Components of lexical meaning new 2
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Components of lexical meaning new 2 Components of lexical meaning new 2 Presentation Transcript

  • D .Sundar abal u r A st ant Pr of essor ssiDepar t ment of Li ngui st i cs B at hi ar U ver si t y har ni C m or e-46 .I ndi a oi bat Sunder _bal u@yahoo.co.i n
  • C M N TS O LEXI C L M N N O PO EN F A EA I GAn exam nat i on of t he f ol l ow ng sent ences w l l show i i i t hat l exi cal m eani ng i s a ver y com ex phenom pl enonEngl i sh :(1) The ow ner of t he est at e di ed(2) The ow ner O t he est at e passed aw f ay(3) The ow ner of t he est at e deceased(4) The ow ner of t he est at e ki cked t he bucketG oup A rTam l : i(5) en t aat t aa i r ant aar(6) en t aat t aa kaal am aagaar(7) en t aat t aa vai kunt appat avi aTai nt aar(8) en t aat t aa m Tayai ppooTTar aN
  • G oup B rEngl i sh :(9) H r ecei ved hi s sal ar y e(10) H r ecei ved hi s st i pend eH r ecei ved hi s r em e uner at i onTam l : i(11) m al aaLi kaN anukku cam ut N paLam koTut t c..ar The pr opr i et or gave kannan , hi s sal ar y(12) m al aaLi m ukagukku kuul i koTut t aar The ut ur pr opr i et or gave m ugan, his wages’ ur
  • • I n t he Engl i sh sent ences 1 t o 4 of gr oup A al l have t he sam m e eani ng f r om . one poi nt of vi ew They al l m ean t hat sam par t i cul ar est at e ow e ner i s not al i ve or i s not l i vi ng anym e, Thi s i s or expr essed by t he w ds di ed, passed or aw ay, deceased, ki cked t he bucket . But t he quest i on ar i ses w f our di f f er ent hy w ds have been used i n f our di f f er ent or sent ences?
  • A car ef ul consi der at i on w l l show t hat t hese i sent ence coul d have been used i n di f f er ent soci al cont ext s or w t h di f f er ent em i onal at t i t udes. i ot I n sent ence (1) t he ver b di ed i s an i nf or m , m t er of f act al at st at em , w ch coul d have been used by t he ent hi r el at i ves and f r i ends of t he est at e ow . I n ner sent ence(2) t he ver b passed aw ay coul d be a f or m al announcem ent or a new spaper r epor t about t he deat h of t he est at e ow . ner(3)The t hi r d sent ence w t h t he ver b deceased w l l i i be a par t of a l egal docum . ent(4)The f our t h sent ence usi ng t he i di om i c phr ase at ki cked t he bucket i m i es t hat i t i s used by a pl per son w ho ei t her bel ongs t o l ower cat egor y i n
  • • N al l t he f our w ds m ow or eans t hat som one i s e not al i ve, i s one t ype of i nf or m i on or one at t ype of m eani ng conveyed by t he speaker /user of t he sent ence w ch i s com on t o al l t he hi m f our w ds.But as di scussed above each w d has or or addi t i onal i nf or m i on; at• t he w d di ed i m i es t hat i t i s i nf or m or or pl al m t er of f act . at• The w d passed aw or ay i m i es t hat i t i s a pl f or m announcem al ent or r epor t .• The use of w d deceased i n t he sent ence m or akes us under st and t hat i t i s a par t of a l egal docum ent or pr oceedi ngs.• The use of t he phr ase ki cked t he bucket conveys som i nf or m i on about ei t her t he e at soci al st at us of t he speaker or hi s em i onalot at t i t ude t ow ds t he per son di ed. ar
  • • Si m l ar l y i n t he Tam l sent ences 5-8 of i i gr oup A al so t he ver b i R aar , ant kaal am aanaar , vai kuN Tappat avi aTai nt aar , m Ti yai ppooTTaar al l m aN ean t hat som onee i s dead or not al i ve.• But i R aar i s a neut r al w d and does ant or not convey any addi t i onal i nf or m i on;at• kaal am aanaar i s a f or m com uni cat i on or al m new spaper r epor t .• vai kU Tappat aVi N aTai nt aar denot es t he r el i gi ous sect of t he per son di ed vi z he i s a Vai shnavai t .• The phr ase m Tai yai ppooTTaar , aN w ch hi l i t er al l y means put dow hi s head i s n sl ang and i m i es t hat , t he user has no pl r espect f or t he per son di ed.
