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WILDLIFE GOVERNANCE & MITIGATION OF CONFLICTS DR SUBRAT MUKHERJEE,  IFS FIELD DIRECTOR SUNDARBAN TIGER RESERVE
INDIAN SUNDARBANS (4265 SQ KM approx) BANGLADESH SUNDARBANS (6000 SQ KM approx) STR (2585 SQ KM) SOUTH 24 PGS (1680 SQ KM)...
THE HUMAN-TIGER INTERFACE <ul><li>CIVIL BLOCKS </li></ul><ul><li>BLOCKs – 29 </li></ul><ul><li>GRAM PANCHAYATs – 312 </li>...
ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF SBR DIRECTOR SBR  ( CCF RANK) ADFOs  ( ACF RANK) FOREST RANGERS AND DEPUTY RANGERS AND FRONTLI...
WILDLIFE GOVERNANCE <ul><li>INTENSIVE PROTECTION OF FLORA & FAUNA </li></ul><ul><li>MITIGATION OF CONFLICTS </li></ul><ul>...
Target Population   There are  seven CD  ( out of 19 in total )  Blocks  harbouring 51 FPCs and 14 EDCs comprising of  46 ...
<ul><li>‘ ALP’ TO REDUCE DEPENDENCE ON FOREST – WHY  SO IMPORTANT ??? </li></ul><ul><li>bcoz all seasonal occupations are ...
ECODEVELOPMENT  WORKS  &  TRUST  BUILDING  ACTIVITIES   J oint Forest management has won the trust of people to a reasonab...
INPUT PER INDIVIDUAL YEAR FUNDING(IN INR) IPI(IN $) 1998-99 4400016.00 10.44 1999-00 2965000.00 7.04 2000-01 4592930.00 10...
HUMAN-TIGER CONFLICT IN THE UNDIVIDED SUNDERBANS <ul><li>A REWARD OF RS 200/- WAS ANNOUNCED FOR EACH TIGER KILL IN 1910 AN...
HUMAN – TIGER CONFLICTS CLASSIFIED CONFLICT INSIDE FOREST DUE TO BIOTIC INTERFERENCE CAUSED BY FISHERMEN, HONEY COLLECTORS...
<ul><li>TIGER STARYING - CLASSIFIED </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPORARY STRAYING </li></ul><ul><li>STRAY TO THE VILLAGE AND RETURN...
<ul><li>MAJOR CAUSES OF TIGER STARYING </li></ul><ul><li>TERRITORIAL  FIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>BREEDING / LITTERING TIME </...
1 ST  GENERATION MANAGEMENT  [ 1973(PT DECLARATION) – 1988(NFP) ] <ul><li>STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE KILLED – MAINLY ...
2 ND  GENERATION MANAGEMENT  [ 1988(NFP) – 2001 ] <ul><li>MITIGATION METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIS ON REDUCING STRAYI...
2 ND  GENERATION MANAGEMENT  [ 1988(NFP) – 2001 ] <ul><li>STATUS OF CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL TIGER STRAYING CASES ...
3 RD  GENERATION MANAGEMENT  [ 2002 – TILL DATE  (REASONING,ANALYSIS) ] <ul><li>MITIGATION METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>USE O...
(A) (B) RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT (A)  EARLIER THE  STRAYED OUT  CAPTURED TIGER WAS  RELEASED  ‘ ON LAND’  TILL 2001 (B)  NOW...
<ul><li>REASEARCH & DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL EVALUATION OF ‘ALP’ FOR FUTURE PLANING OF  PARTICIPATORY FOREST...
1 ST  CAPTUTE 1 ST  RELEASE 2 ND   CAPTUTE 2 ND  RELEASE 1 3 0 K M 1 1 0 K M 1 5 0 K M JHILLA-1 BAGMARA-7 PIRKHALI-1 DULIB...
<ul><li>REASEARCH & DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>TREATMENT OF INJURED TIGER – </li></ul><ul><li>TILL DATE 3 MALE TIGERS A...
THE WAY AHEAD <ul><li>RESEARCH ON TIGER  ETHOLOGY & STRAYING BEHAVIOUR </li></ul><ul><li>PROVISION OF  ‘ALP’  TO REDUCE DE...
PROPOSED  INDO – BANGLA  COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMS <ul><li>TRANSFER OF GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>SHARING OF...
