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Biodiversity and indicators of climate change

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  • 1. Biodiversity indicators of climate changein the context of coastal and marine environment of IndiaProfessor B.C. ChoudhuryWildlife Institute of India,Dehradune.mail: bcc@wii.gov.in
  • 2. Macro level indicators of climate change
    Rise in temperature
    Sea level rise
    Oceanic chemistry and circulation
    Changes in coastal geomorphology
    Changes in vegetation structure and phenological cycle
    (all these are monitored through satellite based remote sensing tools)
  • 3. Sea surface temperature (SST) of the north Indian Ocean derived from the Satellite NOAA-AVHRR. The Colour code is at 1o C interval. Red depicts high temperature (32o C) and blue low (23o C). Orange and yellow are towards higher range and green towards lower range.
  • 4. Coastal and marine biodiversity supporting habitats vulnerable to climate change
    Coral Reef and seagrass meadows
    Mangroves
    Coastal lagoons and lakes
    Estuaries
    Intertidal mudflats
    Rocky shores
    Sandy shores and sand dunes
    Islands
  • 5. Coastal and marine biodiversity supporting habitats vulnerable to climate change
    Mangroves
    Coral Reef
    Intertidal mudflats & Swamps
    Seagrass
    Beaches & Sand dunes
    Seaweed
    Backwaters,
    Estuaries,
    Lakes &
    Lagoons
    Rocky shoreline
  • 6. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats
    Coral reefs
    Coral reefs live very close to the upper thermal tolerance
    Warm episodes (rise in temperature) have resulted in wide scale coral bleaching and mortality. Viz. El-Nino-southern oscillation
    1998 coral bleaching across the globe as well as recent re-occurence in 2011.
  • 7.
  • 8. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats
    Mangroves
    Changes in the community structure and composition
    Changes in zonation and distribution patterns
    Increase in mono-specificity
    Loss of hammock and basin and increase in over-wash mangroves
    Loss of nursery grounds of a host of brackish and marine living resources
  • 9. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats
    Lagoons and lakes
    Increase in salinity and salinity tolerant species
    Changes in species composition w.r.t SALINE:BRACKISH:FRESHWATER tolerant species
    Significant changes in benthos characteristics
  • 10. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats
    Estuaries
    Increased upstream tidal backwash into the rivers and creeks
    Changes in composition and breeding behaviour of anadromous and catadromous migrators
  • 11. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats
    Intertidal mudflats
    Almost total loss of intertidal mudflats along the Indian peninsula viz. Gulf of Khambat
    Further aggravated where stiff topography structures viz. seawall prevent the inland migration of mudflat
    impacted faunal groups are wader bird’s diversity & abundance and their migration patterns.
  • 12. Chilika Ramsar Site
  • 13. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats
    Rocky shores
    Loss of anchorage to seaweeds and algae
    Decline in habitats for gastropods, bivalves and crustaceans
  • 14. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats
    Sandy shores and sand dunes
    Loss of nesting areas for shore crabs, marine turtles and waders
    Loss of sand dune stabilizing vegetations viz. Ipomea, Spinifix
    Ground water quality
    Economic loss, coastal tourism and fisheries related livelihood
  • 15. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats
    Oceanic Islands
    Impact and loss of coraline and volcanic islands (viz. Lakshadweep (Pitti island) and Andaman & Nicobar)
    Loss of endemic species (Megapod, Amphibians and Reptiles)
  • 16. Endemism – An overview in Andamans
  • 17. Endemics - Forest lizard
    ©S.P.Vijayakumar
  • 18. Endemics - Nicobar Tree Frog
    ©S.P.Vijayakumar
  • 19. Endemics - Andaman cobra
    ©S.P.Vijayakumar
  • 20. Endemics- Narcondam Hornbill
  • 21. Endemics - Nicobar Megapode
    http://www.birding.in/birds/Galliformes/nicobar_scrubfowl.htm
  • 22. Invertebrates - The giant crabs
    ©S.P.Vijayakumar
  • 23. Impact on Conservation Network (PAs and Conservation Areas)
    Impact on 60-70 coast based PAs in India
    Impact on 106 Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas (ICMBA)
    Loss of coast based important bird areas (Pitti Island, Rann of Kachchh, Kolleru, Pulicate, Chilka & Sunderban)
  • 24. Identified ICMBA sites (106)
    62 ICMBAs West Coast
    44 ICMBAs East Coast
  • 25. Prioritized ICMBA sites
    Alia Bet
    Madhavpur
    Chandipur
    Purna
    Thane
    Chilka
    Rushikulya
    Naupada
    Purnagad
    Bantumilli
    Achra-Malvan
    Machilipatnam
    Kali
    Netrani
    Kundapur
    Kaliveli
    Kolavipalem
    Pichavaram
    Vypin-Fort Kochi
    Kumarakom
    Palk Bay
    Kumbalangi
  • 26. Impact on Indicator Flagship Species of Conservation Importance
    Horseshoe crab-loss of breeding and nesting ground
    Salt water crocodile-Innundation and loss of nesting ground
    Turtles-Batagurbaskaand Pelochelyscantori
    Aquatic mammals-Irrawady dolphins and gangetic dolphins
    Marine turtles – Sea turtles
    Egglaying Snakes-Achrochordus, Laticauda
    Mammals – tiger, fishing cat ad Otter
    Obligate vegetation – Seagrass, Seaweeds and Halophytes
  • 27. Horse shoe Crab
    Tachypleus gigas
    Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda
  • 28.