  • • Ther ef or e, w under st and t hat t hese e Engl i sh and Tam l w ds have i n t hei r i or m eani ng t w t ypes of i nf or m i on or o at com ponent s. The shar ed com on m i nf or m i on, w ch i s r el at ed t o t he at hi r eal i t y of som one not bei ng al i ve, e i s t he basi c i nf or m i on. at• The ot her s ar e i nf or m i ons at or com ponent s added to t he basi c i nf or m i on. at• The f i r st i s cal l ed desi gnat i on. The second cat egor y i s cal l ed connot at i on.
  • • R ange of appl i cat i on• N ow i f w exam ne t he Engl i sh and Tam l e i i sent ences i ncl uded i n-gr oup B, w f i nd anot her e t ype of i nf or m i on, w ch i s i ncl uded i n t he at hi m eani ngs of a w d. I n t he Engl i sh sent ence 9 or and 10, t he w ds sal ar y or st i pend have t he or sam e m eani ng as t hey r ef er to t he r emuner at i on or w ages gi ven f or t he w k or done by som one.e• But t hese w ds ar e not i nt er changeabl e i n or al l t he cont ext s.• U of t he w d sal ar y or st i pend depends upon se or t he nat ur e of t he w k of t he per son w does or ho it.• St i pend r ef er s t o t he r em uner at i on r ecei ved by a r el i gi ous f at her or past or (cl er gym an) or a publ i c of f i ci al (C onci se O or d di ct i onar y). xf
  • • I t cannot be used f or t he r em uner at i on r ecei ved by ot her t ypes of em oyees i n w ch case t he pl hi w d sal ar y i s used. Si m l ar l y i n Tam l t he w d or i i or cam paLam (11) and kuul i used i n (12) r ef er t o t he w ages f or t he w k done by som one. or e• As i n Engl i sh, her e al so t her e i s r est r i ct i on i n use. kuul i i s used onl y f or physi cal casual w k or nor m l y done on dai l y or w al eekl y basi s. cam paLam i s used t o r ef er t o t he r em uner at i on gi ven f or w k done on r egul ar m hl y or w or ont eekl y basi s.• Ther ef or e, w under st and t hat t her e i s r est r i ct i on e i n t he use or appl i cat i on of t he pai r s of Engl i sh and Tam l w ds w ch i n one poi nt of vi ew have i or hi t he sam m e eani ng.• The sam eness of m eani ng i s w hat w cal l ed above e as desi gnat i on, i .e. t hese pai r s of w ds have sam or e desi gnat i on. But t hey di f f er i n w hat sem i ci st s ant cal l t he r ange of appl i cat i on or r est r i ct i on on t hei r use. Thi s i s al so a par t or com ponent l exi cal m eani ng.
  • D GA O ESI N TI N• The cont ent syst em of a l anguage i s concer ned w t h t he st udy of how t he i expr essi on syst em r el at e t o t he var i ous t ypes of t he act i vi t i es of hum an bei ngs t hei r sur r oundi ngs et c., or t he w l d. D gnat i on i s concer ned w t h how or esi i l exem or w ds ar e r el at ed t o t he par t s of es or t he w l d. or• To be exact i t "i s t he r el at i on w ch hi i s exi st i ng bet w een si ngl e w ds and or si ngl e par t s of ext r a l i ngui st i c w l d or as concei ved by t he speaker s of a par t i cul ar l anguage (Zgust a, 1971 ,p,27)".
