Quality Control & operations in Silica plant
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Quality Control,Kaizen & 5S

Quality Control,Kaizen & 5S

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Quality Control & operations in Silica plant Document Transcript

  • 1. Report on Quality Control,Kaizen & 5S In Silica Plant Prepared by SUNAM PAL Registration No: 10PG (J) 45 Under the Guidance of Dr. Prasanna Mohan Raj MIn partial fulfilment of the Course-Industry Internship Programme (IIP) in Term – IV of the Master of Business Administration (Batch: Jan. 2010 – 2012) Bangalore
  • 2. Master of Business Administration: Jan.2010 – 2012 Term – IV: Industry Internship Programme (IIP) Declaration This is to declare that the Report entitled “Quality Control,Kaizen & 5Sin Silica Plant” has been made for the partial fulfilment of the Course:Industry Internship Programme (IIP) in Term – IV (Batch: Jan. 2010-2012) byme at OCL INDIA LTD under the guidance of Dr. Prasanna Mohan Raj M. I confirm that this Report truly represents my work undertaken as apart of my Industry Internship Programme (IIP). This work is not a replicationof work done previously by any other person. I also confirm that the contentsof the report and the views contained therein have been discussed anddeliberated with the Faculty Guide.Signature of the Student :Name of the Student : SUNAM PALRegistration Number : 10PG (J) 45
  • 3. Master of Business Administration: Jan.2010 – 2012 Term – IV: Industry Internship Programme (IIP) Certificate This is to certify that Mr. SUNAM PAL, Regn. No 10PG(J)45 hascompleted the Report entitled “Quality Control,Kaizen & 5S in Silica Plant”under my guidance for the partial fulfilment of the Course: IndustryInternship Programme (IIP) in Term – IV of the Post Graduate Programme inManagement (Batch: Jan. 2010 – 2012).Signature of Faculty Guide :Name of the Faculty Guide : Dr. Prasanna Mohan Raj M
  • 4. Master of Business Administration: Jan.2010 – 2012 Term – IV: Industry Internship Programme (IIP) ACKNOWELDGEMENTI am very much thankful to my college for giving me a firm base in statisticaltools/techniques that helped a lot during my project.I would like to thank Mr. R K Jha,Senior General Manager (Production), kOCL INDIA LTD-Refractory Division Division, Bangalore for giving me theopportunity to do my project at OCL INDIA LTD. I would also like toacknowledge his support and prudent guidance during the course of myproject.I would also like to thank Dr. Prasanna Mohan Raj M, Alliance BusinessSchool who as my Faculty Guide has always motivated me to put my best footforward by setting high standards for me.I am thankful to Dr. Madhumita GM ( Area Chair Person in GeneralManagement), whose class has not only given me an idea about quantitaiveability but to make business opertional stratigies in an efficient way.I am also thankful to Ms. Usha Rani (Chief Placement Officer) & ProfShekar V ( Chairperson of IDC) , for giving an opportunity to carry on withsuch industrial learning during the course.I am also thankful to my parents for giving me emmense support &encouragement by sharing their own work experience that led a foundtion totackle corporate challenges.Finally, I thank all the other executives and my fellow trainees who sharedvaluable information and insightsName of the Student : SUNAM PALRegistration Number : 10PG (J) 45
  • 5. Contents1.Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................... 10 1.1 OVERVIEW OF QUALITY CONTROL done in OCL .................................................................. 10 CHAMBER KILN: ........................................................................................................................... 10 EXPANSION PROBABILITY : ........................................................................................................... 10 APPARENT POSROSITY & BULK DENSITY ....................................................................................... 11 EXCEL SHEET SIMULATION ............................................................................................................ 11 1.2 KAIZEN & 5S suggested ...................................................................................................... 11 PICTORIAL LAYOUTS ..................................................................................................................... 112.Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 12 2.1 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................. 12 2.1.1 ABOUT OCL .......................................................................................................................... 12 2.1.1.1 CEMENT:........................................................................................................................... 12 2.1.1.2 REFRACTORY..................................................................................................................... 12 2.1.1.3 SPONGE IRON ................................................................................................................... 12 2.1.1.4 IRON & STEEL .................................................................................................................... 13 2.1.2 EXECUTIVES & BORAD MEMBERS ......................................................................................... 13 DIRECTORS ............................................................................................................................... 13 PRESIDENT ............................................................................................................................... 13 2.1.3 VISION ................................................................................................................................. 13 2.1.4 MISSION .............................................................................................................................. 13 2.1.5 Quality Policy....................................................................................................................... 14 2.1.6 Safety Policy ........................................................................................................................ 14 2.1.7 Certification ......................................................................................................................... 14 2.1.8 AWARDS & RECOGNITION .................................................................................................... 15 2.1.8 Corporate Social Responsibility ............................................................................................ 15 EDUCATION .............................................................................................................................. 15 DRINKING WATER..................................................................................................................... 16 HEALTH .................................................................................................................................... 16 GAMES & SPORTS ..................................................................................................................... 17 COMMUNITY DVELOPMENT/DONATION/CHARITY .................................................................... 17 2.1.9 Summary of expenses incurred ............................................................................................ 18 2.2 SWOT ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................... 18 2.2.1 STRENGTH ........................................................................................................................... 18 2.2.2 WEAKNESS .......................................................................................................................... 19
  • 6. 2.2.3 OPPORTUNITY ..................................................................................................................... 19 2.2.4 THREAT ............................................................................................................................... 19 2.3 Company overview ................................................................................................................. 19 2.3.1 ABOUT REFRACTORY............................................................................................................ 19 2.3.2 MILESTONES YEAR WISE....................................................................................................... 20 2.3.3 REFRACTORY CAPACITY ........................................................................................................ 21 2.3.4 GLOBALIZATION................................................................................................................... 21 2.3.5 PRODUCTS ........................................................................................................................... 22 2.3.5.1 Iron & Steel Making .......................................................................................................... 22 2.3.5.1 Non Ferrous ...................................................................................................................... 22 2.3.5.1 Glass ................................................................................................................................. 23 2.3.5.1 Hydrocaron ....................................................................................................................... 23 2.3.5.1 Cement ............................................................................................................................. 23 2.3.6 FEW MAJOR PRODUCTS STUDIED ......................................................................................... 23 2.3.6.1 COKE OVEN ....................................................................................................................... 23 2.3.6.2 BLAST FURNANE STOVE ..................................................................................................... 