Contextual understanding


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Contextual understanding

  1. 1. Jai Shree a/p Bipinchandra
  2. 2. Argumentative Essay The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Source:
  3. 3. What is a Thesis Statement? A thesis statement is a one-or two-sentence condensation of the argument or analysis that is to follow. It is needed: to test your ideas by distilling them into a sentence or two to better organize and develop your argument to provide your reader with a “guide” to your argument It usually appears at the end of the introduction.
  4. 4. How to write a thesis statement? Let us look at an example of a weak thesis statement: Young people nowadays are facing a lot more problems than their parents ever did. The statement is too broad. Even though it does state the writer's opinion, the statement is not clear. It doesn't explain the kind of problems they face.
  5. 5. Strong Thesis Statement Among the problems or pressures young people face nowadays as compared to their parents are pressure to score better grades, pressure to high achievers professionally as well as pressure to measure up to what they see in the media. "An effective thesis statement suggests your essay's direction, emphasis, and scope. Your thesis should not make promises that your essay will not fulfill. It should suggest where you will place your emphasis and indicate in what order your major points will be discussed, as the following statement does. Source:
  6. 6. Paragraph Writing A paragraph usually consists of a number of sentences to develop one topic, one idea, one aspect, one stage of a discussion, or one stage of a story. A paragraph consists of five to twelve sentences. The number of sentences is unimportant; however, the paragraph should be long enough to develop a single topic, aspect, stage of a discussion, or story.
  7. 7. The three Parts of a paragraph A topic sentence which states the main point. The body of the paragraph which develops the main idea with supporting details. A concluding sentence which restates the main idea using different words. Watch this video for a detailed explanation on how to write a paragraph: 3tyaIDlu_I
  8. 8. Structure of a Paragraph : The Hamburger Way 1. The Bottom Bun – Topic Sentence This is the foundation of your paragraph. In one sentence, it introduces what the paragraph is about and offers direction for the rest of the paragraph. 2. The Burger – Details This portion expands and develops what you stated in your topic sentence. This is the part of the paragraph where you get to explain your topic sentence and develop your thesis. It is the bulk of your paragraph. 3. The Toppings – Examples and Support You need to have examples to support the details you have provided. Often you will use quotes or pieces from the text to help support your paragraph. These are not necessary, but will make your paragraph more convincing. 4. The Top Bun – Concluding Sentence This is the end of your paragraph. In one sentence, you need to wrap up your paragraph and subtly lead into the next paragraph. REMEMBER EVERY POINT YOU MAKE AND SUPPORT SHOULD RELATE BACK TO YOUR THESIS!
  9. 9. Why Malaysia is one the best countries in Asia Topic sentence There are many reasons why Malaysia is one of the best countries in Asia. Body with supporting details First, Malaysia has excellent weather. All year round, the temperature hovers around 30 C – 33 C. Second, Malaysia has a wide range of cuisine. Visitors simply enjoy the Chinese, Malay and Indian food. Finally, the people of Malaysia are friendly, gentle, helpful and hospitable. They frequently open their homes to friends and relatives. Concluding sentence In conclusion, Malaysia is not only a desirable place to visit but also a good place to live in.
  10. 10. The Topic Sentence The topic sentence is usually the sentence in a paragraph that states the main point or the most important aspect of the topic. The topic sentence must be a complete sentence. It must contain a subject and a verb and express a complete thought.
  11. 11. A topic sentence must be a complete sentence The social life of a teenager is both exciting and stressful. Why I volunteered to serve in the Red Crescent Society. My favourite fruit – the durian. My grandmother who is eighty-two. Writing good academic essays is an important skill. Inflation affects everybody. All government offices should adopt a five-day work week. Riding a bicycle.
  12. 12. What does the topic sentence do? It introduces the main idea of the paragraph. It names the topic of the paragraph. It limits the topic to one or two specific aspects of points that can be discussed completely within a paragraph. These points form the controlling idea of the paragraph. It indicates to the reader what the paragraph will be about.  (Topic) (Controlling idea) Women workers in factories are more efficient than men workers
  13. 13. Good topic sentences Driving on highways require skill and alertness. Deciding on a good course to study can be a frustrating experience for many students. Malaysia has many problems. Muslims celebrate Hari Raya Aidilfitri after a month of fasting.
  14. 14. Function of a topic sentence A topic sentence is the most important sentence in a paragraph. It is a helpful guide to both the writer and the reader. The writer knows what information to include and what to exclude. The reader can see what the paragraph is going to be about and is therefore better prepared to understand it
  15. 15. Evaluating topic sentences Does the topic sentence present one-and only one- topic? Is the topic sentence too broad, too general, or too specific? Does the sentence give clear direction to the whole paragraph?
  16. 16. Placement of the topic sentence The topic sentence serves the special purpose of announcing the topic of the paragraph. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence (but not always) in a paragraph. However, it can also be at the end of the paragraph.
  17. 17. Placement of the topic sentence Cars should be prohibited in the cities. As more and more cars fill the cities, valuable space is being used as car parks. The large number of cars causes traffic jams. Besides, cars fill the air with poisonous gases, which can damage our health. As more and more cars fill the cities, valuable space is being used as car parks. The large number of cars causes traffic jams. Besides, cars fill the air with poisonous gases, which can damage our health. For these reasons, cars should be prohibited in the cities.
  18. 18. The last but most important tip:  Easiest way to divide your points is A) 1. individual 2. society 3. country B) 1. short term 2. mid term 3. long term C) 1.causes 2. effects 3. symptoms and for the conclusion you should include the recommendation... what the country/government/society can do... for the betterment of the nation.