly not lodged in a training department. In fact, they make the training department obsolete. Organizations must stop thinking of learning as something separate from work. The further we get into the Knowledge Age, the greater the convergence of working and learning. In many cases, they are already one and the same. Workers in a workscape learn by solving problems, coming up with fresh thinking, and collaborating with colleagues. They don't learn about these things; they learn to do them. The workscape is the aspect of an organization where learning and development become never-ending processes rather than one-time events. A workscape is a learning ecology. The workscaping viewpoint helps knowledge workers become more effective professionally and fulfilled personally. A sound workscape environment empowers workers to be all that they can be. W orkscapes match flows of know-how with workers solving problems and getting things done. They are the aspect of workplace infrastructure that provides multiple means of solving problems, tapping collective wisdom, and collaborating with others. Workscapes are not a new structure but rather a holistic way of looking at and reformulating existing business infrastructure. They use the same networks and social media as the business itself, but technology is never the most important part of this. Foremost are people, their motivations, emotions, attitudes, roles, their enthusiasm or lack thereof, and their innate desire to excel. Technology, be it web 2.0 or instructional design, social psychology, marketing, or intelligent systems, only supports what we're helping people to accomplish. Got the idea? Okay, I'm going to stop putting workscape in italics. Think of workscapes as an inevitable part of every organization; workscapes are already there whether they are healthy and functional or not. As business shucks off industrial-era command-and-control systems for agile, sense-and-respond networks, the structure of business adapts to its new environment. Making progress in this network age requires know-how and the motivation to apply it. Let's look at each in turn. Motivation People are motivated to do things because they want to make progress 1 or to increase the scope of their repertoire to gain personal power. As Dan Pink 2 says, “It's about satisfying workers' desire for autonomy, which stimulates their ʻinnate capacity for self-direction.ʼ” The best motivation is intrinsic wherein people do things for their own satisfaction, not external rewards. In fact, the carrot-and stick method can often backfire such that the desired behavior may stop if the reward is withdrawn. Also, rewards tied to performance have the potential to change play into work. If you set high expectations of people, they usually live up to them. if you have low expectations of people, they live down to them. A person not trusted with the authority to do something can't take responsibility for doing it. ʻIt's not my department.” A person authorized and trusted to take responsibility cannot help but do so. As Will Herzberg 3 , “the father of motivation theory,” pointed out years ago, workers are motivated by achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, promotion, and growth. This innate desire to do well can be hindered by obstacles that reduce motivation: lack of respect, poor working conditions, perceived unfairness, low pay, lack of job security, and poor relationship with supervisor. Instructional design pioneer Robert Mager 4 proposed a manner of determining whether a roadblock was inadequate knowledge or lack of motivation. Hold a gun to her head. If she does what you ask, she has the requisite knowledge; you're grappling with a motivation problem. Sources of knowhow My class at Harvard Business School has the distinction of being the last not allowed to bring portable calculators to exams. (A Bowmar 4-function calculator cost $99, a sum that kept many of us from acquiring one.) I got through by doing discounted cash now with a slide rule. Everyone has several calculators today. They are giveaways. There's probably one in your phone. All of which makes it irrelevant to learn long division, how to take cube roots, or logarithms. Why bother? Thatʼs yesterdayʼs know-how. Robert Kelley at Carnegie Mellon discovered that whereas in 1986 we carried 75% of what we need to know to do our jobs in our heads, by 2006 our brains contained only about 8-10% of what we needed to know. The rest is stored in our "outboard brains" -- our laptops or, increasingly, our smart phones. Once I had to learn most of the things required to do my job; now I need to know where to retrieve them. I search or ask people when I need to know. If I have a good network of savvy colleagues, I can ask them for advice (“social search”). “I store knowledge in my friends 5 .” Instructional designers once designed instruction. Now they must make the tradeoff of putting knowledge in the worker's head (learning) or putting it in an outboard brain (performance support). Among the options available to them: Formal: Instructor-led class, Workshop, Video ILT, Schooling, Curriculum. In between: Mentoring, Conferences, Simulations, Interactive webinars, Performance support, YouTube, Podcasts, Books, Storytelling. Informal: Hallway conversation, Profiles/locators, Social networking, Trial & error, Search, Observation, Asking questions, Job shadowing/rotation, Collaboration, Community, Study group, Web jam, Feeds, Wikis, blogs, tweets, Social bookmarking, Un-conferences. Searching and asking questions work best with explicit information, things that could be written down. The subtle information that cannot be pinned down in simple sentences, for example, the emotions and nuances that make or break a sale, is tougher to transfer because “'wisdom can't be told 6 .” People acquire this implicit knowledge. through observing others, collaboration, and lengthy trial and error. Like blindfolded zen archery 7 ,mastery sometimes takes years. Or course, many times we have already learned a skill through hands-on experience. Today experiential learning can be accelerated through simulation, virtual worlds, and role playing. In the increasingly complex world we inhabit, we often confront novel situations. This requires us to innovate and to explore new ways of doing things. Innovation results when we mash up ideas, for example applying a rule of thumb from one discipline in an entirely different field. Many organizations pay lip service to informal learning. Theyʼve started a few blogs or set up a wiki. Someone in IT is investigating social networking software. In reality, they are doing less with social learning than the average teenager. Developing a profitable workscape need not be incremental; you need not go through years of process to put things in place. He who hesitates is lost. The social and informal learning training is leaving the station. The driver is not the potential for improving the learning and development function, though that will undoubtedly result. The overall environment of business is changing and if the learning function does not change in parallel, it will become hopelessly out of sync with the needs of the enterprise. 