  • 29. River Terrapin (Batagur baska)
  • 30. Asian giant softshell turtle (Pelochelyscantori)
  • 31. Gangetic Dolphin in WB
  • 32. Irrawaddy Dolphins
  • 33.
  • 34. Royal Bengal TigerPantheratigris
    Sunderbans – largest known population in India, also largest /reports of man-tiger conflict/Worlds only known population of tigers in littoral habitat
    Threats: Poaching & Retaliatory killings due to tiger-human conflicts
  • 35. Fishing Cat (Prionailurusviverrinus)
  • 36. Smooth coated Otter (Lutrogaleperspicillata)
  • 37. Seaweed & Sea Grass
  • 38. Impact on Ethnic Human Population
    Coast based fishing communities
    Indigenous tribal populations viz. Jarawas, Shompens, Onge, Sentineles, Great Andamanese, Nicobari
  • 39. Indigenous communities -
    The Great Andamanese
    The Onge
    The Jarawa
    The Sentineli
    Nicobarese
    Shompens
    Pankaj Saksheria
    ©S.P.Vijayakumar
  • 40. Other identified impacts
    Impact on TSD (Temperature dependent Sex Determination) – Turtles and Crocodiles
    Enhanced cyclone, hurricanes, thunder storms and more frequent El-Nino like conditions
  • 41. Case study – Marine Turtles
  • 42.
    • To understand the dynamics of beach geomorphology for successful Arribada.
    • 43. To understand the factors that contribute to the success or failure of hatching with respect to the nesting beach geomorphology.
  • METHODS
    • Beach profiling
    Available beach width and height between high tide line to vegetation line (benchmark) was monitored on monthly basis.
    • Hatching success and emergence success
    After hatching, selected nests were excavated and empty egg shells were counted for calculating hatching and emergence success (Miller 1999)
  • 44. 1
    3
    BEACH DURING ONSET OF BREEDING (NOV)
    BEACH EROSION DURING APRIL
    LOSS OF EGGS DUE TO EROSION
    EMERGENCE DURING MAY
    2
    4
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47. AUGUST (Lowest)
    DECEMEBR
    MARCH (Highest)
    MAY (Erosion)
    MASS NESTING
    Rushikulya Mass Nesting Beach
    21 km
    MASSNESTING
    BEACH
    1 km
  • 48. AUGUST
    DECEMEBR
    MARCH
    MAY
    SPORADIC NESTING
    Devi Nesting Beach
    19 km
    HIGH SPORADIC NESTING
    BEACH
    1 km
  • 49. AUGUST (lowest)
    DECEMEBR
    MARCH (Highest)
    MAY (Erosion begins)
    MASS NESTING
    Gahirmatha Mass Nesting Beach
    Wheeler
    island
    MASSNESTING
    BEACH
    35 km
  • 50. Typical Tide Curves from full moon to new moon period at three comparative study sites
  • 51. Beach height & Mean tidal amplitude in Gahirmatha rookery
    Nasi-1. Old nesting
    beach
    new Nesting beach in wheeler island
  • 52. In 2004, (Mass nesting area 3000 m X 60 m)
    Wheeler Island
    Coconut Island
    Nasi-II
    Babubali
    Nasi-I
    Source: Prustyet al 2006
  • 53. In 2009, (Mass nesting area 900 m X 87 m)
    Wheeler Island
    Extended sandbar at Wheeler Island
  • 54. In 2010, (Mass nesting area 1000 m X 53 m)
    Wheeler Island
    Extended sandbar at Wheeler Island
  • 55. Hatching and emergence success: 2009-10
    HS
    ES
    Error bars show 95.0% CI of mean
    Error bars show 95.0% CI of mean
  • 56. 30 years of study shows the following changes possibly related to climate change i. Shift in breeding season from December to Marchii. Gradual shift in mass nesting site fidelityiii. Loss of nesting beachesiv. Gradual changes in migratory pattern
  • 57. What is needed ?
    Identifying climate change related thrust areas of research for all sectors on involving coastal and marine systems
    Involvement of coast based academic organizations and universities
    Creation of Centre of Excellence and Advanced Studies on Climate Change
    International and National NGOs to initiate climate change initiatives
    Improvement in existing prediction framework
    Increased focus on research in the ability of possible climate change impacted vulnerable species for adaptation
    Inclusion of climate change in academic curriculum
  • 58. Probable loss of areas of Sunderban Tiger Reserve in India due to different levels of sea level rise
  • 59. Sunderban specific…
    Projecting Sunderban as an climate change impacted global ecological entity
    Identification of priority vulnerable biodiversity indicators and mechanisms for their safeguards against local and total extinction
    Capacity building and information sharing common database
    Trans boundary common minimum programme on climate change monitoring in Bangladesh and India

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