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Project bm1

  1. 1. Building Materials Project Report August 2012 By: Suneeta BodapatiB-23 A, Sector- 62 (Next to Fortis Hospital) Noida, 201301 Uttar Pradesh
  2. 2. AcknowledgementsThis project would not have been a success without the guidance and motivation ofall my mentors. I am thankful to all the persons behind this project.I would like to express my gratefulness to Ms. Shivani Sood, whoacted as a mentor throughout my project for providing me valuableinformation and guidance. Secondly, I would like to thank Ms. Renu Bhargava who have been very helpful in facilitating my site visits and encouraged at every instant.Last but not the least; I would like to thank my classmates & my family formotivating me all the time throughout this project. Suneeta Bodapati Interior Designing – JD Institute, Noida 2
  3. 3. Index1. Introduction - page 042. Wood - page 053. Bricks - page 124. Glass - page 165. Sand - page 216. Steel - page 237. Stone - page 288. Concrete - page 379. Bamboo - page 4210.Conclusion - page 4711.Bibliography - page 4912.Sample - page 50 3
  4. 4. IntroductionFundamentally, Interior designers must know about the building materials that willbe used to create and furnish the space, how texture, color, lighting and otherfactors combine and interact to make a space.The aim of this project was to understand about different types of the basic buildingmaterials i.e. wood, bricks, glass, sand, steel, stone, concrete & Bamboo.This report presents the vital nature of these building materials along with theirproperties, limitations, usage and current cost (in northern part of Indian sub-continent).This report is based on actual site visits, detailed interviews with building materialtraders / manufacturers and information from World Wide Web. 4
  5. 5. Wood“I have little patience with scientists who take a board of wood, look for its thinnestpart, and drill a great number of holes where drilling is easy.” - Albert Einstein 5
  6. 6. WoodWoods are of many different types. Each unique wood type has its own combination of properties such as color,scent, strength, density, flexibility, and grain pattern. These factors make different types of wood better formaking certain items we use in our daily lives.Wood can be broadly classified in two main groups: softwoods and hardwoods. The structure of the cells, orwood fibers, is what determines the strength and flexibility of a particular type of wood. HARDWOODS OAK: Oak is the most widely used hardwood. There are more than 60 species of oak grown, which can be separated into two basic varieties; white and red. The red variety is also known as black. Properties: Oak is a heavy, strong, light colored hardwood. It is ring porous, due to the fact that more and larger conductive vessels are laid down early in the summer, rather than later. Prominent rings and large pores give oak a course texture and prominent grain. Oak also has conspicuous medullar rays which can be seen as "flakes" in quarter sawed oak lumber. Uses: Oak is the most popular wood used to craft western designs. It is also used for Gothic as well as many transitional and contemporary pieces. MAPLE: There are 115 species of maple. Two of the five are hard rock maple and sugar maple. Properties: Maple is so hard and resistant to shocks that it is often used for bowling alley floors. Its diffuse evenly sized pores give the wood a fine texture and even grain. Maple that has a curly grain is often used for violin backs. Uses: Maple is used extensively for American colonial furniture, especially in medium and lower priced categories. It can also be stained to simulate cherry wood, which it resembles. 6
  7. 7. WoodMAHOGANY: Mahogany, also known as Honduras mahogany is a tropical hardwoodindigenous to South America, Central America and Africa. There are many different gradesand species sold under this name, which vary widely in quality and price. Mahogany whichcomes from the Caribbean is thought to be the hardest, strongest and best quality. Logsfrom Africa, though highly figured, are of slightly lesser quality. Philippine mahogany has asimilar color, but is not really mahogany at all. It is a much less valuable wood, being lessstrong, not as durable or as beautiful when finished.Properties: Mahogany is strong, with a uniform pore structure and poorly defined annualrings. It has a reddish - brown color and may display stripe, ribbon, brokenstripe, rope, ripple, mottle, fiddleback or blister figures. Crotch mahogany figures arewidely used and greatly valued. Mahogany is an excellent carving wood and finishes well.Uses: Mahogany is used extensively in the crafting of Georgian, Empire and Federalreproduction furniture. Mahogany is also used in styles ranging from Victorian furniturereproductions to Contemporary. CHERRY: Cherry is sometimes called fruitwood. The term fruitwood is also used to describe a light brown finish on other woods. Properties: A moderately hard, strong, closed grain, light to red-brown wood, cherry resists warping and checking. It is easy to carve and polish. Uses: Cherry veneers and solids are used in a variety of styles. Cherry has been called New England mahogany and is often used to craft 18th century, Colonial and French Provincial designs. 7