  • • For exam es t he Engl i sh w d t abl e i s r el at ed pl or desi gnat i vel y t o al l di f f er ent t ypes of obj ect s, w ch can be cal l ed as t abl es. To under st and hi desi gnat i on, w have t o f i nd out how t hese r el at i ons e exi st i n a par t i cul ar l anguage. The cl ass of di f f er ent t ypes of obj ect s t o w ch t he w d i s hi or r el at ed i s cal l ed denot at um or r ef er ent .• The w d denot at um r ef er s t o not onl y t o cl ass of or obj ect s but t o cl ass of act i ons, event s, i deas, f eel i ngs, i nst i t ut i ons, concept s et c., of t he w l d or or r eal i t y w ch ar e r ef er r ed t o by par t i cul ar w ds . hi or• For exam e t he Engl i sh w d r un has as i t s pl or , denot at um t he di f f er ent t ypes of m ovem s f r om t he ent sl ow est t o t he f ast est t o r ef er t o w ch t he w d hi or can be used. ,• The w d l ove has as i t s denot at um al l t he di f f er ent or t ypes of f eel i ngs such as t hose of par ent s t o
  • • The w d gover nm or ent m ay have as i t s denot at a, di f f er ent gover nm al ent i nst i t ut i ons l i ke dem at i cal l y ocr el ect ed gover nm s,ent t ot al i t ar i an gover nm s, gover nm s r un by m l i t ar y ent ent i di ct at or s, gover nm s r un by ki ngs or ent m onar chy.• Ther ef or e, desi gnat i on i s t he r el at i on bet w een di f f er ent w ds and di f f er ent or t ypes of denot at a ,w ch t hey r ef er t o. hi B ut t hi s r el at i on i s not a di r ect r el at i on. It is m at ed t hr ough edi desi gnat um “ .
  • • D gnat um i s t he not i on of t he r espect i ve t hi ng of t he esi denot at um as concei ved buy t he speaker s of a l anguage (Zgust a, 1971. p. 28).• The desi gnat um i s al so r ef er r ed t o as t o as concept or not i on or i dea of t he denot at um as concei ved by t he speaker s of a l anguage.• The denot at a of a w d has sever al pr oper t i es. or For exam e t he Engl i sh w d t abl e i ncl udes cl ass of pl or obj ect s w ch ar e m hi ade of w , st eel , st one et c., t hey m ood ay bel ong t o di f f er ent si zes l i ke squar e, r ect angl e, oval , r ound, et c., t hey m st and on one or m ay any l egs. They m be used f or di f f er ent pur pose l i ke put t i ng ay , t hi ngs on t hem si t t i ng ar ound t hem as a gr oup and di scuss, per f or m som w k et c. O t hese var yi ng pr oper t i es of a cl ass e or f of obj ect s cal l ed t abl e, onl y cer t ai n pr oper t i es or f eat ur es ar e shar ed by or com on t o al l t he m ber s of t he cl ass of m em obj ect s.They w l l al so be shar ed by any obj ect w ch m be cr eat ed i n i hi ay t he f ut ur e and w ch hel p t he speaker t o i dent i f y t he obj ect as hi a t abl e. Such pr oper t i es or f eat ur es w l l be cal l ed cr i t er i a1 i
  • They w l l hel p di f f er ent i at e t hi s cl ass of obj ect s i f r om si m l ar cl ass of obj ect s. Sum or t ot al of i t hese pr oper t i es or f eat ur es const i t ut e t he . desi gnat um I n t he case of t abl e t he m er i al by at w ch i t i s m hi ade of , si ze, shape, num ber of l egs, col our et c., m ay var y. O y t he f ol l ow ng nl i pr oper t i es ar e shar ed by al l t he obj ect s w ch hi ar e cal l ed t abl e, w ch bel ong t o a cl ass of hi obj ect s cal l ed f ur ni t ur e:(1) havi ng f l at or hor i zont al t op,(2) st andi ng on one or m e l egs, or(3) used f or put t i ng t hi ngs on or si t t i ng ar ound.These ar e t he cr i t er i al f eat ur es and t hese f eat ur es t oget her const i t ut e t he desi ngnat um of t he Engl i sh w d t abl e. Thus w can see t hat t he or e r el at i on bet w een w d f or m say Engl i sh t abl e; or t hr ough t he desi gnat um i .e. t he sum of cr i t er i al or cont r ast i ve f eat ur es gi ven above t o t he
