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- 1. Course: Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management (614) Presented By Sunanda Sarker Roll NO. 161201 Batch-16 MBM, BIBM Presented To Dr. Prashanta Kumar Banerjee Professor & Director (Research, Development
- 2. CHAPTER 1 The Investment Setting •What Is An Investment •Return and Risk Measures •Measuring Historical Rates of Return •Computing Mean Historical Return •Calculating Expected Rates of Return •Measuring the Risk of Expected Rates of Return •Determinants of Required Returns
- 3. What is an Investment? Investment is the current commitment of money for a period of time in order to derive future payments that will compensate for: • Time the funds are committed • Expected rate of inflation • Uncertainty of future flow of funds
- 4. Why Invest? • By investing (saving money now instead of spending it), individuals can tradeoff present consumption for a larger future consumption.
- 5. Pure Time Value of Money • People willing to pay more for the money borrowed and lenders desire to receive a surplus on their savings (money invested)
- 6. The Effects of Inflation • Inflation ‒ If the future payment will be diminished in value because of inflation, then the investor will demand an interest rate higher than the pure time value of money to also cover the expected inflation expense.
- 7. Uncertainty: Risk by any Other Name • Uncertainty • If the future payment from the investment is not certain, the investor will demand an interest rate that exceeds the pure time value of money plus the inflation rate to provide a risk premium to cover the investment risk.
- 8. Required Rate of Return on an Investment • Minimum rate of return investors require on an investment, including the pure rate of interest and all other risk premiums to compensate the investor for taking the investment risk
- 9. Measures of Historical Rates of Return Holding Period Return: Ending Value of Investment HPR = Beginning Value of Investment Holding Period Yield: HPY = HPR – 1
- 10. Historical Rates of Return: What Did We Earn (Gain)? Example I: Your investment of $250 in Stock A is worth $350 in two years while the investment of $100 in Stock B is worth $120 in six months. What are the annual HPRs and the HPYs on these two stocks?
- 11. Your Investments Rise in Value Example I: • Stock A – Annual HPR=HPR1/n = ($350/$250)1/2 =1.1832 – Annual HPY=Annual HPR-1=1.1832-1=18.32% • Stock B – Annual HPR=HPR1/n = ($112/$100)1/0.5 =1.2544 – Annual HPY=Annual HPR-1=1.2544-1=25.44%
- 12. Historical Rates of Return: What Did We Lose? Example II: Your investment of $350 in Stock A is worth $250 in two years while the investment of $112 in Stock B is worth $100 in six months. What are the annual HPRs and the HPYs on these two stocks?
- 13. Your Investments Decline in Value Example II: • Stock A – Annual HPR=HPR1/n = ($250/$350)1/2 =.84515 – Annual HPY=Annual HPR-1=.84514 - 1=-15.48% • Stock B – Annual HPR=HPR1/n = ($100/$112)1/0.5 =.79719 – Annual HPY=Annual HPR-1=.79719-1=-20.28%
- 14. Calculating Mean Historical Rates of Return • Arithmetic Mean Return (AM) AM= Σ HPY / n where Σ HPY=the sum of all the annual HPYs n=number of years • Geometric Mean Return (GM) GM= [π HPY] 1/n -1 where π HPR=the product of all the annual HPRs n=number of years
- 15. Arithmetic vs. Geometric Averages • When rates of return are the same for all years, the AM and the GM will be equal. • When rates of return are not the same for all years, the AM will always be higher than the GM. • While the AM is best used as an “expected value” for an individual year, while the GM is the best measure of an asset’s longterm performance.
- 16. Comparing Arithmetic vs. Geometric Averages: Example Suppose you invested $100 three years ago and it is worth $110.40 today. What are your arithmetic and geometric average returns?
- 17. Arithmetic Average: An Example Year Beg. Value Ending Value HPR HPY 1 $100 $115 1.15 .15 2 115 138 1.20 .20 3 138 110.40 .80 -.20 AM= Σ HPY / n AM=[(0.15)+(0.20)+(-0.20)] / 3 = 0.15/3=5% GM= [π HPY] 1/n -1 GM=[(1.15) x (1.20) x (0.80)]1/3 – 1 =(1.104)1/3 -1=1.03353 -1 =3.353%
- 18. Portfolio Historical Rates of Return • Portfolio HPY ‒ Mean historical rate of return for a portfolio of investments is measured as the weighted average of the HPYs for the individual investments in the portfolio, or the overall change in the value of the original portfolio. • The weights used in the computation are the relative beginning market values for each investment, which is often referred to as dollarweighted or value-weighted mean rate of return.