  8. 8. Wood WALNUT: Walnut is one of the most versatile and popular cabinet making woods. It grows in Europe, America and Asia. There are many different varieties. Properties: Walnut is strong, hard and durable, without being excessively heavy. It has excellent woodworking qualities, and takes finishes well. The wood is light to dark chocolate brown in color with a straight grain in the trunk. Uses: Walnut is used in all types of fine cabinet work, especially 1 8th century reproductions.ROSEWOOD: Very hard and has a dark reddish brown color.Properties: It is fragrant and close grained. It is hard to work and takes high polish.Uses: Used in musical instruments, piano cases, tool handles, art projects, veneers andfurniture. TEAK: True teak is indigenous to Southeast Asia, but similar wood species also grow in Africa. Properties & Uses: Teak is a yellow to dark brown hardwood which is extremely heavy, strong and durable. Often strongly figured, teak may show straight grain, mottled or fiddle back figures. It carves well, but because of its high value, is often used as a veneer. Scandinavian modern, and oriental furniture styles are often crafted of teak. 8
  9. 9. WoodSOFTWOODSCEDAR: Several species of cedar grow in the southern United States, Central and SouthAmerica.Properties & Uses: Cedar is a knotty softwood which has a red-brown color with lightstreaks. Its aromatic and moth repellent qualities have made it a popular wood for liningdrawers, chests and boxes. Simple cases and storage closets are also constructed fromthis light, brittle wood. ASH: There are 16 species of ash wood. Of these, the white ash is the largest and most commercially important. Properties & Uses: Ash is a hard, heavy, ring porous hardwood. It has a prominent grain that resembles oak, and a white to light brown color. Ash burls have a twisted, interwoven figure. Ash is widely used for structural frames and steam bent furniture pieces. It is often less expensive than comparable hardwoods. 9
  10. 10. Wood PINE: Pine is a softwood which grows in most areas of the Northern Hemisphere. There are more than 100 species worldwide. Properties: Pine is a soft, white or pale yellow wood which is light weight, straight grained and lacks figure. It resists shrinking and swelling. Knotty pine is often used for decorative effect. Uses: Pine is often used for country or provincial furniture. Pickled, whitened, painted and oil finishes are often used on this wood.BIRCH: There are many species of birch. The yellow birch is the most commerciallyimportant. European birch is fine grained, rare and expensive.Properties & Uses: Birch is a hard, heavy, close grained hardwood with a light brownor reddish colored heartwood and cream or light sapwood. Birch is often rotary or flatsliced, yielding straight, curly or wavy grain patterns. It can be stained to resemblemahogany or walnut. Douglas-Fir: Douglas-Fir is technically not a true Fir (Abies genus), but is in its own genus: Pseudotsuga. It is an incredibly valuable commercial timber, widely used in construction and building purposes. The tree itself grows to be very large, and yields a large amount of usable lumber and veneer for plywood. Properties: Douglas-Fir is very stiff and strong for its weight, and is also among the hardest and heaviest softwoods. Can vary in color based upon age and location of tree. Usually a light brown color with a hint of red and/or yellow, with darker growth rings. Uses: Douglas-Fir heartwood is rated to be moderately-durable in regard to decay, but is susceptible to insect attack. 10
  11. 11. WoodPrices S.No Wood type Units Min price Max price 1 Oak Sq-Mtr Rs. 2,100 Rs. 5,800 2 Maple Sq-Mtr Rs. 3,700 Rs. 4,100 3 Cherry Sq-Mtr Rs. 6,100 Rs. 6,300 4 Walnut Sq-Mtr Rs. 5,100 Rs. 5,300 5 Rosewood 1/2" x 2-7/8" x 36-1/4" Rs. 2,970 6 Teak Cubic ft Rs. 2,500 Rs. 5,000 7 Cedar Sq-Mtr Rs. 2,400 Rs. 3,100 8 Ash Sq-Mtr Rs. 3,900 Rs. 4,200 9 Pine 100x100mm Rs. 370 Rs. 455 11
  12. 12. Bricks“A successful man is one who can lay a firm foundation with the bricks others havethrown at him.” - David Brikley 12
  13. 13. BrickBricks have been around for thousands of years and are still animportant part of the construction industry today. Modern bricks aremade in much the same way as they were in the past. Clay is dug outof the earth, dried then crushed into a fine powder, and mixed withwater to a specific consistency. The clay is then molded intounits, dried in ovens, and finally baked in high-temperature kilns.Bricks are named according to the clay they are manufacturedfrom, the kind of method used in shaping the units (sand or waterstruck), how they are to be used (face brick or common), thestrength, or the finish applied to the face after the initial firing such asglazed brick.Standard brick size in India: 9’ X 4’ X 3.5’ HANDMADE BRICK: Handmade Bricks are literally made by hand by throwing clay into moulds. Each brick is unique and they have a pleasing and distinctive appearance with a creased face (known as a smile) as well as longstanding durability - many of our most admired historic buildings were built with handmade bricks. This have a labour intensive production process. STOCK BRICK: Stock Bricks are a traditional type of brick with a slightly irregular shape made by using a mechanised moulding process known as soft mud moulding. A wide range of colours is available. In price, as well as style, stock bricks fall between the wirecuts and the handmades. This type of brick is currently one of the most popular. 13