  • • Fi ndi ng out t he cr i t er i al or cont r ast i ve f eat ur es i s t he m ost i m t ant aspect of t he st udy of por l exi cal m eani ng. ,• Thi s i s because f or t he sam denot at um cr i t er i al e f eat ur es m ay di f f er f r om l anguage t o l anguage. For exam e,pl w l i st ed above t he cr i t er i al f eat ur es e of Engl i sh w d t abl e. The Tam l equi val ent i s or i m eesai f or t abl e. But t he Tam l m i eesai can be used f or any pi ece of f ur ni t ur e, havi ng f l at t op, st andi ng on l egs even i f i t i s used f or r eadi ng, w i t i ng or w ki ng. r or But i n Engl i sh t he pi ece of f ur ni t ur e w t h f l at (or sl opi ng) t op i f i t i s used f or i r eadi ng and w i t i ng or w ki ng, t hen i t i s cal l ed r or desk. The pur pose f or w ch t he pi ece of hi
  • • Any pi ece of f ur ni t ur e havi ng f l at t op, st andi ng on one or m e l egs, w ever or hat pur pose i t used w l l be m i eesai i n Tam l . i The di f f er ence bet w een Engl i sh hand and Tam l kai w ch ar e par t i al equi val ent s i hi and t he di f f er ence bet w een col our t er m s w e t he sam col our s of t he spect r um ar e her e cl assi f i ed di f f er ent l y in di f f er ent l anguages and even i n di f f er ent per i ods i n t he sam l anguage. Thi s i s because of e di f f er ence i n t he or gani zat i on of t he cr i t er i al f eat ur es and t hei r by t he desi gnat um .
  • Ogden and Richards meaning triangleWhat we have discussed above as the relation of designation was explained in the form of a triangle by Ogden and Richards (1936,p.1l) which they called basic triangle is given below THOUGHT OR REFERENCECORRECT ADEQUATESymbolizes (a causal relation) ------------------ Refers to (other causal relations) SYMBOL REFERENT (an Imputed relation) TRUE The diagram shows that there is no direct relation between words (symbol) and the things they stand for (Referent); the word symbolizes a thought or reference which in its turn refers to the feature or event we are talking about. This triangle is used here with the labels and terms used by Zgusta(1971,p.34). This clearly explains, the relation of designation discussed above.
  • Designatum ---------------------------------- expression denotatum( form of the word)Ogden and Richards thought or reference is designatum or concept or notion in the relation of designation.Denotatum is the referent. This diagram clearly shows that there is direct relation only between word form (expression) and designatum and between designatum and denotatum(referent). But, there is no direct relation between the word and denotatum.
  • CONNOTATIONa number of verbs in Tamil and English meaning die conveyed additional information like formal, informal professional social situations, psychological attitude of the speaker, or the religious sect of the speaker. These additional information are called connotation and this information was added to the basic designative meaning of all those words viz., someone is not alive.
  • • N w can def i ne connot at i on as f ol l ow ow e s:"C onnot at i on i s t he com ponent of l exi cal m eani ng w ch adds hi som cont r ast i ve val ue t o t he basi c usual l y desi gnat i ve e m eani ng (see Zgust a, 1971 ,P.38)". Thi s m eans t hat connot at i on i s al w ays an addi t i onal com ponent .D f f er ent sem i ci st s use t he w d connot at i on di f f er ent l y. i ant or H e Ladi sl av Zgust as (1971) appr oach i s f ol l ow er ed, w t r eat s i t as a ver y br oad cat egor y. ho What U l m l ann (1962) cal l s em i ve over t ones and ot evocat i ve val ue and Leech (1981) cal l s, st yl i st i c and af f ect i ve m eani ng (see Les.4) and John Lyons (1977, p.176) connot at i on w ch he cal l s em i ve or af f ect i ve com hi ot ponent , addi t i onal t o t he cent r al m eani ng and hi s soci al and expr essi ve i nf or m i on (see Lyons 1977 p.SO at ,S1) ar e al l i ncl uded under connot at i on by Zgust a. H says "t he w e f i el d of di f f er ent st yl es and of e hol t he w e var i at i on of l anguage bel ongs or m bel ong i n hol ay its l exi cal r esul t s to t he cat egor y of connot at i on"(Zgust a1971, p.39).