24 2.3.6.3 GLASS MELTING TANK ....................................................................................................... 24 2.3.6.4 BOF/LD Convertor ............................................................................................................. 25 2.3.6.5 MELTING & HOLDING FURNANCE ...................................................................................... 26 2.3.6.6 LF/VD & VAD .................................................................................................................... 27 2.3.6.7 QSL REACTOR .................................................................................................................... 27 2.3.6.8 REGENERATOR .................................................................................................................. 28 2.4. SILICA PLANT OVERVIEW........................................................................................................ 28 2.4.1 Silica Plant Operational Process Flow ................................................................................... 293.1 PROJECT PROFILE ....................................................................................................................... 31 3.1 Objectives of the Study ........................................................................................................... 31 3.2 Project Type & Tools ............................................................................................................... 31  Production Operation Management .................................................................................. 31 3.3 Target..................................................................................................................................... 31 3.4 Sources of data:- ..................................................................................................................... 31 3.4.1 Primary data: ................................................................................................................... 31 3.4.2 Secondary data: ............................................................................................................... 32 3.4.3 Sample design:- ................................................................................................................... 32 3.4.4 Sample size:-........................................................................................................................ 32 3.5 Details Of Work ...................................................................................................................... 32 Page 5
  • 7. 3.5. 1 Initial Training :- ............................................................................................................. 32 3.5. 2 Office Work :....................................................................................................................... 33 3.5.3 Intial Onsite Work :- ............................................................................................................. 33 3.6 Working Hierarchy Model ....................................................................................................... 33 3.7 Pyramid of Problem Approach ................................................................................................ 343.2 Application to Company ............................................................................................................. 35 3.2.1 Application of quality control: .............................................................................................. 35 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:1 ( CHAMBER KILN) .............................................................................. 35 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:2 ( CHECKING)...................................................................................... 37 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:3 ( PRESS MACHINE) ............................................................................ 38 3.2.1 Application of Kaizen,Safety & 5S: ........................................................................................ 384.1 QUALITY CONTROL ..................................................................................................................... 40 4.1.1Quality control ..................................................................................................................... 40 4.1.2 Total quality control............................................................................................................. 40 4.1.3 Quality control in project management ................................................................................ 404.2 EXPANSION % of bricks ............................................................................................................... 40 4.2.1 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 40 Arithmetic mean (AM) .............................................................................................................. 41 4.2.2 OBSERVATION ..................................................................................................................... 42 BOX PLOT DIAGRAM .................................................................................................................... 43 4.2.3 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 46 4.2.4 Interpretation ...................................................................................................................... 49 Hozizontal expansion ................................................................................................................... 49 Vertical expansion ........................................................................................................................ 50 4.2.5 OVERALL FINDINGS .............................................................................................................. 50 4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION .............................................................................................................. 51 4.2.5 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 515.3 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION ....................................................................................................... 52 5.3.1 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 52 NORMAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION .......................................................................................... 52 BINOMIAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION ........................................................................................ 52 Probability mass function ......................................................................................................... 53 Mean and variance ....................................................................................................................... 54 Mode and median ........................................................................................................................ 55 Covariance between two binomials .............................................................................................. 55 Page 6
  • 8. 5.3.2 OBSERVATION ..................................................................................................................... 56 5.3.3 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 58 5.3.4 Interpretation ...................................................................................................................... 60 5.3.5 OVERALL FINDINGS .............................................................................................................. 60 4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION .............................................................................................................. 60 4.2.5 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 605.3 Apparent Posrosity Versus Bulk Density ...................................................................................... 61 5.3.1 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 61 5.3.2OBSER VATION ..................................................................................................................... 64 5.3.3 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 65 5.3.3.1 DERIVATION ..................................................................................................................... 65 5.3.4 Interpretation ...................................................................................................................... 66 Apparent Porosity is inversely related to burnt Bulk Density. ........................................................ 66 5.3.5 FINDINGS............................................................................................................................. 67 4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION .............................................................................................................. 67 4.2.5 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 684.1 KAIZEN ....................................................................................................................................... 704.2 5S .............................................................................................................................................. 71 4.2.1 Phases of 5S......................................................................................................................... 71 Sorting (Seiri) ............................................................................................................................... 71 Straightening or setting in order / stabilize (Seiton) ....................................................................... 