  14. 14. Brick WIRECUT BRICKS: Wirecut Facing Bricks are made by extrusion of a continuous column of clay which, as the name implies, is cut by the wire but not before the column has been textured. They are suitable for almost every type of application and are available in a wide range of colours and textures. The highly automated production process makes wirecuts relatively inexpensive compared to some other types of brick.ENGINEERING BRICK: Engineering Bricks are used for their performance characteristicsrather than their appearance and are most suited for groundworks, manholes andsewers, retaining walls and other situations where strength and resistance to frost attackand water are the most important factor. FLETTON BRICK: Fletton Bricks, or Londons are only manufactured by Hanson Brick. They are made from deposits of Oxford clay. They are available in a wide range of colours and textures, and are particularly popular for matching existing brickwork.REPRESSED BRICK: Re-Pressed Bricks are wirecut bricks which are re-pressed to create asolid brick with very precise size tolerances and distinctive surface texture. Known as theJacobean, this range is unique and is a high quality product that can be used effectivelyin housing. 14
  15. 15. BrickBrick Prices:• Mud Bricks Rs. 2.00 – 4.00 per piece Price depends on thickness and finish.• Mud Bricks (Light Weight) Rs. 3.50 – 6.00 per ton Various qualities depends on manufacturer• Fly Ash / Hallow Bricks Rs. 8.25 + per piece Standard sizes and finishing depends on manufacturer 15
  16. 16. Glass“People who live in glass houses shouldnt throw stones” - Romanian proverb 16
  17. 17. GlassThere is a special relationship between glass and buildings. Glass is a magicalmaterial which has so many different properties and uses, that it has presentedInterior designers with many new possibilities and designs. In their quest fortransparency and safety, Designers & Architects often use glasses.There are many kinds of glass. Several important kinds of glass are explained below. FLAT GLASS is used chiefly in windows. It is also used in mirrors, room dividers, and some kinds of furniture. All flat glass is made in the form of flat sheets. But some of it, such as that used in automobile windshields, is reheated and sagged (curved) over molds.LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS is a “sandwich” made by combining alternate layers offlat glass and plastics. The outside layer of glass may break when struck by anobject, but the plastic layer is elastic and so it stretches. The plastic holds thebroken pieces of glass together and keeps them from flying in all directions.Laminated glass is used where broken glass might cause serious injuries, as inautomobile windshields. GLASS BUILDING BLOCKS are made from two hollow half-sections sealed together at a high temperature. Glass building blocks are good insulators against heat or cold because of the dead-air space inside. The blocks are laid like bricks to make walls and other structures. 17
  18. 18. GlassTEMPERED SAFETY GLASS unlike laminated glass, is a single piece that has beengiven a special heat treatment. It looks, feels, and weighs the same as ordinary glass.But it can be several times stronger. Tempered glass is used widely for all-glass doorsin stores, side and rear windows of automobiles, and basketball backboards, and forother special purposes. It is hard to break even when hit with a hammer. When itdoes break, the whole piece of glass collapses into small, dull-edged fragments. COLORED STRUCTURAL GLASS is a heavy plate glass, available in many colors. It is used in buildings as an exterior facing, and for interior walls, partitions, and tabletops.OPAL GLASS has small particles in the body of the glass that disperse the lightpassing through it, making the glass appear milky. The ingredients necessary toproduce opal glass include fluorides (chemical compounds containing fluorine). Thisglass is widely used in lighting fixtures and for tableware. FIBERGLASS consists of fine but solid rods of glass, each of which may be less than one-twentieth the width of a human hair. These tiny glass fibers can be loosely packed together in a wool like mass that can serve as heat insulation. They also can be used like wool or cotton fibers to make glass yarn, tape, cloth, and mats. Fiberglass has many other uses. It is used for electrical insulation, chemical filtration, and firefighters suits. Combined with plastics, fiberglass can be used for airplane wings and bodies, automobile bodies, and boat hulls. Fiberglass is a popular curtain material because it is fire-resistant and washable. 18
  19. 19. GlassGLASS-CERAMICS are strong materials made by heating glass to rearrange some ofits atoms into regular patterns. These partially crystalline materials can withstandhigh temperatures, sudden changes in temperature, and chemical attacks betterthan ordinary glass can. They are used in a variety of products, including heat-resistant cookware, turbine engines, electronic equipment, and nose cones ofguided missiles. Glass-ceramics have such trade names as Pyroceram, Cervit, andHercuvit. FOAM GLASS when it is cut, looks like a black honeycomb. It is filled with many tiny cells of gas. Each cell is surrounded and sealed off from the others by thin walls of glass. Foam glass is so light that it floats on water. It is widely used as a heat insulator in buildings, on steam pipes, and on chemical equipment. Foam glass can be cut into various shapes with a saw.RADIATION-ABSORBING AND RADIATION-TRANSMITTING GLASS cantransmit, modify, or block heat, light, X rays, and other types of radiant energy. Forexample, ultraviolet glass absorbs the ultraviolet rays of the sun but transmits visiblelight. Other glass transmits heat rays freely but passes little visible light. Polarizedglass cuts out the glare of brilliant light. One-way glass is specially coated so that aperson can look through a window without being seen from the other side. PHOTOSENSITIVE GLASS can be exposed to ultraviolet light and to heat so that any pattern or photograph can be reproduced within the body of the glass itself. Because the photographic print then becomes an actual part of the glass, it will last as long as the glass itself. 19