  • • Zgust a f ur t her says t hat "any st yl i st i c pr oper t y of a w d, t he f act t hat a w d or or bel ongs t o cer t ai n sl ang or soci al di al ect or even t o t he geogr aphi cal di al ect (i f i t i s used i n non-di al ect al cont ext ) or i t i s ei t her coi ned r ecent l y (a neol ogi sm on t he cont r ar y, obsol et e ) car r i es addi t i onal sem i c r el evance, ant addi t i onal i nf or m i on about t he speaker , at about hi s at t i t ude or eval uat i on of t he subj ect , gi ves col our t o t he subj ect , conveys t he i nf or m i on m e pow f ul l y, at or er hum ousl y, em i onal l y, i r oni cal l y, i s i n or ot consequence m e or expr essi ve and is
  • In addition to the four verbs in Tamil, which are equivalents for English die given in already , there are a number of verbs in Tamil which have different types of connotation. Let us examine the following additional sentences(14) en taattaa cettaar ‘My grandfather died’(15) en taattaa maraNamaTaintaar ‘My grandfather died’(16) en taattaa uyirniittaar ‘My grandfather died’(17) en taatta muuccuviTamaRantaar ‘My grandfather died’(18) en. taatta vaayaippiLantaar ‘My grandfather died’(19) en taatta civalookapatavi aTaintaar‘My grandfather died’(20) en taatta karttarukkuL nittirai aTaintaar ‘My grandfather died’(21) en vaappaa mau u ttaarraar ‘My grandfather died’(22) en taattaa iyarkai eytirraar ‘My grandfather died’
  • In t hese sent ences, am ong t he synonym ous ver bs,• cet t aar bel ongs t o t he col l oqui al st yl e,• m aN aTai nt ar t o t he f or m st yl e and ar am al• uyi r ni i t t aar t o t he hi gh l i t er ar y st yl e.• vaayai ppi Lant aar and m l ccuoi Ta m am aar bot h ui aR t bel ong t o sl ang and al so have j ocul ar connot at i on based on t he l i t er al m eani ng of t he const i t uent w ds vi z., t o open t he m h and f or get t o or out br eat he r espect i vel y.Sent ence 19-21,have r el i gi ous connot at i on as t he w ds show t he r el i gi ous af f i ni t y of t he speaker s. or ci val ookappat avi aTai nt aar (19) l i t er al l y m eans som eone r eached t he w l d of or Lor d Shi va. kar t t ar ukkuL ni t t i r ai aTai nt aar (20), show t hat t he s speaker bel ongs t o t he C i st i an r el i gi on, w t h hr i t he ver b l i t er al l y m eani ng som eone sl ept i n t he D vi ne Fat her . m i avut t aaku(21)i s used by M i m and usl s i t show t hat t he speaker i s a M i m The t er m s usl . i yar kai eyt u l i t er al l y m eans t o becom one w t h e i t he nat ur e. Thi s usage i m i es t hat t he per son, pl w r epor t s t he deat h, i s a non-bel i ever or has no ho
  • Agai n t her e ar e a num ber of Tam l synonym i s r ef er r i ng t o t he di sease com on col d w ch m hi show var i at i on bot h r egi onal and soci al .caLi (spoken st andar d)t aTum an (Sout her n di al ect )j al uppu (Chennai sl um di al ect )j al at ooSam(soci al di al ect -Bhr am n) iTher e ar e t hr ee ver bs i n Tam l w t h t he m i i eani ng t o eat caappi t u ,t i nnu, koTTi kkoL. caappi Tu has no connot at i on but t i nnu and koTTi kkO have L em i ve connot at i on and show t he anger of t he ot speaker . The connot at i on of a w d i s r eveal ed or onl y w hen i t i s cont r ast ed, w t h t he w d w ch i or hi has no connot at i on or neut r al .
  • RNE O A A G F PPLI C TI O A NThe t hi r d com ponent of l exi cal m eani ng, t he r ange of appl i cat i on i s concer ned w t h t he i r est r i ct i ons on t he r ange or l i m t of t he i appl i cat i on or use of t w ar e m e w ds o or or w ch have sam or si m l ar , desi gnat i on. hi e i t he Engl i sh w ds sal ar y and st i pend and or Tam li w ds kuul i or and cam paLam show r est r i ct i ons on t hei r use.I n addi t i on t he Tam l w ds paat i and ar ai i or bot h m eani ng one hal f of som hi ng di f f er et i n r ange of appl i cat i on. ar ai can occur wth m i easur abl e and count abl e obj ect s and paat i wth i non-m easur abl e or non,.