- 19. Expected Rates of Return What Do We Expect to Earn? • In previous examples, we discussed realized historical rates of return. • In reality most investors are more interested in the expected return on a future risky investment.
- 20. Risk and Expected Return • Risk refers to the uncertainty of the future outcomes of an investment • There are many possible returns/outcomes from an investment due to the uncertainty • Probability is the likelihood of an outcome • The sum of the probabilities of all the possible outcomes is equal to 1.0.
- 21. Calculating Expected Returns n E(R i ) = ∑ (Probability of Return) × (Possible Return) i =1 = [(P1 )(R 1 ) + (P2 )(R 2 ) + .... + (Pn R n )] n = ∑( Pi )( Ri ) i= 1 Where: Pi = the probability of return on asset i Ri = the return on asset i
- 22. Perfect Certainty: The Risk Free Asset If you invest in an asset that has an expected return 5% then it is absolutely certain your expected return will be 5% • E(Ri) = ( 1) (.05) = .05 or 5%
- 23. Probability Distribution of Risk-free Investment Risk-Free Investment 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 -5% 0% 5% 10% 15%
- 24. Risky Investment with Three Possible Outcomes • Suppose you are considering an investment with 3 different potential outcomes as follows: Economic Conditions Probability Expected Return Strong Economy 15% 20% Weak Economy 15% -20% Stable Economy 70% 10%
- 25. Probability Distribution Risky Investment with 3 Possible Returns 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 -30% -10% 10% 30%
- 26. Calculating Expected Return on a Risky Asset n E ( Ri ) = ∑ ( Pi )( Ri ) i =1 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 -30% -10% 10% E ( Ri ) = [(.15)(.20) + (.15)(-.20) + (.70)(.10)] = .07 = 7% Investment in a risky asset with a probability distribution as described above, would have an expected return of 7%. This is 2% higher than the risk free asset. In other words, investors get paid to take risk! 30%
- 27. Risk and Expected Returns • Risk refers to the uncertainty of an investment; therefore the measure of risk should reflect the degree of the uncertainty. • Risk of expected return reflect the degree of uncertainty that actual return will be different from the expect return. • Common measures of risk are based on the variance of rates of return distribution of an investment
- 28. Risk of Expected Return • The Variance Measure Variance n Possible Expected 2 = ∑ (Pr obability ) x ( − ) Re turn Re turn i =1 n = ∑ Pi [ Ri − E ( Ri )]2 i =1
- 29. Risk of Expected Return • Standard Deviation (σ) • square root of the variance • measures the total risk σ= n − E ( Ri )]2 ∑ Pi [ Ri i =1 • Coefficient of Variation (CV) • measures risk per unit of expected return • relative measure of risk Standard Deviation of Return CV = Expected Rate of Return =σ E (R)
- 30. Risk of Historical Returns • Given a series of historical returns measured by HPY, the risk of returns can be measured using variance and standard deviation • The formula is slightly different but the measure of risk is essentially the same
- 31. Variance of Historical Returns n σ = ∑ [HPYi − E(HPY)]2 / n i =1 2 Where: σ 2 = the variance of the series HPY i = the holding period yield during period I E(HPY) = the expected value of the HPY equal to the arithmetic mean of the series (AM) n = the number of observations
- 32. Three Determinants of Required Rate of Return • Time value of money during the time period • Expected rate of inflation during the period • Risk involved
- 33. Three Key Components of Total Required Rate of Return
- 34. The Real Risk Free Rate (RRFR) • Assumes no inflation • Assumes no uncertainty about future cash flows • Influenced by time preference for consumption of income and investment opportunities in the economy
- 35. Nominal Risk Free Rate (NRFR) • Conditions in the capital market • Expected rate of inflation NRFR=(1+RRFR) x (1+ Rate of Inflation) - 1 RRFR=[(1+NRFR) / (1+ Rate of Inflation)] - 1
- 36. ?

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