71 Sweeping or shining or cleanliness / systematic cleaning (Seiso) .................................................... 71 Standardizing (Seiketsu) ............................................................................................................... 71 Sustaining the discipline or self-discipline (Shitsuke) ..................................................................... 724.3 Safety ........................................................................................................................................ 724.4 Security ...................................................................................................................................... 724.5 SMALL IMPROVEMENT & SAFETY................................................................................................ 72 5.5.1 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 72 DRAWING LAYOUT ....................................................................................................................... 73 5.3.2 Observation ......................................................................................................................... 73 5.3.3 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 74 5.3.4 INTERPRETATION ................................................................................................................. 74 5.3.5 KEY FINDINGS ...................................................................................................................... 75 5.3.6 RECCOMENDATION .............................................................................................................. 75 5.3.7 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 76 Page 7
  • 9. 6.EXCEL SIMULATION TOOL .............................................................................................................. 78 6.1 Tool-1 ..................................................................................................................................... 78 6. 2 Tool-2 .................................................................................................................................... 79 6.3 Tool-3 ..................................................................................................................................... 80 6.4 Tool-4 ..................................................................................................................................... 81 6.5 Tool-5 ..................................................................................................................................... 82 6.6 Tool-6 ..................................................................................................................................... 827.PICTORIAL RECCOMENDATION ...................................................................................................... 84 7.1 Suggestion 1: .......................................................................................................................... 84 7.2 Suggestion 2: .......................................................................................................................... 84 7.3 Suggestion 3: .......................................................................................................................... 85 7.4 Suggestion 4: .......................................................................................................................... 85 7.5 Suggestion 5: .......................................................................................................................... 86 7.6 Suggestion 6: 7.7 Suggestion 7:........................................................ 86 7.8 Suggestion 8: .......................................................................................................................... 87 7.9 Suggestion 9: .......................................................................................................................... 87 7.10 Suggestion 10: ...................................................................................................................... 88 7.11 Suggestion 11: ...................................................................................................................... 88 7.12 Suggestion 12: ...................................................................................................................... 89 7.13 Suggestion 13: ...................................................................................................................... 898. LEARNING OUTCOME: .................................................................................................................. 90 8.1 QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT: .................................................................................................. 90 8.2 KAIZEN,5S & SAFETY PROJECT ................................................................................................. 90APPENDIX-1 ..................................................................................................................................... 91 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION ......................................................................................................... 91APPENDIX-2 ..................................................................................................................................... 92 EXPANSION % LAYER WISE ........................................................................................................... 92APPENDIX-3 ..................................................................................................................................... 93 AP-BD table.................................................................................................................................. 93APPENDIX-4 ..................................................................................................................................... 98 Brick Expansion % Data ................................................................................................................ 98APPENDIX-5 ..................................................................................................................................... 99 Box Plot diagram of Expansion % Data .......................................................................................... 99APPENDIX-6 ................................................................................................................................... 100 Stock Data:................................................................................................................................. 100 Page 8
  • 10. APPENDIX-7 ................................................................................................................................... 101 A7.1 TOTAL ASSETS of OCL ( 2007,2008,2009) ............................................................................. 101 A7.2 DEBT & NET WORTH of OCL ( 2007,2008,2009) .................................................................... 101APPENDIX-8 ................................................................................................................................... 102 A8.1CREDIT RISK ........................................................................................................................ 102 A8.2 TOTAL LIABILILTIES ............................................................................................................. 102APPENDIX-9 ................................................................................................................................... 103 A9.1 TOTAL INCOME................................................................................................................... 103 A9.2 TOTAL EXPENDITURE .......................................................................................................... 103APPENDIX-10 ................................................................................................................................. 104 A10.1 OPERATING PROFIT .......................................................................................................... 104 A10.2 PROFIT AFTER TAX ............................................................................................................ 104GLOSSARY & ABBREVIATION .......................................................................................................... 105BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................................... 106 Page 9
  • 11. 1.Executive Summary The Project was focused on quality control using various statistical tool/techniques. 1.1 OVERVIEW OF QUALITY CONTROL done in OCLCHAMBER KILN:OCL Silica Refractory has 8 kilns.Eack Kiln has 22 to 28 chambers. Again each chamber has4 benches (A,B,C,D) across length & 5 layers ( Top,4th,Middle,2nd,Bottom) across height. Experiemntally it was found that the bricks size within the same chamber of a kiln differedacross length & height.Position of bricks inside a kiln mattered a lot.So a very microscopicobsevation was done using statistical tools & techniques. For this experiment 2700 raw data ofbricks were taken.It was an assumption that the bricks inside the kiln expanded by 4.2% after firing. So ourmotive was to observe if the assumption was accurate & how the bricks expanded at verymicrossopic level.Following were the findings & observation.  Expansion of silica bricks at Macroscopic level at various physical Parameters.  Expansion of silica bricks & heat phenemenon at horizontal & vertical direction inside a kiln  Expansion of bricks in each benches inside the kiln.  Expansion of bricks in each layers inside the kiln.EXPANSION PROBABILITY : Not only bricks expansion was different across different physical parameters but at thesame parameter the probability that the bricks expanded to a defined level varied.Many timesit deviated from its expected size. So probability distribution was done to estimate theoccurence of various sized bricks.Following were the findings & observation.  Probability distribution of expansion of bricks to a defined size  Probaility of deviation  Probability that a particular lot failed to pass. Page 10