  20. 20. GlassMIRRORS are usually made from float glass 4-6mm thick, andsilvered on one side. Mirrors are available for use without asurrounding frame, these usually are made from a type ofsafety glass. Old mirrors, and modern mirrors supplied withina frame, should not be used unframed as any damage tothem might cause the glass to shatter dangerously.Prices S.No Glass type Units Min price Max price 1 Flat glass Per Sqft Rs. 70 Rs. 80 2 Laminated glass Per Sqft Rs. 100 Rs. 120 3 Glass building blocks Per block Rs. 275 Rs. 345 4 Colored structural glass Per Sqft Rs. 330 Rs. 700 20
  21. 21. Sand“Write injuries in sand, kindnesses in marble” - French proverb 21
  22. 22. SandSand is an extremely needful material for the construction but thisimportant material must be purchased with all care and vigilance.Sand which is used in the construction purpose must be clean, freefrom waste stones and impurities. It is important to know what typeof sand is beneficial for construction purpose as sand is also classifiedinto three different forms that make it suitable for specific type ofconstruction.Sand is classified as: Fine Sand (0.075 to 0.425 mm), Medium Sand (0.425to 2 mm) and Coarse Sand (2.0 to4.75 mm). However this classification ofsand is further has types of sand in particular and on that basis onlythey are being incorporated in the construction. Read out thedetailing of the types of sand: PIT SAND (Coarse sand): Pit sand is classified under coarse sand which is also called badarpur in common language. This type of coarse sand is procured from deep pits of abundant supply and it is generally in red-orange colour. The coarse grain is sharp, angular and certainly free from salts etc which is mostly employed in concreting.RIVER SAND: River sand is procured from river streams and banks and is fine in qualityunlike pit sand. This type of sand has rounded grains generally in white-grey colour. Riversand has many uses in the construction purpose such as plastering. 22
  23. 23. Steel“The finest steel has to go through the hottest fire” - Nixon, Richard M 23
  24. 24. SteelThe most common construction material used in buildingstructures is steel. Steel is a perfect material in buildingcomponents and structures. It has changed the constructionindustry; bringing remarkable architectural designs to life. One ofthe most important benefits to consider is its level of sustainability.Steel is basically an alloy of iron and carbon with a smallpercentage of other metals such as nickel, chromium, aluminum,cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten etc. Steel metal is used primarily forstructural framework for larger buildings or as an external surfacecovering.There are many different types of steel classified on the basis of the type of metal used and the percentagecontent of the metal in the particular type of steel.Below given are some commonly used types of steel: MILD STEEL: The mild carbon steel is simply composed of iron and carbon but it has a very low content of carbon in it. This steel is used in the making of sheet metal for roofs, panels, boxes, cases and vehicle frames. It is now also used as a replacement for wrought iron in the making railroad rails. 24
  25. 25. SteelGALVANIZED STEEL: The grayish galvanized steel with a tensile strength of50,000 psi is zinc-coated steel. A "hot dip galvanizing" procedure of immersingsteel in a molten zinc bath coats steel with hard, uniform, impervious gamma,delta and zeta zinc iron alloy layers and a pure zinc eta layer offering steel thatis corrosion resistant.Paint, weld- and join-friendly, weatherproof, stain proof, long-lasting, cost-effective and almost maintenance free, galvanized steel is suited forresidences, commercial buildings, bridges and airports. STAINLESS STEEL: Stain less steel is the most resistant and commonly used steel of all the types. It apart from carbon contains 11% chromium and some amount of nickel. It is probably the most resistant steel of all the types. Although all the types of steel are generally resistant to rust and corrosion, the stainless steel in particular is resistant to any sort of external attack. Even a scratch cannot stay on the surface of stainless steel.ALUMINUM STEEL: Aluminum steel is smooth steel with a high content ofaluminum. Because of its strong and smooth surface it is used in the makingof furniture. 25
  26. 26. SteelTERNE METAL: Terne metal or thin gauge steel is carbon steel or stainlesssteel coated with an 80:20 tin-zinc alloy through a hot dip process. Ternehas mild steel equivalent tensile strength and a low shine light grey satintexture.Terne metal does not require painting. Terne is weatherproof, solderfriendly, formable, durable and maintenance free. The highly corrosionresistant Terne metal roofs, sidings, downspouts, fascias and gutters areused in buildings in harsh coastal and industrial conditions. MEDIUM CARBON STEEL: The medium carbon steels have a normal content of carbon that means that they are not as hard as the high carbon and neither are they as strong the Mild carbon steel. They are used in the making of tool frames and springs.CHROMIUM STEEL: Chromium steels have a high content of chromium andare resistant to corrosion.They are very strong, ensile and are elastic in nature. It requires organiccoating before use; it can be lacquered, printed and finished in finestone, stone and matte finishes. Hence, it has building trade uses such asspace bars and false ceiling rails. 26