  • • Exam e, ar ai · pl(23) ar ai m uuTTai ar i ci hal f a bag of r i ce(24) ar ai m i t t ar t uN hal f a m r e of cl ot h i i et(25) ar ai kH t akkaaLi hal f ki l o of t om o oo at(26) avanukku ar ai Taj an kul ant ai kaL H has hal f a e dozen chi l dr en paat i :(27) t ooTI i yi l paat i t aN i i r i r ukki R u Ther e i s N at hal f a t ub of w er at(28) caappaaTTi l paat i yai enakku-k-kooTut t aan H gave hal f of t he m s t o m e eal eI n t he exam es gi ven above ar ai occur r ed w t h pl i count abl e and m easur abl e nouns,eg, m uuTTai bag, m i TTar m r e, ki l oo ki l o and i et Taj an dozen and paat i w t h non-count abl e nouns i l i ke t aN i r w er and caappaaTu m s. But w N at eal e can have t he const r uct i on ar ai t t oTTi t aN i i r N hal f a t ub of w er , w e ar ai i s f ol l ow at her ed t oTTi t ub w ch i s a count abl e noun. hi
  • • I t i s i nt er est i ng t o not e t hat t he noun caappaaTu m s w ch i s a uncount abl e eal hi and unm easur abl e noun, w hen used i n t he hom cont ext , becom m e es easur abl e i n t he cont ext of a r est aur ant w e t he her expr essi on ar i a-c-ccaappaaTu hal f m s and m uc caappaaTu f ul l m s eal ul eal ar e used.• Thi s i s because i n t he r est aur ant , t hey m easur e t he m s (cooked r i ce) usi ng eal m easur i ng cups, or pl at es. I n f act t hi s const r uct i on has t o be t r eat ed as an el l i pt i cal f or m of ar ai kap caappaaTu hal f a cup of m s or ar ai pi Let eal caappaaTu hal f a pl at e of m s. eal
  • • As r ange of appl i cat i on i s based on co- occur r ence or col l ocat i onal r est r i ct i ons of w ds i t i s al so cal 1ed as col l ocat i onal or m eani ng (Si ngh, 1982, P.36).• But t he w d col l ocat i on i s a br oad cat egor y or r ef er r i ng t o r est r i ct i ons on t he com ng i t oget her of w ds of di f f er ent t ypes som of or e w ch cannot be cal l ed r ange of appl i cat i on. hi For exam e, t he w ds r ef er r i ng t o t he pl or cr i es of ani m s and bi r ds di f f er show ng al i r est r i ct i on. Eg. Engl i sh t he l i on r oar s, hor se nei ghs, el ephant t r um s, cock cr ow pet s, and Tam l dnkam kar j i kkum Li on w l l r oar i i kut i r ai kanai KKum The hor se w l l nei gh, i yaanai pi Li r um The el ephant w l l t r um , , i pet kaakam kar ai yum The cr ow w l l caw i .• H e t he col l ocat i onal r est r i ct i ons w l l er i becom par t of t he desi gnat i ve m e eani ng of
  • • For exam espl• r oar has t o be def i ned as l oud sound l i ke t hat m ade by l i ons, nei gh m ake a l ong cr y as of a hor se.• W hen w com e t he m e par eani ngs of w ds sal ar y and or st i pend gi ven i n t he di ct i onar y f i xed sum of m oney pai d r egul ar l y w l l be t he desi gnat i ve i m eani ng, shar ed by bot h t he w ds. Addi t i onalor expl anat i ons added f or sal ar y i s pai d t o especi al l y, em oyees pl doi ng of f i ci al or pr of essi onal w k, and f or st i pend i t i s pai d or especi al l y t o pr i est or m ni st er ar e addi t i onal i com ponent s show ng t he di f f er ence i n r ange. i Ther ef or e one has t o di f f er ent i at e bet w een col l ocat i onal r est r i ct i on and r ange of appl i cat i on.• O t he t hr ee com f ponent s of l exi cal m eani ng desi gnat i on, w ch i s al so cal l ed, as denot at i ve hi