  • 12. APPARENT POSROSITY & BULK DENSITYIt is important to know apparent porosity needed for a particular green bulk density.Orders areplaced in terms of maximum apparent posrosity.So it is importnat to know, what should bethe pressure applied by the press machine to maintain a proper bulk density, keeping in mindthe expansion factor & moisture loss due to which density reduces.Following were the findings & observation.  Relation between AP & Burnt BD  Relation between AP & Green BD  Relation between Burnt BD & Green BDEXCEL SHEET SIMULATION It has been developed to make observation user friendly and flexible in case of anychange of situation and it will be of immense help to our company.1.2 KAIZEN & 5S suggested Small stratigic improvement & safety is an important concern for any company. IMPROVEMENT Following were the findings & observation.  Designing layouts of plant,roads & machinery  What Operational startigies can be implemented  Safety precautions  Optimization of paths & tracks  Housekeeping  Prioritizing the task  Kiln operation SAFETY Following were the findings & observation.  Trolley safety  Mixer Bucket pulling  Chair Car safety  Road safety  Plant Safety  Disaster ManagementPICTORIAL LAYOUTS It has been developed to make observation user friendly to lay man for whomunderstanding technical terms becomes difficult Page 11
  • 13. 2.Introduction2.1 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW OCL INDIA LTD OCL Refractor Cement Sponge yryct Iron2.1.1 ABOUT OCLOCL INDIA LIMITED, formerly "Orissa Cement Limited" and better known as "OCL",2.1.1.1 CEMENT:Itwas established in the year 1949, which started producing Cement through wetprocess technology under the brand name of "Konark". Keeping a steady progress withtime and technology it has modernized to fully automated dry process plant in 1988. OCLcommands the position of market leadership in the state of Orissa since its inception andtoday it is the premier lead brand in the state of Orissa. ‘Konark brand cement enjoysbrand advantage in the region. It is a name cemented to Quality.2.1.1.2 REFRACTORYOCL diversified from Cement to the field of Refractories in 1954. Over the years, it hasbecome one of the largest and well-equipped state of the art Refractory plant in Indiacovering a wide range of products for use in the Ferrous & the non-ferrous Industries. Itscustomer base spreads from iron and steel to cement, aluminum, glass, copper, chemicalsand hydrocarbon industries. Today, OCL enjoys a huge market share in India and overseasextending to five continents across the globe.2.1.1.3 SPONGE IRONDuring the year 2001-02 OCL diversified its activities into Sponge Iron and now forayedfurther into Steel making. In line with this vision, the Company has already installed aCaptive Power plant and is going to commission 0.25 million tons steel billet plant. Page 12
  • 14. 2.1.1.4 IRON & STEELOCL, as per scheme of arrangement approved by the honourable High Court of Orissademerged its Steel undertaking and Real Estate undertaking by transferring the assetsand liabilities as on 1st January 2007 into “OCL Iron and Steel Ltd.” and“Landmark Property Development Company Ltd(formerly Konark Minerals Ltd.)”respectively. The scheme of arrangement also involved merger of the business of Dalmia Cement(Meghalaya) Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Ltd, as on 1stJuly 2007 with the approval of the honourable Court of Guwahati. OCL is a globally focussed organization with presence in key areas of infrastructure development. With its range of product and strong R & D orientation it enjoys a strong customer and brand loyalty.2.2 Refractory Overview2.1.2 EXECUTIVES & BORAD MEMBERSDIRECTORS  Shri Pradip Kumar Khaitan (Chairman)  Shri V.D. Jhunjhunwala  Shri D.N. Davar  Shri Puneet Dalmia  Dr. Ramesh C. Vaish  Dr. S.R. Jain  Shri V.P. Sood (Whole time Director & CEO)PRESIDENT ;Shri M.H. Dalmia2.1.3 VISION » Grow profitably with commitment to customer satisfaction » Strive for excellence » Be in chosen areas » Continuously develop a committed team of people » Build good corporate image & high customer esteem » Endeavour to serve society2.1.4 MISSION » OCL is in the business of Cement and Refractories. These will continue to be our prime business focus areas We shall strive to improve our image in the eyes of all stakeholders - present and » potential » We shall endeavour to build a vibrant and responsive organization with a team of motivated people driving for excellence, achievement and high performance » We will create conditions and climate for empowerment through enhancement of Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills with emphasis on multiskilling Page 13
  • 15. 2.1.5 Quality PolicyOCL, believes and aim at Total Quality in their products and services to satisfy Customers,and are committed to: » Adhere strictly to quality parameters at all stages to provide products / services conforming to customer requirements » Meet Requirements of Quality management System and strive to continually improve its effectiveness » Develop competent human resource through planned training Establish Quality Objectives and review periodically to achieve continual » improvement2.1.6 Safety PolicyOCL INDIA LIMITED considers all its employees as primary asset and attaches utmostimportance to their safety and health. To promote safety & health in all its factories andmines, the company makes all possible efforts and will continue to do so by which safetyand health of all its employees will be ensured. TThey are committed to: » Consider eliminating safety and health hazard while planning, designing and adopting any process or system » Select and deploy plant machinery which are safe and free of hazard Maintain and upgrade the facilities and operations to ensure safety on continuous » basis » Provide the knowledge & necessary skills to employees, contractors & other agency through planned training & awareness programs » Periodically review safety & health performance to achieve continual improvements thereon » Implement & abide by all statutory rules & regulations » Make available adequate resource for promotion of safety and health » Review the policy periodically and revise as necessary2.1.7 Certification  ISO 9001:2008 ( Quality Management System)  ISO 14001:2004 ( Environment )  ISO 18001:2007 ( Occupational Health and Safety Assement Series) Page 14
  • 16. 2.1.8 AWARDS & RECOGNITION  In 2007-08 the Quality circle UTPADAN of Cement Division bagged Silver Medal Award in International convention of Quality circle held in BEIJING, CHINA.  The Quality Circle ANVESHAN of Cement Division was awarded Par Excellent Presentation Award in CCQC held at Rourkela  Achieved Excellent Award in National convention of Quality Circle held in Kolkata for their case study presentation during the year 2007-08.  In 2007-08 one of the Company’s Quality Circles ‘KAMYAB’ bagged award of Golden Trophy and Gold medal in International Chapter Quality Circle (ICQC) held at Indonesia.  Quality circle “Nirjharani’ was recognized as par excellence and other two QC teams UTPADAN and TALASH were recognized as EXCELLENT in National Chapter Quality Circle(NCQC) at Kanpur.  Engineering personnel won 3 prizes in National Supervisory competition organized by IIPM, Khansbahal.2.1.8 Corporate Social ResponsibilityIn its 57 years of untiring service to Nation, OCL has always given priority to communitydevelopment. In its endeavor to uplift the conditions of poor and hapless tribals of thislocality, OCL has undertaken various developmental activities in peripheral areas ofRajgangpur and Lanjiberna. The activities are mainly focused on areas like Health,Education, Drinking Water, Games and Sports etc. Some of the major activities undertakenduring last three years are given below : EDUCATION» Constructed one big hall and made drinking water supply arrangement in Gopabandhu High School, Rajgangpur» Constructed boundary wall of Primary School in village Kunmuru» Constructed boundary wall and an additional room in Jampali High School» Continuing Literacy programs in different villages» Renovated school building of Bastia M E School, I T Colony, Rajgangpur» Donated Rs. 1,00,000/- to Saraswati Sishu Mandir for construction of school building in Rajgangpur» Repaired school building in Saliameta and Kheramuta, Lanjiberna» Repaired roof of Nodal U P School in Lanjiberna Page 15
  • 17. » Renovated the school building of Municipal Gandhi Girl’s High School, Rajgangpur» Constructed three new rooms and supplied desk and bench for students in M E School, Teleimunda» Renovated the school building of Santa Devi High School, Khatang» Made drinking water supply arrangement in Lanjiberna Shramik High School, Lanjiberna» Repaired the school play ground in Ramabahal» Making payment of salary to four adhoc teachers in Lanjiberna Shramik High School, LanjibernaDRINKING WATER» Sunk 44 Tube wells in Rajgangpur, Lanjiberna and its surrounding villages» Repaired 7 Tube wells in Lanjiberna» Supplying water to five villages in Lanjiberna for irrigation» Arranged drinking water supply system in the premises of Bar Association, Rajgangpur» Donated Rs.17,000/- on behalf of villagers of Khatang to Village Water and Sanitation Committee for arranging drinking water facility under “Sajal Dhara Scheme’ of Govt. of Orissa» Donated Rs.50,000/- on behalf of villagers of Dharuda (Kukuda GP) to Village Water and Sanitation Committee for arranging drinking water facility under “Sajal Dhara Scheme’ of Govt. of OrissaHEALTH» Providing medical facilities including supply of medicine to villagers in Lanjiberna from OCL Dispensary» Providing ambulance for shifting serious patients to nearby hospitals in Rajgangpur and Lanjiberna» Operating charitable homoeopathic dispensary in Rajgangpur and Lanjiberna» Carried out renovation work in RGP. Govt. Hospital, planted neem trees, arranged water supply system, constructed additional toilets etc.» Provided financial assistance to Bharatiya Jana Seva Sansthan, New Delhi for running a charitable dispensary at Sonakhan» Operating mobile health unit (homeopathic) in different villages in Rajgangpur and Lanjiberna Page 16