  27. 27. SteelPrices S.No Steel type Units Min price Max price 1 Mild steel Rs / Kg Rs. 65 Rs. 80 2 Galvanized steel Rs / Kg Rs. 60 Rs. 65 3 Stainless steel Rs / Kg Rs. 165 Rs. 220 4 Medium carbon steel Rs / Kg Rs. 70 Rs. 90 5 Chromium steel Rs / Kg Rs. 65 Rs. 80 27
  28. 28. Stone“A rolling stone gathers no moss” - Publius Syrus 28
  29. 29. StoneBuilding stone, also called dimension stone, derives from one of three naturally occurring rock types:IGNEOUS - Igneous stones are formed from molten or partly molten material i.e. magma, through solidificationof magna. Lava is a form of magma cools and solidifies on the surface of the earth. Liquid magma cools andsolidifies underneath the Earths surface, and then mineral gases and liquids penetrate the stone and create newcrystalline formations and various colors.Of all igneous rocks, granite is the most common choice. It is a coarsely crystalline unstratified igneous rockcomposed of alkali feldspars, quartz, mica and hornblende.SEDIMENTARY - Soft and fairly porous rock formed from deposits of eroded pre-existing rock that settled inlayers mostly on sea beds, and became compacted. The best examples are sandstone and limestone.METAMORPHIC - Hard and non-porous rock formed from pre-existing rock that has been altered by intense heator pressure. The best examples are marble and slate.There are huge variations within each of these rock types, caused by specific mineralogy and geologyconditions, and while any stone can be used for building, they each have constraints that make them more orless suitable for different purposes. 29
  30. 30. StoneMARBLES Coarse-grained marbles are more suitable for architectural andmonumental uses; it is the coarseness of the grain, which is the cause of thegreat durability of marble against meteoric weather-ing. The fine-grained,purest white marbles are reserved for statuary use, for which no othervarieties can be of service. Green Oynx marbleThe marble deposits of India are fairly widespread and of large extent. Theprincipal source of the marbles of India is the crystalline formation ofRajasthan -- the Aravalli series. Marble quarries are worked at Mekrana(Jodhpur), Kharwa (Ajmer), Maundla and Bhainslana (Jaipur), Dadikar(Alwar), and some other places, from which marbles of many varieties ofcolour and grain, including the beautiful white variety of which the Taj Mahalis built, are obtained. It was the accessibility of this store of material ofunsurpassed beauty which, no doubt, gave such a stimulus to the Mogul Botticino marbletaste for architecture in the seventeenth century.Good quality marble also occurs in a large outcrop near Jabalpur, Jaisalmer inRajasthan, Motipura in Baroda, Narsingpur in Madhya Pradesh, Kharwa inAjmer. Some quarries in and around Jaipur furnish a dense black marble,capable of taking an exquisite polish, largely employed in the ancientbuildings of Delhi, Agra and Kashmir. Pearl marble 30
  31. 31. StoneLIMESTONES Limestones occur in many formations, some of which are entirely composed ofthem. Not all of them, however, are fit for building purposes, though many of them are burntfor lime. In the Cuddapah, Bijawar, Khondalite and Aravalli Groups limestones attainconsiderable development; some of them are of great beauty and strength. They have beenlargely drawn upon in the construction of many of the noted monuments of the past in allparts of India. Vindhyan limestones are extensively quar-ried, as already referred to, inMadhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and elsewhere, and form a valued source for lime and cement, aswell as for building stone. The Gondwanas are barren of calcareous rocks, but the smallexposures of the Bagh and Trichinopoly Cretaceous include excellent limestones. TheNummulitic limestones of the extra--Peninsular districts, viz. Sind, Hazara, the Salt-Range,Punjab and Assam, are an enormous repository of pure limestone, and when accessible are invery large demand for burning, building, as well as road-making purposes.Limestones suitable for the manufacture of both lime and cement occur in enormousquantities in the Vindhyan and older Formations. Cement grade limestone is quarried fromShahbad and Singhbhum districts of Bihar, Jabalpur (Katni and Jukheri areas) and Satnadistricts of Madhya Pradesh, Sundergarh district of Orissa, Narji limestone from the Gunturand Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh, Ambala and Mahendragarh districts of Punjab,Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, and the Carboniferous limestone from the Raisi tahsil of J& K. The Vindhyan limestone in the Son Valley of Uttar Pradesh is also used for themanufacture of cement.In the plains of India, the only available source of line is ‘kankar’, which occurs plentifully asirregular concretionary disseminations in clays. The clay admixture in kankar is often insufficient proportion to produce a hydraulic lime on burning. 31
  32. 32. StoneGRANITES Granites and coarsely foliated gneisses form very desirable anddurable building-stones. These rocks, by reason of their massive nature andhomogeneous grain, are suitable for monu-mental and architectural work aswell as for massive masonries. Their wide range in appearance and colour -white, pink, red, grey, black, etc. - renders the stones highly ornamental andeffective for a variety of decorative uses. The charnockites of TamilNadu, the Arcot gneiss, Bangalore gneiss, the porphyries ofSeringapatam, and many other varieties of granite obtained from thevarious districts of the Peninsula are very attractive examples. Its dura-bilityis such that the numerous ancient temples and monuments of South Indiabuilt of granite stand today almost intact after centuries of wear, and to allappearance are yet good for centuries to come. From their wideprevalence, forming nearly three-fourths of the surface of the Peninsula, theArchaean gneisses form an inexhaustible source of good material forbuilding and oma-mental uses. SERPENTINE Serpentine forms large outcrops in the Arakan range of Burma and also in Baluchistan. It occurs as an altera-tion-product of the basic and ultra-basic intrusions of Cretaceous and Miocene ages. From its softness and liability to weather on exposure it is of no use for outdoor architectural purposes, but serpentines of attractive colour are employed in internal decora-tions of buildings and the manufacture of vases, statuary, etc. Serpentinous marble (Verde antique) is rare in India. 32