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Wildlife governance and mitigation of conflicts

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Transcript of "Wildlife governance and mitigation of conflicts"

  1. 1. WILDLIFE GOVERNANCE & MITIGATION OF CONFLICTS DR SUBRAT MUKHERJEE, IFS FIELD DIRECTOR SUNDARBAN TIGER RESERVE
  2. 2. INDIAN SUNDARBANS (4265 SQ KM approx) BANGLADESH SUNDARBANS (6000 SQ KM approx) STR (2585 SQ KM) SOUTH 24 PGS (1680 SQ KM) BUFFER AREA NP OF STR = WHS (1330 SQ KM)
  3. 3. THE HUMAN-TIGER INTERFACE <ul><li>CIVIL BLOCKS </li></ul><ul><li>BLOCKs – 29 </li></ul><ul><li>GRAM PANCHAYATs – 312 </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL AREA – 8165.05 SQ KM </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION DENSITY – 846 / SQ KM </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL FRINGE POPULATION – 4.2 MILLION </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR OCCUPATION – </li></ul><ul><li>AGRICULTURE AND FISHING </li></ul><ul><li>FOREST BLOCKS </li></ul>SOUTH 24 PGS DIST WEST BENGAL, INDIA SUNDARBANS TOTAL MANGROVE R.F. – 4265 SQ.KMS. SUNDARBAN TIGER RESERVE – 2585 SQ.KMS S. 24 PGS FOREST DIVISION – 1680 SQ.KMS PROTECTED AREAS AREA OF SUNDARBAN N.P. – 1330 SQ.KMS AREA OF SWLS – 362 SQ.KMS AREA OF LOTHIAN WLS – 38 SQ.KMS AREA OF HALIDAY WLS – 6 SQ.KMS
  4. 4. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF SBR DIRECTOR SBR ( CCF RANK) ADFOs ( ACF RANK) FOREST RANGERS AND DEPUTY RANGERS AND FRONTLINE STAFF S T R S 24 PG DIVN N24 PG DIVN JT. DIRECTOR ( CF RANK) FIELD DIRECTOR ( CF RANK) DFO/S.24 PGS DIVN DFO/N.24 PGS. DIVN ( DCF RANK) DFD/SUNDARBAN TIGER RESERVE ( DCF RANK) DIVN TERRITORIAL RANGE BEAT STR 4 17 S.24 PGS 8 23 N.24 PGS 5 12
  5. 5. WILDLIFE GOVERNANCE <ul><li>INTENSIVE PROTECTION OF FLORA & FAUNA </li></ul><ul><li>MITIGATION OF CONFLICTS </li></ul><ul><li>ECODEVELOPMENT WORKS </li></ul><ul><li>ECO-TOURISM </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH, MONITORING & EVALUATION </li></ul>
  6. 6. Target Population There are seven CD ( out of 19 in total ) Blocks harbouring 51 FPCs and 14 EDCs comprising of 46 proximal villages ( out of 65 in total ) accounting for over 210302 people ( out of 3.5 million in total as per 2001 census and projected as 4.2 million in total in 2011 ) – who make particularly high demand of the ecosystem and thus form the basic target population. STR has a very small interface whereas 24 Parganas (S) Division has large interface
  7. 7. <ul><li>‘ ALP’ TO REDUCE DEPENDENCE ON FOREST – WHY SO IMPORTANT ??? </li></ul><ul><li>bcoz all seasonal occupations are forest dependent EXCEPT AGRICULTURE FROM APRIL-JUNE </li></ul>April – June July – October Nov – March
  8. 8. ECODEVELOPMENT WORKS & TRUST BUILDING ACTIVITIES   J oint Forest management has won the trust of people to a reasonably good level and needs to be consolidated S. .N. ECO-DEVELOPMENT WORKS QUANTUM 1 Ponds 83 2 Smokeless Chullah 13900 3 Irrigation Channel (In Km.) 70 4 Medical Camps 142 5 Awareness & Training Camps 73 6 Deep Tube Wells 107 7 Nursery ( In Ha. = 2500 Seedlings) 725 8 Fuel wood Plantation (Ha.) 1145 9   Fruit Plants 62000 10 Brick Path (Km.) 73 11 Solar Lights 165 12   Solar Lanterns 610 13   Micro-Planning Trainings 19 14 Study Tours 21 15 Community Centers 17 16 Jetty 61 17   Vocational Trainings 27
  9. 9. INPUT PER INDIVIDUAL YEAR FUNDING(IN INR) IPI(IN $) 1998-99 4400016.00 10.44 1999-00 2965000.00 7.04 2000-01 4592930.00 10.90 2001-02 2706397.00 6.42 2002-03 3685781.00 8.75 2003-04 6275000.00 14.89 2004-05 7855000.00 18.65 2005-06 4154000.00 9.86 2006-07 2200000.00 5.22 2007-08 8200000.00 19.47 2008-09 12800000.00 20.21 2009-10 14600000.00 21.22 2010-11 16700000.00 23.67