  • 18. » Operating one mobile health unit (allopathic) for senior citizens through “Help Age-India” in different villages of Jagatsinghpur» Organised health check-up camp for villagers in Lanjiberna» Organised Eye, E & T and Dental Camp in Rajgangpur» Organised awareness program on “Maleria, Dengu and Chikungunia” and distributed 300 mosquito nets to villagers in LanjibernaGAMES & SPORTS» Conducted Inter-village Dalmia Cup Football and Hockey Tournament» Providing games materials like football, volley ball, hockey sticks etc to villagersCOMMUNITYDVELOPMENT/DONATION/CHARITY» Operating ‘SWAYAMPRABHA”, a tailoring centre for providing training to poor women and providing swing machine free of cost in Lanjiberna» Provided electricity in two villages i.e, Bihabandha Rehabilitated Colony and Tungritoli in Lanjiberna» Provided financial assistance to Bharatiya Jana Seva Sansthan, New Delhi for implementing Gram Mangla Yogna in 50 villages in Rajgangpur & Lanjiberna» Distributed 500 blankets to old and poor people in Rajgangpur and Lanjiberna» Donated Rs. 19,00,000/- to District Peripheral Development Committee for undertaking various developmental activities in the District» Donated Rs. 3,50,000/- to “HOPE” for construction of school building for mentally retarded children in Rajgangpur» Donated Rs. 31,00,000/- for construction of “Community Kalyan Mandap” in Rajgangpur Page 17
  • 19. 2.1.9 Summary of expenses incurredUnder different heads during 2004-05 and 2005-06 aregiven below : AREA 2004-05 2005-06 2007-08 EDUCATION RS. 7,60,320.00 RS. 7,60,320.00 RS. 9,90,347.00 DRINKING WATER RS. 11,51,509.00 RS. 8,95,309.00 RS. 1,69,301.00 HEALTH RS. 6,35,000.00 RS. 13,52,984.00 RS. 15,76,002.00 GAMES & SPORTS RS. 20,845.00 RS. 54,000.00 RS. 76,760.00 CHARITY & DONATIONS RS. 13,58,537.00 RS. 46,15,540.00 RS. 11,81,725.00 TOTAL RS. 39,26,211.00 RS. 73,80,325.00 RS. 39,94,135.00Besides, OCL has also donated generously to Prime Minister’s and Chief Minister’s ReliefFund when natural calamities like cyclone, flood etc struck the Nation.OCL pledges to continue its endeavor in the above direction more vigorously in future.2.2 SWOT ANALYSIS2.2.1 STRENGTH  OCL cement factory produces its brand Konark cement which has exceeded so much of its order that, today this factory has more order than what actually it can produce. Customers are having more demand than its capacity. Demand > Supply.  OCL Refractory produces the best quality products all over Asia. On the basis of quality rating its Ranked – 1 and there is no company which can bid OCL in eastern world.  Rapid industrialization at Jharsuguda ( 55 Km) from OCL and other industrial places like Jamashedpur,Rourkela,bilaspur,durg,Raipur,Raigarh,Durgapur,Bokaro by companies like RSP,L&T,VEDANTA,Bhusan Steel,MCL,Birla cement,Jindal,Tata will create more demands. Page 18
  • 20. 2.2.2 WEAKNESS  Though the quality of refractory products is good, the cost of product is very high. Though other companies have managed to reduce the overall price but OCL refractory has not shown much interest on it  OCL sponge iron has not been very contributing and needs to improve its quality.2.2.3 OPPORTUNITY  VEDANTA, OCL, Rourkela Steel plant are in a continuous process of recycling the products. The by-product of one company is a raw material for other company.  Profit and turnover has increased over period of time. Orders have increased to such extent that OCL cement factory is coming up with a new plant as cement factory line- 2, that will enhance the productivity of company and meet its emerging customers.  Refractory’s high quality bricks & silica will be the major point of target to countries like Japan, Korea as they are in scarce of this product. Moreover its competitor in Germany, is far distant from Japan than India which reduces the transportation cost of good from India to Japan rather than Germany to Japan.2.2.4 THREAT  The Refractory companies of china are coming up with same products at very cheaper rates. Their product is more subjective to alteration.  Refractory at Belpahar of TATA industries is located very near to it which is more automated than OCL’s manual production.  Its competitors in Germany also targets the same type of market , controlling half of the globe like Europe,Africa,America thus creating hindrance to OCL to go for globalization in western countries.2.3 Company overview2.3.1 ABOUT REFRACTORYOCL diversified from Cement to the field of Refractories in 1954. Over the years, it hasbecome one of the largest and state of the art Refractory plants in India with an annualcapacity of 80,000 Mt, covering a wide range of products for use in the ferrous & the non-ferrous Industries. Page 19
  • 21. The initial technical know how came from M/S Dr.C.Otto of Germany for Coke Oven Silicabricks and from M/S TYK Corporation of Japan for Magnesia-Carbon, Alumina-Mag-Carbon,Alumina-Silicon Carbide-Carbon, Concast Refractories, Lance-pipe, Precast, Purging Plug, &BF Runner castables. All the other products were developed in-house. To keep pace withever-growing expectation of customers for quality Refractories, our highly experienced &well-equipped technology & research teams upgrade these on a continuous basis. Withintensive R&D efforts, OCL has registered a number of patents to its credit.OCL happens to be the first Refractory Company in India to be certified under ISO 9001, byRWTUV of Germany in 1994, now updated to 2000 version for all range of its products.OCL is a globally focussed organization with a large range of product and strong R & Dorientation towards its customer both in product and in services. It has a long-term visionto emerge as a globally accepted refractory solution provider.2.3.2 MILESTONES YEAR WISE YEAR MILESTONES 1949 Established as Orissa Cement Limited 1954 Diversified into refractories 1956 Commissioning of firebricks plant 1958 Commissioning of silica plant 1959 Commissioning of burnt basic brick plant 1962 Manufacture of chemically bonded basic bricks 1963 Manufacture of coke oven silica 1972 Expansion of silica plant 1986 Manufacture of MG-C brick 1986 Manufacture of slide plate 1992 Commissioning of concast plant 1992 Commissioning of castable & precast plant 1992 Export of silica bricks 1994 ISO 9001 certification 1997 Further expansion of silica plant 1999 Manufacture of directional purging element 2000 Modernisation of concast plant 2001 Modernisation of castable & precast plant 2004 Further modernisation of concast started 2005 Modernisation of concast plant in process Page 20
  • 22. 2.3.3 REFRACTORY CAPACITY PRODUCTION CAPACITYSILICA BRICKS 30,000 MT / YRBASIC BURNT BRICKS 22,000 MT / YRMAGNESIA CARBON BRICKS 8,000 MT / YRFIRECLAY & HIGH ALUMINA BRICKS 25,000 MT / YRCONTINUOUS CASTING 2,000 MT / YRSLIDE GATE REFRACTORIES 2,000CASTABLES & PRECAST BLOCKS 11,000 MT / YRBASIC, SILICA & HIGH ALUMINA 6,400 MT / YRRAMMING MASSES / MORTARS TOTAL 106,400 MT / YR2.3.4 GLOBALIZATIONOCL is among the market leaders & undisputedly, one of the best in world in the segment ofSilica bricks for Coke ovens & Blast Furnace stoves having extraordinary supply referencesall through the globe. With aggressive thrust on the exports of special Refractories likeContinuos casting, Slide plates & Purging Refractories for the Steel Sector, Direct bondedMag-Chrome bricks for the Copper and Fireclay & High Alumina bricks for the AluminumIndustries, it enjoys clientele of reputed overseas customers.OCL is reckoned to be in the big league of reputed refractory suppliers in the world market.OCL refractories has been used in the largest Steel plants & other non-ferrous plants inCanada, USA, Brazil, UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Hungary, Spain, Italy, Turkey, Japan,South Korea, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, Egypt, Kenya, SouthAfrica, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, Iran, UAE, Kuwait, Pakistan, Bangladesh, SriLanka & many more. Page 21
  • 23. 2.3.5 PRODUCTSOCL refractory has various products mainly classified in to 5 categories PRODUCT CATEGORY IRON & NON GLASS HYDROCA CEMENT STEEL FERROUS RBON MAKING2.3.5.1 Iron & Steel Making  Coke Oven  Sponge/DRI  Blast Furnance  Hot Metal Transport  Hot Metal Mixer  Ladles  BOF/LD Convertor  Electric Arc Convertor  Slide Gate Category2.3.5.1 Non Ferrous  Aluminium o Anode Baking Furnance o Melting & Holding Furnance  Copper Industries o Flash Smeltor o ISA Smeltor o Flash Convertor o Noranda Reactor o Reverberatory Furnance o Top Blown Roatary convertor o RS Convertor o TEINITE Convertor o Slag Cleaning Furnance o Anode Converter Page 22
  • 24.  NICKEL,ZINC & LEAD o Lead Roatart Furnance o QSL Reactor o KIVCET Proces2.3.5.1 Glass  Glass melting tank  Glass regenerator2.3.5.1 Hydrocaron2.3.5.1 Cement2.3.6 FEW MAJOR PRODUCTS STUDIED2.3.6.1 COKE OVENOCL through its initial know-how from Dr. C. OTTO and subsequent intensive R&D effortshas established itself as a leading silica coke oven manufacturer in the world. With itsinstalled capacity of 30000Tons/year OCL has to its credit an impressive list of supplyreferences for Coke Oven, both in domestic and overseas markets. With its wide experienceOCL can supply silica refractories to all international specifications such as DIN, JIS, BS, NSCand also all international designs.The special features of OCL silica bricks for Coke Oven are : • Low residual quartz • Low creep • Consistent thermal expansion characteristics • High hot strength • Low statistical variation in property data ensured by quality assurance system • High dimensional accuracy enabling accurate and fast construction. Page 23