  33. 33. StoneSANDSTONESVindhyan sandstones - The Vindhyan and, to a lesser extent, the Gondwana formations afford sandstonesadmir-ably suited for building works. The most preeminent among them are the white, cream, buff and pinkUpper Vindhyan sand-stones, which have been put to a variety of uses. It is the most widely quarried stone inIndia, and being both a freestone as well as a flagstone it can yield, according to the portion selected, bothgigantic blocks for pillars from one part and thin, slate-like slabs for paving and roofing from another part. Thesuperb edifices, modern and medieval, of Delhi, Rajasthan and Agra are built of red and white Vindhyansandstone quarried from a number of sites in the vicinity.Some of the Vindhyan sandstones are so homogeneous and soft that they are capable of receiving a mostelaborate carving and filigree work. Centuries of exposure to the weather have tested their durability.Upper Gondwana sandstones - Another formation possessing resources in building-stones of good quality is theUpper Gondwana, which has contributed a great store of building-stone to Orissa and Chanda. The famoustemples of Puri and the other richly orna-mented buildings of these districts are constructed of UpperGondwana sandstones.The Mesozoic (Umia) sandstone of Dhrangadhra and the Cret-aceous sandstone underlying the Bagh beds ofGujarat (Songir sandstones) furnish Gujarat with a very beautiful and durable stone for its important public andprivate buildings.Among the Tertiary sandstones, a few possess the qualities re-quisite in a building-stone, e.g. the Murree andKamlial (Tarki) sandstones; but the younger Siwalik sandstones are too uncon-solidated and incoherent to be fitfor employment in building work. 33
  34. 34. StoneDifferent types of Sandstones
  35. 35. StoneLATERITE Laterites of South India are put to use in building -works, due to the easewith which they are cut into bricks or blocks when freshly quarried and their propertyof hardening with exposure to air. Its wide distribution from Assam to Comorin makeslaterite a widely used material for road-metal. This stone is not capable of receivingdressing for any architectural or ornamental use. SLATES Slates for paving and roofing are not of common occur-rence in India, except in some mountainous areas, e.g. at Kangra and Pir Panjal in the Himalayas and Rewari in the Aravallis. When the cleavage is finely developed and regular, thus enabling them to be split into thin even plates, the slates are used for roofing; when the cleavage is not so fine, the slates are used for paving. True cleavage-slates are rare in India; what generally are called slates are either phyllites or compacted shales in which the planes of splitting are not cleavage-planes. The chief slate-quarries of India are those of Kangra, in the Kangra district; Rewari, in the Gurgaon district; and Kharakpur hills in the Monghyr district. 35
  36. 36. StonePrices S.No Stone type Units Min price Max price 1 Green Oynx marble Per Sqft Rs. 35 Rs. 60 2 White marble Per Sqft Rs. 60 > Rs. 300 3 Italian marble Per Sqft Rs. 200 >Rs. 2500 4 Pink marble Per Sqft Rs. 35 Rs. 60 5 Yellow marble Per Sqft Rs. 45 Rs. 55 36
  37. 37. Concrete“Evil is the product of the ability of humans to make abstract that which is concrete” - Jean-Paul Sartre 37
  38. 38. ConcreteConcrete structures are known for their durability and cost-saving features. With concrete construction, onecan design home or office building to look just like what they want and also garner many other added benefitsby choosing to build with concrete.Concrete structures can withstand nearly any assault Mother Nature can dole out without sacrificing thecomfort and design flexibility of a traditional home. In fact, more and more homeowners are doing just that, forreasons ranging from reducing escalating heating and cooling costs to allaying fears of being in the path ofanother disaster like fire or floods.Some common and main types of concrete are:Normal ConcreteThe concrete in which common ingredients i.e. aggregate, water, cementare used is known as normal concrete. It is also called normal weightconcrete or normal strength concrete.It has a setting time of 30 - 90 minutes depending upon moisture inatmosphere, fineness of cement etc.The development of the strength starts after 7 days the common strengthvalues is 10 MPa (1450 psi) to 40 MPa (5800 psi). At about 28 days 75 - 80%of the total strength is attained.Almost at 90 days 95% of the strength is achieved. 38