  10. 10. HUMAN-TIGER CONFLICT IN THE UNDIVIDED SUNDERBANS <ul><li>A REWARD OF RS 200/- WAS ANNOUNCED FOR EACH TIGER KILL IN 1910 AND CONTINUED TILL INDEPENDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>TILL POST INDEPENDENCE, TIGER WAS CONSIDERED AS ‘PEST’ </li></ul>YEAR No. of Men Carried Away No. of Tigers Killed 1881-82 161 3 1883-84 168 8 1907-08 120 9 1911-12 112 61 1914-15 79 36 1915-16 60 33 Source: A.C. Gupta, West Bengal Forests (Centenary Commemoration Volume,1964)
  11. 11. HUMAN – TIGER CONFLICTS CLASSIFIED CONFLICT INSIDE FOREST DUE TO BIOTIC INTERFERENCE CAUSED BY FISHERMEN, HONEY COLLECTORS, WOOD COLLECTORS ETC CONFLICT OUTSIDE FOREST WHEN TIGER STRAYS IN A VILLAGE AND KILLS/INJURES LIVESTOCK AND HUMAN BEINGS
  12. 12. <ul><li>TIGER STARYING - CLASSIFIED </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPORARY STRAYING </li></ul><ul><li>STRAY TO THE VILLAGE AND RETURN TO JUNGLE OF ITS OWN </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT OPTIONS – DRIVING / TRAPPING </li></ul><ul><li>PERMANENT STRAYING </li></ul><ul><li>ENTRY DEEP INSIDE VILLAGE AND LOSS OF DIRECTION , </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT OPTIONS - TRANQUILIZATION, TRANSLOCATION AND RELEASE </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>MAJOR CAUSES OF TIGER STARYING </li></ul><ul><li>TERRITORIAL FIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>BREEDING / LITTERING TIME </li></ul><ul><li>INTERMINGLED FOREST AND VILLAGE </li></ul><ul><li>IN SEARCH OF EASY PREY </li></ul><ul><li>INJURY AND OLD AGE </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1 ST GENERATION MANAGEMENT [ 1973(PT DECLARATION) – 1988(NFP) ] <ul><li>STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE KILLED – MAINLY FISHERMEN, HONEY COLLECTORS, COUPE OPERATORS </li></ul><ul><li>TIGERS KILLED – BY POACHERS, RETALIATORY KILLING </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL STRAYING CASES – 303 NOS </li></ul><ul><li>MITIGATION METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF MASKS </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF ELECTRIC DUMMIES </li></ul><ul><li>EXCAVATION OF SWEET WATER PONDS </li></ul>USE OF MASK ELECTRIC DUMMY SWEET WATER POND
  15. 15. 2 ND GENERATION MANAGEMENT [ 1988(NFP) – 2001 ] <ul><li>MITIGATION METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIS ON REDUCING STRAYING </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF GORAN ( Ceriops ) - GEWA ( Excoecaria ) CHITTA FENCING ALONG FRINGE </li></ul><ul><li>INITIATION OF TRAINED TRANQUILIZATION SQUAD </li></ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION OF NYLON NET FENCING </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIS ON REDUCING NUMBER OF PEOPLE ENTRY </li></ul><ul><li>ECODEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN VILLAGES </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIS ON FARM BASED ACTIVITIES FROM FOREST ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>COUPE OPERATION STOPPED </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBER OF HONEY COLLECTORS REDUCED </li></ul>GORAN CHITA FENCING AGRICULTURE INPUT TRANQUILIZATION
