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Biodiversity, Floristic Composition and Climate Change in the Sundarbans
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Biodiversity, Floristic Composition and Climate Change in the Sundarbans

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  • 1. Biodiversity, Floristic Composition and Climate Change in the Sunderbans
    Presented by
    Istiak Sobhan
    13 April 2011
  • 2. Area over BD+IND 10,000 km2
    Roughly 60% fall in BD
    Located in the SW part of the country between latitudes 89000/ and 89055/ E and longitudes 21030/ and 23030/N.
    Total area in BD part of SRF is 577,356 ha of which 175,724 ha is water.
    The Sundarbans
  • 3. Biodiversity
    3 Protected Areas in Sundarban Reserved Forests (SRF), which constitute the core area of the World Heritage Site, inscribed in 1997. SRF is the 1stRamsar site of the country.
    The total area of the 798thWorld Heritage Site is about 1,400 km2, of which 490 km2 is water, carrying a very rich biodiversity of flora and fauna.
    400 species of fish and crustacean
    275 species of birds
    incl 95 waterfowl
    42 species of mammal
    50 species of reptiles
    8 species of amphibians
    25 species of mangroves
  • 4. Factors influence biodiversity
    Water resources
    People living around
    Landuse in and around the forest
    Elevation
    Salinity (soil & water)
    Natural disaster (Cyclone)
    Sedimentation
  • 5. Major river systems
    Ichhamati-Jamuna system
    Benta-Kobadak- Kholpetua - Arpangasia system
    Kobadak sub system
    Sibsha system
    Gorai- Rupsha - Pussur System
    Sela gang system
    Bhairab subsystem
    Madhumati-Baleswar system
    Chitra subsystem
  • 6. Demography
    Consists of the three districts Bagerhat, Khulna and Satkhira.
    The districts cover a total area of 10,660 sq. km.
    Dependent population mainly in the northern part is about six million (6m).
  • 7. Livelihood
    Broadly 17 SRF-adjoining Upazilas, considered as impact zone (SIZ), a band extending 20 km outside the SRF boundary (Popn 1.84m)
    Variety of NTFP such as fish, honey, wax, nypa leaves, etc. are collected by the inhabitants.
    Also gather climbers, grasses, medicinal herbs, etc.
    The 12,000 Km of rivers and creeks produces large quantities of fish, shrimps, crabs, oysters, etc.
  • 8. Phultala
    Dighalia
    River/Beels
    Terokhada
    Kalaroa
    Mollarhat
    Rupsa
    Dumuria
    Chitalmari
    Satkhira Sadar
    Fakirhat
    Tala
    Bagerhat Sadar
    Batiaghata
    Debhata
    Kachua
    Paikgacha
    Assasuni
    Rampal
    Dacope
    Morrelganj
    Kaliganj
    Mongla
    Koyra
    Sarankhola
    Shyamnagar
    Settlements/ Homestead Veg.
    Wetland grass
    Mangrove
    Fallow land
    Cropping Pattern Map
    Fallow Fallow Boro
    Fallow T.Aman Boro
    Fallow T.Aman Fallow
    Fallow T.Aman Rabi(Pulses)
    Bagda T.Aman Bagda
    Bagda Fallow Bagda
    Golda Golda Boro
    Golda Golda Golda
    Till/Other T.Aman Fallow
    Till/Other T.Aman Rabi (Other winter crops)
  • 9. Sundarbans Boundary
    Ground
    Elevation
  • 10. River Siltation in Southwest Region
    Heavy Siltation
    Moderate Siltation
    Slow Slitation
  • 11. Soil salinity of 1973 & 2000
    2000
    1973
    Total 70,000 ha cultivable land affected by salinity in Khulna and Jessore.
  • 12. Water salinity
    Slide 12
  • 13. Cyclone
    More than 40% cyclones over the last 100 yrs crossed through the Sundarbans.
  • 14. Profile of vegetation along the geomorphic gradient
  • 15. Historical changes in vegetation
    Geological evidences suggest that the Bengal Basin tilted eastward during the 12th Century because of the neo-tectonic movement (Morgan and McIntire, 1959).
    The lack of freshwater to the western part has had significant effects on the floristic composition of the forests. For instance, according to some studies of fossil pollen, Heritierafomes was a dominant arborescent species in the Calcutta region about 5000 years ago (Blasco, 1975).
    The Indian Sundarbans as well as the western part of the Bangladesh Sundarbans no longer support a healthy population of this species.
  • 16. Changes in floristic composition
  • 17. Matrix of changes
  • 18. Changes in area
  • 19.
  • 20. Forest Area Affected by cyclone SIDR
    Forest affected areas in the Sundarbans
    NDVI, Satellite Aqua, 20th November 2007
    Resolution is 250 m
    Affected area is 21% Of total Sundarbans area
  • 21. Mean Temperature and Trend
    National mean shows 0.3 0C increase over the 40 years.
  • 22. SLR Trends in different points of Bangladesh
    3.9 mm/yr
    5.6 mm/yr
    1.4 mm/yr
  • 23. Coastal flooding
    Slide 23
    Year 2050
    Year 2030
    Sundarbans and Coastal District
  • 24. Flood/ Inundation Analysis
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. Factor by which annual sedimentation rate changes due to sea-level rise
    SLR: 14 cm
    SLR: 32 cm
    Factor of change
    < 0.75
    0.75 – 1.0
    1.0 - 2.0
    SLR: 88 cm
    > 2.0
  • 28. Cropping pattern in SIA under SLR condition
  • 29. Thank You
    Acknowledgement: CEGIS, IWM, IWFM, BCAS, CDMP, FD, RIMS and IUCN