  39. 39. ConcreteHigh strength concreteCompressive strength of high strength concrete mix is usually greater than6,000 pounds per square inch.High strength concrete is made by lowering the water cement (W/C) ratioto 0.35 or lower.Often silica fume is added to prevent the formation of free calciumhydroxide crystals in the cement, which might reduce the strength at thecement aggregate bond. Air Entrained Concrete One of the greatest achievements in field of concrete technology is development of air entrained concrete. It is used where the concrete is vulnerable to freezing and thawing action. It is used where the concrete is vulnerable to freezing and thawing action. It is prepared by adding the air entraining admixture. The air entrainment in concrete does the following functions:. •It lowers the surface tension of water and thus bubbles are created. •Secondly the air entraining agents prevents coalescing i.e. the combining of bubbles. The diameter of these bubbles ranges form 10 micrometer to 1000 micrometer and in entrapped air the diameter of bubble is greater than 1mm. Air entraining agents OR air entrained admixtures are used for the purpose of making entrained air in concrete. DRAW BACKS of Air Entrained Concrete: It has low strength as compare to normal concrete. 39
  40. 40. ConcreteLIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETEThe concrete which has substantially lower mass per unit volume then theconcrete made of ordinary ingredients is called lightweight concrete. Theaggregates used are lighter in weight.Density of light weight concrete is 240 kg/m³ (15pcf) -1850 kg/m³ (115 pcf).Strength of light weight concrete blocks varies from 7 MPa (1000 psi) - 40 MPa(5800 psi).Some times Air Entrained Admixtures are also added to it giving resistanceto freezing and thawing along with strength.Uses of Light weight concrete:Used where extra load is not applied e.g. parapet wall, road lining etc. or toreduce dead load. SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE The concrete where no vibration is required. The concrete is compacted due to its own weight. It is also called self consolidated concrete or flowing concrete. This self-consolidating concrete is characterized by: •Extreme fluidity as measured by flow. •No need for vibrators to compact the concrete. •Placement being easier. •No bleed water, or aggregate segregation. Uses and Applications of Self Compacting Concrete: It is used in location unreachable for vibrations. e.g. underground structure, deep wells or at bottom of deep sea. SCC can save up to 50% in labor costs due to 80% faster pouring and reduced wear and tear on formwork. 40
  41. 41. ConcreteShotcreteShotcrete concrete uses compressed air to shoot concrete onto (or into) aframe or structure.Shotcrete is mortar or (usually) concrete conveyed through a hose andpneumatically projected at through a shortcrete nozzle with high velocity ontoa surface. Shotcrete undergoes placement and compaction at the same timedue to the force with which it is projected from the nozzle.It can be impacted onto any type or shape of surface, including vertical oroverhead areas.Shotcrete is frequently used against vertical soil or rock surfaces, as iteliminates the need for formwork. Pervious concrete Pervious concrete contains a network of holes or voids, to allow air or water to move through the concrete. This allows water to drain naturally through it, and can both remove the normal surface water drainage infrastructure, and allow replenishment of groundwater when conventional concrete does not. It is formed by leaving out some or the entire fine aggregate (fines), the remaining large aggregate then is bound by a relatively small amount of Portland cement. When set, typically between 15% and 25% of the concrete volumes are voids, allowing water to drain. The majority of pervious concrete pavements function well with little or no maintenance. Maintenance of pervious concrete pavement consists primarily of prevention of clogging of the void structure. 41
  42. 42. Bamboo“The taller the bamboo grows, the lower it bends” - Chinese proverb 42
  43. 43. BambooThere are about 1,450 different species of bamboo. Bamboo grows across East Asia, from 50 N latitude inSakhalin (just north of Japan) through to Northern Australia, and west to India and the Himalayas. Bamboo is alsofound in sub-Saharan Africa, and in the Americas from Mid-Atlantic United States south to Argentina andChile, reaching their southernmost point anywhere, at 47 S latitude.There are two types of bamboo: Running bamboo (monopodial) and clumping bambo (sympodial). Runningbamboos originate from cold areas of China, Japan and Korea. They send out long, underground stems (orrhizomes) every year. Each rhizome is capable of producing many new shoots along its length. Running bambooshave a habit of spreading outwards very quickly. This is great for land reclaimation but not so good if yourneighbors garden starts to become invaded with bamboo you planted. If this happens one solution is to replacethe running bamboo with a type of clumping bamboo. In contrast, Clumping bamboos are shallow-rooted, andmost of them are suited to tropical and subtropical climates. Their growth is limited because each rhizomeproduced develops into a single culm, or hollow jointed stem, located very close to its mother culm. This makesthe plant far less invasive than running bambooPrice of Indian Bamboo ranges from INR 90 ~ INR 150 pr 24 ft stick. 43
  44. 44. BambooBAMBUSA MULTIPLEX or Alphonse Karr is a popular clumping bamoo . Itnormally grows to about 30 feet. Bambusa can withstand temperatures aslow as 15 F. The culms are golden with random green stripes. Bambusamultiplex makes a good container plant or an outdoor plant where you needa privacy screen because it makes a tight cluster.BAMBUSA GLAUCESCENS VIRIDISTIATA grows in a tight clump. It is anaverage height bamboo that is native to tropical areas. It has vertical greenstripes on the culm and small foliage that starts near the ground.BAMBUSA VULGARIS or Giant Buddhas Belly is a beautiful bamboo varietywith incredible thick culms and thin leaves.BAMBUSA TEXTILIS or Weavers Bamboo is a dense, cold tolerant bamboo. Ithas nodding culm tops and no leaves on the lower half. Bambusa is anattractive non-invasive bamboo that grows in tight clumps of tough, straightcanes. Weavers Bamboo produces high quality thin-walled culms that areoften used for weaving or furniture making. 44