  16. 16. 2 ND GENERATION MANAGEMENT [ 1988(NFP) – 2001 ] <ul><li>STATUS OF CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL TIGER STRAYING CASES – 280 </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN DEATH REDUCED </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3 RD GENERATION MANAGEMENT [ 2002 – TILL DATE (REASONING,ANALYSIS) ] <ul><li>MITIGATION METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF NYLON NET FENCING ( 48 KM OUT OF 65 KM INTERFACE ) </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCED REACTION TIME </li></ul><ul><li>6 EQUIPPED ‘TSCF’ </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE SCALE ECODEVELOPMENT WORKS </li></ul><ul><li>HRD & CAPACITY BUILDING </li></ul>NYLON NET FENCE ALONG FOREST ‘ TSCF’ WITH TIGER GUARD 8-10 FT MESH – 4”X4” METAL RUNNER <ul><li>STATUS OF CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>2 STRAYED TIGER WERE KILLED BY PEOPLE (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN DEATHS REDUCED </li></ul><ul><li>STRAYING REDUCED </li></ul>
  18. 18. (A) (B) RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT (A) EARLIER THE STRAYED OUT CAPTURED TIGER WAS RELEASED ‘ ON LAND’ TILL 2001 (B) NOW THE TIGER IS BEING RELEASED FROM ‘ BOAT’
  19. 19. <ul><li>REASEARCH & DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL EVALUATION OF ‘ALP’ FOR FUTURE PLANING OF PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT - AN ‘IUCN-MFF’ SMALL GRANT PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>EAR-TAGGING AND MICROCHIPPING – </li></ul><ul><li>TILL DATE 2 FEMALES AND 2 MALES TIGER HAVE BEEN EAR-TAGGED AND MICROCHIPPED TO STUDY THEIR STRAYING BEHAVIOUR - ONLY ONE FEMALE SHOWED SUCH REPEATED STRAYING TENDENCY </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1 ST CAPTUTE 1 ST RELEASE 2 ND CAPTUTE 2 ND RELEASE 1 3 0 K M 1 1 0 K M 1 5 0 K M JHILLA-1 BAGMARA-7 PIRKHALI-1 DULIBHASANI-3 CAPTURE & RELOCATION OF A SAME TIGRESS (WLWB/0001) (30 TH JUNE’09) (3 RD JULY’09) (31 ST JULY’09) (2 ND AUGUST’09)
  21. 21. <ul><li>REASEARCH & DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>TREATMENT OF INJURED TIGER – </li></ul><ul><li>TILL DATE 3 MALE TIGERS AND 1 FEMALE TIGER HAVE BEEN FOUND STRAYING DUE HUNTING INCAPABILITY AND THEY WERE TREATED AT KOLKATA ZOO AND 2 (TWO) OF THEM TRANSLOCATED BACK TO THE WILD </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIOURAL STUDY – </li></ul><ul><li>STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT SUNDARBAN TIGERS ARE LESS IN BODY WEIGHT & SMALLER IN SIZE COMPARED TO MAIN LAND TIGERS </li></ul>13.03.2009 22.07.2009 ANIMAL SEX DATE ACTUAL WEIGHT LENGTH (Cm.) NECK GIRTH (cm.) CHEST GIRTH (cm.) SHOULDER HEIGHT (cm.) Nose tip to Head Head to Anus Tail length Total Tiger Male 22.05.10 97 kg 32.5 137 83 252.5 53 89 89 Tiger Male 22.05.10 115 kg 35 133 84 252.0 56 92 94 Tiger Female 27.06.10 72 kg 30 127 82 239.0 48 87 67 Tiger Male 22.10.10 98 kg 33 148 80 261 57 89 94
  22. 22. THE WAY AHEAD <ul><li>RESEARCH ON TIGER ETHOLOGY & STRAYING BEHAVIOUR </li></ul><ul><li>PROVISION OF ‘ALP’ TO REDUCE DEPENDENCY ON NATURAL RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>COVERING THE ENTIRE 68 KM FRINGE BY NYLON NET FENCING </li></ul><ul><li>RESTOCKING OF PREY BASE </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTRUCTION OF RELOCATION CENTER FOR TIGER AT JHARKHALI </li></ul><ul><li>INSTALLATION OF SOLAR LIGHT ALONG THE FRINGE EMBANKMENT </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY PATROLLING ON VOLUNTARY BASIS </li></ul><ul><li>AWARENESS GENERATION & OUTREACH PROGRAM </li></ul>
  23. 23. PROPOSED INDO – BANGLA COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMS <ul><li>TRANSFER OF GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>SHARING OF INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION </li></ul>
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