1 Amabile, T. Creativity, Improvisation, and Organizations, Harvard Business School Case Notes, 2009. 2 Pink, D. 2010. Drive, the Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us 3 Herzberg, W. 1968. One More Time, How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review 4 Mager, R. 1970. Analyzing Performance Problems. Or You Real/y Oughta Wanna. Fearon Publishers 5 Karen Stephenson, as quoted by Downes post-44607 6 Harvard professor Charles I. Gregg. 1970. http://www.aacu.orgipeerreviewlpr-wiOSlprwi05realitycheck.cfm 7 Herrigel, E and Suzuki, D. 1953. Zen and the Art of Archery
  • Engage Deploy a enterprise social networking tool such as Jive / Yammer at workplace. These communication and collaboration platforms help employees to share ideas, collaborate on projects and feel more connected. These workplace networks facilitates informal learning opportunities by providing tools for social networking, social sharing/bookmarking, blogs, tweets (updates), feeds, community of practice/groups and collaborative work/projects. These platforms also helps harness the collective wisdom of the organization. If all information required by a learner is easily accessible with click of a button, this is the best we can do for a self learner. Put all policies, procedures, best practices, SOPs etc. at a searchable online central place for easy retrieval. Another PULL could be providing access to online books/resources which are more convenient and accessible. Test LMS platform can be used mainly for testing and certifying all training programs. For a PULL learning strategy, user experience is most important factor. Open source solutions like Moodle and Instructure Canvas can be a good fit here. A good LMS should have features like e-learning, classroom & blended learning management, learning path, course development/authoring, virtual classroom/web conferencing, competency & performance management and reporting & analytics.
  • Not Just Classroom!

    1. 1. How do we learn at workplace?Are we focussing enough on Informal ways of learning?How can we embed learning in the workplace withWorkscaping?How can we replace top-down training with collaborative learningby creating Learning Networks?It’s aboutworkplacelearningHow thispresentationworks?Hover over your mouse pointer on thisbox to know more (do not click!)What this presentation is about?Not JustClassroom!What’s this round thing??? Justtake your mouse pointer over it....2.0Are we done here? Lets begin...A proposed strategy fororganisations
    2. 2. 70%from formal training?from feedback and from observingand working with role models?20%from real life and on-the-jobexperiences, tasks and problem solving?10%Where it happens the most?How do we learn at workplace?
    3. 3. LearningCostOLD NEWPush PullTraining LearningRigid FlexibleProgram PlatformMandated Self -serviceFormal InformalSpending / Outcomes paradoxAre we focussing enough on Informal ways of learning?
    4. 4. Outside the OrganisationInside the OrganisationIndividualSelf Interest Mission and Projects IdentityHow can we replace top-down training with collaborative learning by creating Learning Networks?OpportunityCompanySocialNetworkPersonalNetworkWork TeamExtended EnterpriseCustomersPartnersCommunitiesof PracticeThe InternetBoundries>>>Drivers >>>
    5. 5. Instructor-led Training (ILT)WorkshopsMandatory e-learningDiscoveryCollaborative work / projectsblogs, tweetsHow can we embed learning in the workplace with Workscaping?User generated contentWorkTrainingWorkLearningMentoring & Coaching Interactive web-conferencesIntranetBooksWebcasts Community of practiceWorkplace social networking Mobile learningQuestions & AnswersWiki/ Knowledge repositoryJob shadowing/rotationStudy groupsFeedsInternet / SearchObservationPull (Self)PushandPull(Coached)Push (Top-down)PullandPush(Networked)Self e-learningSocial sharing / bookmarkingHierarchy WirearchyLearning path Self Learning
    6. 6. A proposedstrategy fororganisationsEngageStrong pushBehavioural and skilling basedReinforcement and engagementPeer learningContent ManagementAnytime, anywhereTrainCost and ScalePulling people out of workTestLow awareness of toolsManagement focusWorkplace Social NetworkLMSAction Steps1.Think Not Just Classroom!2.Deploy a enterprise social networking toolsuch as Jive / Yammer at workplace.3.It’s more about culture change thantechnology.4.Not just Learning and Development but eachand every dept. should be encouraged to sharetheir content & expertise online.5.Assign people for community management,content development & management andreporting & analysis.Instructor Led TrainingOrganised content & learning pathRecords ManagementHRIS integrationUser trackingContent development costRequires a lot of pushAnalyse
    7. 7. A proposedstrategy fororganisationsEngageStrong pushBehavioural and skilling basedReinforcement and engagementPeer learningContent ManagementAnytime, anywhereTrainCost and ScalePulling people out of workTestLow awareness of toolsManagement focusWorkplace Social NetworkLMSAction Steps1.Think Not Just Classroom!2.Deploy a enterprise social networking toolsuch as Jive / Yammer at workplace.3.It’s more about culture change thantechnology.4.Not just Learning and Development but eachand every dept. should be encouraged to sharetheir content & expertise online.5.Assign people for community management,content development & management andreporting & analysis.Instructor Led TrainingOrganised content & learning pathRecords ManagementHRIS integrationUser trackingContent development costRequires a lot of pushAnalyse