  45. 45. BambooGIGANCOCHLOA ATTER grows an incredible 50 feet high and has muchbigger foliage. The young edible shoots taste sweet and are covered inpurple hairs. From Indonesia. Its straight culms are useful for buildingfurniture. This is a tight clumper.PLEIOBLASTUS LINEARIS is found in Japan and China. The Pleioblastusvariety of bamboo is often used for flutes and fishing rods. This particularbamboo has thin leaves and thin culms. When young the culms areerect, when older they tend to hang.SCHIZOSTACHYUM is a medium flowering bamboo with a dense clump anderect culms. The Schizostachyum grows best in the tropics. The longinternodes are attractive in this tropical clumper. Hardiness Zone: 10 to 11PHYLLOSTACHYS EDULIS is commonly known as moso bamboo. It is perhapsthe most famous bamboo in the Phyllostachys genus and perhaps the mostimportant type of bamboo used for commercial purposes. Moso bamboo isextensively grown in China (mostly in Guangdong Province). It is a fastgrowing running bamboo that has thick straight culms. The bamboo makesvery hard products such as strand woven bamboo flooring. 45
  46. 46. BambooPHYLLOSTACHYS PARVIFOLIA found in the Midlands, UK. Similar in look tothe other phyllostachys listed below. All are known to be invasive, sendingout rhizomes a long way under ground. In a garden the shoots need to beregularly pruned.PHYLLOSTACHYS BISSETI is a popular type of bamboo often planted ingardens in the USA as well as in the UK. Clearly a good species of bamboo fortemperate zones, although the species is native to Asia.PHYLLOSTACHYS BAMBUSOIDES Holochrysa. There in total 75 species ofPhyllostachys and 200 varities and cultivars. That is a staggering number forjust 1 type of bamboo.SINOBAMBUSA TOOTSIK is a popular running bamboo from Chinasometimes called Temple Bamboo. Sinobambusa tootsik makes a goodpotted plant and forms a dense screen when planted in a row. Templebamboo grows up to 32 feet in height. The culms turn from jade to yellow infull sunlight. The culm has an average diameter of one and half inches. 46
  47. 47. ConclusionWith so many choices of building materials and house components and parts available today, how can one everknow which is best for one’s home or office building or remodeling project? The answer comes from learning allabout available building materials / components, deciding what you want to pay, and thinking about what suitsyour house design or office building or remodeling project.Over the past decade or so, green thinking has increasingly recognized that minimal levels of sustainabilitydepend on radical increases of resource-efficiency—in the industrialized countries. Efficiency gains could bemade but, they might easily be offset by continuing growth of the economy as a whole. Hence, while choosingbuilding materials, one should also keep environment sustainability in mind.Find below the conclusions with Earth-wise tips:Brick (clay) MudbrickUses - Walls, paths, driveways Uses - Walls, floorsAdvantages - Versatile, good thermal mass Advantages - Source material can be found on site,Disadvantages - Production is energy-intensive and long-lasting, biodegradable, high thermal mass; pest-uses non-renewable resources. and fire-resistantEarth-wise tips - Look for recycled bricks. Disadvantages - Making bricks is labour-intensive; requires soil with high clay content; poor insulator.Glass Earth-wise tips - Bricks can be purchased ready-made.Uses - Windows, doors, skylights; bricksAdvantages - Stable, long-lasting, efficient, recyclableDisadvantages - Production is energy-intensive, usesnon- renewable minerals.Earth-wise tips - Seek out recycled windows; buyenergy-efficient new glass. 47
  48. 48. ConclusionTimber / Wood ConcreteUses - Floors, walls, supports and roof frames Uses - Floors, walls, supportsAdvantages - Strong, easy to work Advantages - High thermal mass, strong, durable,with, versatile, potentially renewable, biodegradable economical, resists termites and earthquakesDisadvantages - Some timber is non-renewable; often Disadvantages - Production involves quarrying andtreated with toxic chemicals. creates greenhouse emissions; poor insulator, needsEarth-wise tips - Use recycled wood or timber from reinforcing.sustainable sources, with no chemical treatments. Earth-wise tips - Use autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), which is lightweight, energy-efficient and non-Steel toxic, or concrete made with recycled aggregate.Uses - Frames, supportsAdvantages - Strong, economical, durable, recyclableDisadvantages - Production is energy-intensive andhighly polluting; coatings are often polluting.Earth-wise tips - Buy recycled steel or opt forrenewable timber. Suneeta Bodapati Interior Designing – JD Institute, Noida Year 2012-2013 48
  49. 49. BibliographyPlaces visited:Wood : Timber Market, Sector - 31, Village Nithari, Noida - 201 301, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaGlass : Sector - 31, Village Nithari, Noida - 201 301, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaStone : Barola, NoidaBamboo : Nyay Khand II,Kala Patthar Road,Indirapuram, Gaziabad. 49
  50. 50. Samples Pit Sand River Sand ConcreteWhite marble Yellow marble 50

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