  • 25. 2.3.6.2 BLAST FURNANE STOVEWith its initial experience in manufacturing silica bricks for coke oven, OCL developedworld class silica bricks for heavy duty Blast Furnace Stoves. Winning the confidence ofworld known stove designers like DCE, DME, Siemen-VAI, NSC. OCL has supplied silica, fireclay and high alumina refractories for a number of projects worldwide. OCL India has experience of over four decades for the manufacture of High DutySilica bricks having very low flux factor & residual quartz.OCL has received wideappreciation from overseas customers for timely delivery, god packing and dimensionalaccuracy of the product.2.3.6.3 GLASS MELTING TANKGlass melting furnaces, particularly of high pulling rate, are lined with various high qualityrefractories.Most glass manufacturers have been preferring super duty Silica Bricks for thecrown because crown constructed with Super Duty Silica Bricks can be insulated, resultingin saving of 10-12% input energy.The advantage of Super Duty Silica bricks overconventional quality is due to its low Alumina, Titania & Alkali content, its high P.C.E. value,high resistance to penetration of Alkali vapour encountered during furnace operation &volume stability at furnace operating temperature.OCL India has experience of over four decades for the manufacture of High Duty Silicabricks having very low flux factor & residual quartz.These bricks are having very highrefractoriness under load & shows excellent volume stability at service temperature.OCLs Silica insulating bricks have very low thermal conductivity which results in excellentthermal insulation. Page 24
  • 26. 2.3.6.4 BOF/LD ConvertorNew LiningDifferent quality Magnesia carbon bricks with improved carbon bonding and having specialcharacteristics as regard to corrosion resistance, erosion resistance, oxidation resistanceand thermal shock resistance are used in different zones for balanced/ uniform erosion andcost effective lining.MaintenanceTailor made gunning material and hot patching mass is applied for prevention as well asrepair maintenance of BOFs. The characteristics of these materials are-- » Gunning Mass » Easy steakability with low rebound loss and high corrosion and erosion resistance » Hot patching Mass » High flowability, steakability, corrosion and erosion resistance » Tap Hole Sleeve Assembly • Characterised by excellent corrosion, abrasion and thermal shock resistance • Available in single piece made by CIP and also in segmented assembled form • Produce different designs of Tap hole sleeve assembly as per customers’ requirement » Tap Hole Fixing Mass Magnesia ramming mass is applied in between Tap hole block and tap hole sleeves by very high purity gunning material having high bonding strength. Our products OC tap ram M95 and OC Tap Ram M95S are specially designed for this purpose Page 25
  • 27. 2.3.6.5 MELTING & HOLDING FURNANCEPRECAST SHAPESThese are tailor-made to different shapes and sizes manufactured as per specific customerrequirement.BURNER BLOCKS (EXCELCAST 70 D)High thermal spalling resistance, corrosion and abrasion resistance and volume stability atthe operating temperature.FLOORING BLOCKS (EXCELCAST 45 A)Precast flooring blocks in variety of sizes and thickness to withstand impact and abuse ofdross handling pots and equipment.Special features • Superior mechanical strength to withstand the load of heavy machinery and equipment movement over it. • Resistant to liquid Aluminum penetration.MONOBLOCK FOR FLUEWALL TOP (EXCELCAST 45N)Superior thermal spalling resistance and high degree of volume stability. Resistant to COdisintegration.CASTABLES Castables are manufactured for varied application in casthouse, holding furnace door and roof etc. Page 26
  • 28. 2.3.6.6 LF/VD & VADZone and Bottom varies with different operating conditions such as LRF, VD and VAD.Magnesia carbon bricks with improved carbon bonding and special characteristics like low cokedporosity, high coked CCS, excellent corrosion, erosion, thermal shock and oxidation resistanceand high hot strength have been developed and given for different zones depending onoperational severity and cost effectiveness.Alumina magnesia carbon bricks having controlled residual expansion are recommended for theMZ and bottom of ladle furnaces to prevent joint erosion and metal penetration. Specially forimpact resistance in striker pad area AMC-3 bricks are preferred.2.3.6.7 QSL REACTORThis is a cylindrical horizontal oxygen reactor where bullion is produced from leadconcentrate. This is a special type of reactor which is characterised by extremely shortmixing time, high turbulence, short reaction time but very high resistance time.Wet or air dry pellets of concentrated flux and flue dust are fed to reactor and drop in to aheterogeneous mixture of molten lead, slag, PbO & charge material where oxygen is blownto form SO2, sulphate content flue dust and PbO and carbothermal reduction of lead oxideslag by means of coal dust.OCL’s direct bonded bricks have excellent resistance to PbO containing slag and SO2. Page 27
  • 29. 2.3.6.8 REGENERATOROCL India has series of products for regenerator in Basic & high Alumina quality. In recentyears, Mag-zir quality is added to its range of product. Mag-zir quality chimney blocks intop course of regenerator shows superior resistance to Silica carry over attack & V2O5attack as the matrix is completely converted to forsterite and enriched with tiny Zirconiagrains. In the middle course of regenerator Mag-zir shows superior resistance to Alkalies,Sulphate attack & deposition as the Magnesite grains are enveloped with tiny Zirconiagrains.2.4. SILICA PLANT OVERVIEWSilica has 3 palnts  Silica-1  Silica-2  Silica-3 Page 28
  • 30. 2.4.1 Silica Plant Operational Process FlowContinued ............Next Page Page 29
  • 31. Page 30
  • 32. 3.1 PROJECT PROFILE3.1 Objectives of the Study 1) Quality Control in chamber kiln. 2) Kaizan,5S & Safety plan inside the the silica plant3.2 Project Type & Tools  Production Operation Management  Statistical Tools: o Regression analysis o Correlation o Probability Distribution o Binomial Probability Distribution o Normal Probability Distribution o Central Tendencies: Mean,Median,Mode,Quartiles o Skewness,Kurtosis,Standard Deviation, Variance o Ranges, Outliers & box plot diagrams  Concepts Applied o Density & weight relationship o Heat phenomenon o Volumetric Expansion of bricks3.3 Target 1. Studying Expansion of bricks 2. Probability distribution of bricks 3. Deriving relationship between porosity & bulk density 4. Kaizen a. Desigining Layouts b. Suggesting techniques c. Safety techniques d. Possible improvement within company3.4 Sources of data:-3.4.1 Primary data: The main source of primary data was recorded from  Observing few samples alone  Attending checking department while checking  Deriving relations scientifically to generate data from given above collected data Page 31
  • 33. 3.4.2 Secondary data: The main source of secondary data was recorded from  Company’s Resorce allocation book  Company’s Monthly bricks Checking records  Slica Brick Failure record  Bricks dimension layout bulletin  Mould house specifications  Laboratory checking results  Advise of experienced & experts3.4.3 Sample design:-  The sample design used for the purpose of the research was randomly taken such that it covered all the kilns, chambers type, bench & layer type.  The sample were taken based on different days & different point of time3.4.4 Sample size:-  For target:1, 2700 data were taken  For target:2, 2700 data were taken  For target:3, 200 data were taken3.5 Details Of Work3.5. 1 Initial Training :- During first week of our internship we went through training in OCL INDIA LTD regarding operation flow & how silica plant functions .In those period we did following thing  At first , We went through the PPT of OCL INDIA LTD which contained some product information and overview of plant.  We anailzed company’s website carefully  After that they gave us brief introduction about their company,plant,machinery,safety measures to be taken and told us some consequence regarding their current operation .  They also shared their some experience with us .  They told us that safety is the main motive and suggested us some tips that how would can be safe Page 32
  • 34. 3.5. 2 Office Work : We had to report twice in office regarding our work , then we had a discussion with OCL’s manager . They try to guide us in perfect manner so whatever mistake we have done so far that will not be committed again and how can we sharply develop ourselves for future . We had to give them regular updates related to our work. 3.5.3 Intial Onsite Work :- We had to start in morning around 8 A.M. , then for a particular day we had to choose particular area (example kiln),then we have to cover there every block to know opertations At first, We had to meet with the person incharge of that operational zone , then we had to introduce ourselves & what was our purpose of visting. After that, we had to meet with manager,executives & workers to undersand the operations better. They gave us only information about company . Sometimes as i predict they couldn’t give the right answer to our query Sometime we used to get appointment with opertational managers/executiuve manager/ to dicuss on any particulr topic. Company which have tied up with ICICI & Syndicate bank , they are not so satisfied, so in that case they want to meet with manager for further discussion of opening a current or salary A/C . 3.6 Working Hierarchy Model Human Resource Senior General Manager Chief Deputy Manager Manager Internship Engineering Management Project vocational Trainee Trainee Trainee Trainee Trainee Page 33