  • VA U ESS O M N N G EN F EA I G• I n t he f or gone sect i ons w st udi ed t he com e ponent s or di f f er ent aspect s l exi cal meani ng. We descr i bed i t as t hough l exi cal m eani ng i s pr eci se and cl ear l y def i nabl e i nt er m of t he t hr ee s com ponent s. I n r eal i t y i t i s not so. I t i s not si m l ar t o sci ent i f i c concept s w ch ar e cl ear l y i hi def i nabl e in t er ms of t hei r cl ear char act er i st i cs.• Thi s i s because l exi cal m eani ng i s der i ved f r om t housands of sent ences i n w ch t hey ar e used by hi t housands of speaker s of t he par t i cul ar l anguage. Thi s al so has t o account f or t he f ut ur e use of t hese w ds i n new or er cont ext s, based on t he pr oduct i vi t y of l anguage (see H ucket t , 1970 (1958) p.575). A l t hese l ead t o w l hat i s cal l ed vagueness or gener al i t y of m eani ng ( see U l ml ann 1962 p.118-128, Zgust a 1971. p 47). The f ol l ow ng i
  • • (1) The desi gnat um w ch i s der i ved f r om t he hi denot at a i s appl i cabl e t o a l ar ge cl ass of t hi ngs w ch ar e gr ouped t oget her by a f ew hi cr i t er i al or com on f eat ur es. m For exam e t he Engl i sh w d gam pl or e r ef er s t o var i ous t ypes of gam es l i ke boar d-gam es, car d-gam es, bal l -games, ol ym ccgam et c., (see U l m pi es l ann, 1962 p.118). The w d f l ow or er w l l appl y t o hundr ed of i di f f er ent t ypes of f l ow s. So al so Tam l er i w d m am t r ee i s used t o r ef er t o t r ees or ar w t h br anches, w t hout br anches (coconut , i i pal m pl ant ai n et c).• (2) The desi gnat a ar e br oad i .e. di f f er ent t ypes of t hi ngs ar e i ncl uded w t hi n a si ngl e i desi gnat um . For exam e Engl i sh w d f ur ni t ur e pl or i ncl udes chai r s, benches, t abl es, desks,
  • • (3) The desi gnat a over l ap. The adj ect i ves bi g and l ar ge ar e synonym ous and subst i t ut abl e i n som cont ext s but e cannot be subst i t ut ed i n som ot her e t hus show ng over l appi ng of i t hei r desi gnat um e.g. bi g house, l ar ge house, bi g ci t y, l ar ge ci t y. But bi g m an, bi g i dea ar e possi bl e but not *l ar ge m an, * l ar ge i dea. I n l i t er ar y Tam l ni i N i Ta and neTi ya ar e subst i t ut abl e i n ni i N a t caal ai / neTi ya caal ai l ong r oad; but onl y *neTi ya m ai t al l m al ount ai n and
  • • (4) Som i m et es bot h t he desi gnat a and denot at a of t he w ds l ack cl ear -cut or boundar i es. Thi s happens i n t he case w ds or w t h bot h, abst r act and concr et e m i eani ngs. Tam l w ds ni i t i j ust i ce and ni yaayam i or f ai r ness, nat ur al ness, j ust i ce, bel ong t o t hi s cat egor y.• I n t he concr et e dom n body par t w ds show ai or t hi s l ack of cl ear boundar y. Tam l w ds i or denot i ng di f f er ent ar eas of t he hum f ace an show t hi s aspect . e.g. kannan cheek, t aaTai j aw m, ukavaay/ naaTi chi n. The boundar i es of t hese par t s w ch ar e over l appi ng cannot hi be m ked cl ear l y, t hough cent r al por t i ons ar can be di f f er ent i at ed
  • • (5) O ver and above al l t hose aspect s, m t i pl e m ul eani ng of l exem es i .e. a si ngl e w d f or m havi ng a num or ber of m eani ngs, (w ch w l l be di scussed i n hi i det ai l ,l eads t o am gui t y ,and i s a bi sour ce of vagueness of m eani ng. But i n spi t e of t hi s i nher ent vagueness or gener al i t y of meani ng ef f ect i ve com uni cat i on goes on successf ul l y due m t o saf eguar ds ei t her i n-bui l t i n t he l anguage syst em or ext er nal , devi sed by t he speaker s