  • 35. 3.7 Pyramid of Problem ApproachIt shows how a client is approached & finally the deal is made in 7 stages. prepare report Excel simulation/pict orial diagrams Derive conclusion,recommend ations Observe & analize the results obtained Apply statistical tools & techniques compare both the data & check if they match Collect primary & secondary data Design the plan & methods Know the problem statement Page 34
  • 36. 3.2 Application to Company3.2.1 Application of quality control:INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:1 ( CHAMBER KILN)Refractory has three types of kiln KILN TUNNEL CHAMBER BELL In this klin the Heat is In this klin the Heat is In this klin the bricks constant & Bricks rotates & Bricks are are static & the kiln move inside the kiln. static the kiln. itself movable. Specifically we did observation for chamber kiln. KILN CHAMBER FB 1 to 24 Kiln-1 1 to 24 Kiln-2 1 to 24 Kiln-3 1 to 22 Kiln-4 1 to 26 Kiln-5 1 to 28 Kiln-6 1 to 28 Kiln-2A 1 to 28 Page 35
  • 37. CHAMBER KILN CHAMBERSOCL Silica Refractory has 8 kilns.Eack Kiln has 22 to 28 chambers. Again each chamber has4 benches (A,B,C,D) across length & 5 layers ( Top,4th,Middle,2nd,Bottom) across height. Experiemntally it was found that the bricks size within the same chamber of a kiln differedacross length & height.Position of bricks inside a kiln mattered a lot.So a very microscopicobsevation was done using statistical tools & techniques. For this experiment 2700 raw data ofbricks were taken.It was an assumption that the bricks inside the kiln expanded by 4.2% after firing. So our motivewas to observe if the assumption was accurate & how the bricks expanded at very microssopiclevel.Following were the findings & observation.  Expansion of silica bricks at Macroscopic level at various physical Parameters.  Expansion of silica bricks & heat phenemenon at horizontal & vertical direction inside a kiln  Expansion of bricks in each benches inside the kiln.  Expansion of bricks in each layers inside the kiln. Page 36
  • 38. CHAMBER LAYOUTTOP layer4th layer Middle layer2nd layer Bottom layer BENCH-A BENCH-B BENCH-C BENCH-D  To check whether Expansion % mean is 4.2  How the expansion differs over benches & Layers. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:2 ( CHECKING) CHECKING PHYSICAL LABORATORY  To know probabilty of failure  Probability of brick size deviating  Probability disribution of occurence of bricks with defined size  Occurence of a particular type out of whole set Page 37
  • 39. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION:3 ( PRESS MACHINE) Apprarnt Posrosity α Bulk Density Density = Weight / Volume Volume reduces increases in Kiln reducing the Bulk Density Weight is lost reducing the Bulk DensityIn PRESS MACHINE It is a very complicated process to detect apparent porosity needed fora particular green bulk density.Orders are placed in terms of maximum apparentposrosity.So its an importnat that what should be the pressure applied by the pressmachine to maintain a proper bulk density, keeping in mind the expansion factor &moisture loss, due to which density reduces.  To Know relation between AP & BD  To know what BD should be maintained for the ordered AP  How BD depends on Expansion % of bricks.3.2.1 Application of Kaizen,Safety & 5S:  To maintain proper house keeping  Proper synergy in factory  Improved quality & efficiency  Maintain Discipine  Advantage at the time of inspection  Give a better feel inside the comapny Page 38
  • 40. QUALITYCONTROL Page 39
  • 41. 4.1 QUALITY CONTROL4.1.1Quality controlIt is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. Thisapproach places an emphasis on three aspects: 1. Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes, performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records 2. Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications 3. Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation, team spirit, and quality relationships.The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects is deficient in any way.Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects, and reporting tomanagement who make the decision to allow or deny the release, whereas qualityassurance attempts to improve and stabilize production, and associated processes, toavoid, or at least minimize, issues that led to the defects in the first place4.1.2 Total quality control"Total quality control" is a measure used in cases where, despite statistical quality controltechniques or quality improvements implemented, sales decrease. If the originalspecification does not reflect the correct quality requirements, quality cannot be inspectedor manufactured into the product. For instance, the parameters for a pressure vesselshould include not only the material and dimensions, but also operating, environmental,safety, reliability and maintainability requirements.4.1.3 Quality control in project managementIn project management, quality control requires the project manager and the project teamto inspect the accomplished work to ensure that its aligned with the project scope. Inpractice, projects typically have a dedicated quality control team which focuses on thisarea.4.2 EXPANSION % of bricks4.2.1 METHODOLOGY  Collecting 2700 raw datas from kiln  Finding Central Tendencies Mean,Mode,Median,Quartiles  Calculating Standard deviation,Variance,Skewness  Calculating Range,Outliers,IQR  Making Box plot Diagram.  Comparative Analysis  Graphical Analysis Page 40
  • 42. Arithmetic mean (AM)Main article: Arithmetic meanThe arithmetic mean is the "standard" average, often simply called the "mean".Quartile:  first quartile (designated Q1) = lower quartile = cuts off lowest 25% of data = 25th percentile  second quartile (designated Q2) = median = cuts data set in half = 50th percentile  third quartile (designated Q3) = upper quartile = cuts off highest 25% of data, or lowest 75% = 75th percentileThe difference between the upper and lower quartiles is called the inter quartile range.There is no universal agreement on choosing the quartile values.The formula for locating the position of the observation at a given percentile, y, with n datapoints sorted in ascending order is:  Case 1: If L is a whole number, then the value will be found halfway between positions L and L+1.  Case 2: If L is a decimal, round to the nearest whole number. (for example, L = 1.2 becomes 1).VarianceIf a random variable X has the expected value (mean) μ = E[X], then the variance of X isgiven by:BOX PLOTBox and whisker plots are uniform in their use of the box: the bottom and top of the box arealways the 25th and 75th percentile (the lower and upper quartiles, respectively), and theband near the middle of the box is always the 50th percentile (the median). But the ends ofthe whiskers can represent several possible alternative values, among them: Page 41
  • 43.  the minimum and maximum of all the data  the lowest datum still within 1.5 IQR of the lower quartile, and the highest datum still within 1.5 IQR of the upper quartile  one standard deviation above and below the mean of the data  the 9th percentile and the 91st percentile  the 2nd percentile and the 98th percentile4.2.2 OBSERVATIONAGGREGATE of ALL BENCHES BENCH-A 4.165504359 Mean 4.1271941Standard Error 0.005251262 Standard Error 0.0127295Median 4.2 Median 4.2Mode 4 Mode 4Standard Deviation 0.257740157 Standard Deviation 0.3620653Sample Variance 0.066429988 Sample Variance 0.1310913Kurtosis -0.36200066 Kurtosis 2.0335368Skewness 0.063940314 Skewness -1.1046595Range 1.3 Range 2.1Minimum 3.6 Minimum 2.8Maximum 4.9 Maximum 4.9Sum 10034.7 Sum 3338.9Count 2409 Count 809Largest(1) 4.9 Largest(1) 4.9Smallest(1) 3.6 Smallest(1) 2.8 Confidence Confidence 0.01029746 0.0249869 Level(95.0%) Level(95.0%)Q1 Mean Q1 4Q2 4.2 Q2 4.2Q3 4.3 Q3 4.4 % distribution % distributionabove 4.2 50% above 4.2 50%Below 4.2 50% Below 4.2 50%b/w 3.55 to 4 25% b/w 3.6 to 4 25%b/w 4 to 4.2 25% b/w 4 to 4.2 25%b/w 4.2 to 4.3 25% b/w 4.2 to 4.4 25%b/w 4.3 to 4.75 25% b/w 4.4 to 5 25%IQR 0.3 IQR 0.4Upper 4.75 Upper 5Lower 3.55 Lower 3.6 Page 42
  • 44. BOX PLOT DIAGRAMAGGREGATE BENCH-A Max Val 5 Upper 5 Upper Max Val 4.75 4.9 Q3 4.3 Q3 4.4 Q2 4.2 Q2 4.2 Q1 4 Q1 4 Lower Lower 3.55 3.6 Min Val Min Val 1.7 2.8 Page 43
  • 45. BENCH-C BENCH-DMean 4.124333 Mean 4.1451852Standard Error 0.012193 Standard Error 0.0096234Median 4.2 Median 4.2Mode 4 Mode 4Standard Deviation 0.365803 Standard Deviation 0.2738866Sample Variance 0.133812 Sample Variance 0.0750139Kurtosis 13.36301 Kurtosis 6.0016874Skewness -2.13153 Skewness -0.94433Range 3.2 Range 2.8Minimum 1.7 Minimum 2.2Maximum 4.9 Maximum 5Sum 3711.9 Sum 3357.6Count 900 Count 810Largest(1) 4.9 Largest(1) 5Smallest(1) 1.7 Smallest(1) 2.2 Confidence Confidence 0.023931 0.0188898 Level(95.0%) Level(95.0%)Q1 4 Q1 0.3164508Q2 4.2 Q2 4.2Q3 4.3 Q3 4.3 % distribution % distributionabove 4.2 50% above 4.2 50%Below 4.2 50% Below 4.2 50%b/w 3.55 to 4 25% b/w 3.55 to 4 25%b/w 4 to 4.2 25% b/w 4 to 4.2 25%b/w 4.2 to 4.3 25% b/w 4.2 to 4.3 25%b/w 4.3 to 4.75 25% b/w 4.3 to 4.75 25%IQR 0.3 IQR 0.3Upper 4.75 Upper 4.75Lower 3.55 Lower 3.55 Page 44
  • 46. BENCH-C BENCH-D Max Val 4.9 Max Val 5 Upper Upper 4.75 4.75 Q3 4.3 Q3 4.3 Q2 4.2 Q2 4.2 Q1 4 Q1 4 Lower Lower 3.55 3.55 Min Val Min Val 1.7 2.2 Page 45
  • 47. 4.2.3 ANALYSIS Bench-A 4.3 4.3 4.254.25 y = -0.075x + 4.347 4.2 4.2 R² = 0.864 4.15 4.1 Top,4.15 4.05 4.283333 4th, 4 333 4.195061 3rd, 4.1 3.95 728 4.138888 3.9 889 2nd, Bottom,4.05 4.018518 3.85 3.966666 3.8 667 519 4 Top 4th3.95 3rd 2nd Bottom 0 1 2 Axis3Title 4 5 6 Bench-C 4.3 4.34.25 4.2 4.2 4.14.15 4th, 4 4.1 Top, 4.2444444 3rd, 2nd, 4.19166664.05 3.9 4.0855555 44 4.1666666 67 56 67 4 y = -0.038x + 4.239 3.8 bottom, 3.93333333.95 R² = 0.248 3.7 33 Top 4th 3.9 3rd 2nd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 bottom Page 46
  • 48. AGGREGATE OF BENCH - A,C & D4.25 4.25 4.2 4.2 y = -0.044x + 4.262 4.154.15 R² = 0.682 4.1 4.05 4.1 4 3.954.05 3.9 3.85 4 Top 4th 3rd 2nd Bottom3.95 Axis Title 0 2 4 6 Bench-D4.35 y = -0.018x + 4.2 4.3 4.3 R² = 0.046 4.254.25 4.2 4.15 4.2 4.14.15 4.05 4 4.1 3.954.05 3.9 3.85 4 3.8 3.753.95 Top 4th 3.9 3rd 2nd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 bottom Page 47
  • 49. Layer-Top Layer-4th 4.3 4.25 4.24 4.25 y = -0.0491x + 4.2828 4.23 4.2 R² = 0.2463 4.22 4.15 4.21 y = 0.0191x + 4.186 R² = 0.5456 4.1 4.2 4.05 4.19 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4Layer-3 Layer-2nd 4.25 4.35 y = 0.1599x + 3.8202 4.2 4.3 R² = 0.9794 4.25 4.15 4.2 4.1 4.15 4.05 4.1 4 y = -0.0926x + 4.2799 R² = 0.549 4.05 3.95 4 3.9 3.95 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Page 48
  • 50. Layer-Bottom Aggregate of All layers 4.08 4.15 4.06 y = 0.0244x + 3.9576 4.145 y = 0.012x + 4.105 R² = 0.1293 R² = 0.863 4.04 4.14 4.02 4.135 4 4.13 3.98 4.125 3.96 3.94 4.12 3.92 4.115 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 4.2.4 Interpretation Hozizontal expansion Bench-A  The expansion is exceptionaly high or low in the 3rd layer of Bench-A. The temperature at 3rd layer vastly differs from its neighbouring layer.Most of the graphs takes a upward or downward turn in this layer. Somewhat 2nd layer also shows same characteristics. Bench-C  The expansion is exceptionaly high or low in the 3rd layer of Bench-B. The temperature at 3rd layer vastly differs from its neighbouring layer.Most of the graphs takes a upward or downward turn in this layer. Somewhat 2nd layer also shows same characteristics. Bench-D  The expansion is exceptionaly low in the 3rd layer of Bench-C. The temperature at 3rd layer vastly differs from its neighbouring layer.Most of the graphs takes a upward or downward turn in this layer. 2nd layers also shows exceptonally high value Page 49
  • 51. Vertical expansion Layer Top: Expansion Max at :C Expansion Min at :A Expansion Average at: D A to C: upward steep slope C to D: Curve U turn shape Layer 4th: Expansion Max at :C Expansion Min at :A Expansion Average at: D A to C: upward steep slope C to D: Curve U turn shape Layer Middle: Expansion Max at :C Expansion Min at :D Expansion Average at: A C to D: Downward steep slope Layer 2nd: Expansion Max at :D Expansion Min at :C Expansion Average at: A A to D: Straight line,steep,upward with slope 0.98 Layer Bottom: Expansion Max at :D Expansion Min at :C Expansion Average at: A A to C: Downward steep slope C to D: Curve U turn shape4.2.5 OVERALL FINDINGS  Expansion is maximum at 4th layer.The expansion gradually increases from top to 4th layer,maintains a flat structure till the 2nd layer .In between curve goes slight down taking a turn in middle( 3rd layer).Curve gradually falls from 2nd layer to bottom layer.  The overall trend is quite similar to the trend of 2nd layer Expansion Max at :bench-D Expansion Min at :bench-C Expansion Average at: bench-A A to C: Downward steep slope C to D: upward steep slope U turn at C Page 50
  • 52. 4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION  The bricks which are very sensitive can be put in the 2nd layer as it is highly predictable.  The bricks at Bench-A also can be predicted to large extent with respect to its distance from ground.  The bricks that require minimum expansion can be placed in bottom layer of bench-A  The bricks that require maximum expansion can be placed in Top layer or 4th layer of bench-D  The bricks which are least sensitive can be put in the bottom layer as it is least predictable.  The bricks at Bench-D should be those to whom high tolerance level is allowed.4.2.5 CONCLUSION  Bricks are highly predictable layer wise in horizontal direction with correlation r>0.8 and thus demosnstrate a stable trend to be followed.  Bricks at vertical direction that is bench wise is very risky while predicting as its trend is very variable with correlation r<0.8  Standard average expansion of bricks is 4.165% Page 51
  • 53. 5.3 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION5.3.1 METHODOLOGY  Collecting 2700 raw datas from kiln  % containt in whole sum  Finding Binomial Probabilty distribution  Finding Normal Distribution  Comparative Analysis  Graphical AnalysisNORMAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONIn probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution, is a continuous probabilitydistribution that is often used as a first approximation to describe real-valued randomvariables that tend to cluster around a single mean value. The graph of the associatedprobability density function is “bell”-shaped, and is known as the Gaussian function or bellcurve:Where parameter μ is the mean (location of the peak) and σ 2 is the variance (the measureof the width of the distribution). The distribution with μ = 0 and σ 2 = 1 is called thestandard normal.BINOMIAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONprobability theory and statistics, the binomial distribution is the discrete probabilitydistribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/noexperiments, each of which yields success with probability p. Such a success/failureexperiment is also called a Bernoulli experiment or Bernoulli trial. In fact, when n = 1, the Page 52
  • 54. binomial distribution is a Bernoulli distribution. The binomial distribution is the basis forthe popular binomial test of statistical significanceProbability mass functionIn general, if the random variable K follows the binomial distribution with parameters nand p, we write K ~ B(n, p). The probability of getting exactly k successes in n trials is givenby the probability mass function:For k = 0, 1, 2, ..., n, whereis the binomial coefficient (hence the name of the distribution) "n choose k", also denotedC(n, k), nCk, or nCk. The formula can be understood as follows: we want k successes (pk) andn − k failures (1 − p)n − k. However, the k successes can occur anywhere among the n trials,and there are C(n, k) different ways of distributing k successes in a sequence of n trials.In creating reference tables for binomial distribution probability, usually the table is filledin up to n/2 values. This is because for k > n/2, the probability can be calculated by itscomplement asSo, one must look to a different k and a different p (the binomial is not symmetrical ingeneral). However, its behavior is not arbitrary. There is always an integer m that satisfiesAs a function of k, the expression ƒ(k; n, p) is monotone increasing for k < m and monotonedecreasing for k > m, with the exception of one case where (n + 1)p is an integer. In thiscase, there are two maximum values for m = (n + 1)p and m − 1. m is known as the mostprobable (most likely) outcome of Bernoulli trials. Note that the probability of it occurringcan be fairly small.The cumulative distribution function can be expressed as:where is the "floor" under x, i.e. the greatest integer less than or equal to x. Page 53
  • 55. It can also be represented in terms of the regularized incomplete beta function, as follows:For k ≤ np, upper bounds for the lower tail of the distribution function can be derived. Inparticular, Hoeffdings inequality yields the boundand Chernoffs inequality can be used to derive the boundMoreover, these bounds are reasonably tight when p = 1/2, since the following expressionholds for all k ≥ 3n/8Mean and varianceIf X ~ B(n, p) (that is, X is a binomially distributed random variable), then the expectedvalue of X isand the variance isThis fact is easily proven as follows. Suppose first that we have a single Bernoulli trial.There are two possible outcomes: 1 and 0, the first occurring with probability p and thesecond having probability 1 − p. The expected value in this trial will be equal to μ = 1 · p +0 · (1−p) = p. The variance in this trial is calculated similarly: σ2 = (1−p)2·p + (0−p)2·(1−p) =p(1 − p).The generic binomial distribution is a sum of n independent Bernoulli trials. The mean andthe variance of such distributions are equal to the sums of means and variances of eachindividual trial: Page 54
  • 56. Mode and medianUsually the mode of a binomial B(n, p) distribution is equal to ⌊(n + 1)p⌋, where ⌊ ⌋ is thefloor function. However when (n + 1)p is an integer and p is neither 0 nor 1, then thedistribution has two modes: (n + 1)p and (n + 1)p − 1. When p is equal to 0 or 1, the modewill be 0 and n correspondingly. These cases can be summarized as follows:In general, there is no single formula to find the median for a binomial distribution, and itmay even be non-unique. However several special results have been established:  If np is an integer, then the mean, median, and mode coincide.  Any median m must lie within the interval ⌊np⌋ ≤ m ≤ ⌈np⌉.  A median m cannot lie too far away from the mean: |m − np| ≤ min{ ln 2, max{p, 1 − p} }.  The median is unique and equal to m = round(np) in cases when either p ≤ 1 − ln 2 or p ≥ ln 2 or |m − np| ≤ min{p, 1 − p} (except for the case when p = ½ and n is odd)  When p = 1/2 and n is odd, any number m in the interval ½(n − 1) ≤ m ≤ ½(n + 1) is a median of the binomial distribution. If p = 1/2 and n is even, then m = n/2 is the unique median.Covariance between two binomialsIf two binomially distributed random variables X and Y are observed together, estimatingtheir covariance can be useful. Using the definition of covariance, in the case n = 1 we haveThe first term is non-zero only when both X and Y are one, and μX and μY are equal to thetwo probabilities. Defining pB as the probability of both happening at the same time, thisgivesand for n such trials again due to independenceIf X and Y are the same variable, this reduces to the variance formula given above. Page 55
  • 57. 5.3.2 OBSERVATION BENCH-A Brick with Numbers Total % Expansion % Found Inspected Found 3.6 27.5 810 3.3951 % 3.8 53 810 6.5432 % 4 225 810 27.778 % 4.2 180 810 22.222 % 4.4 166 810 20.494 % 4.6 89 810 10.988 % 4.8 15.5 810 1.9136 % 5 0.5 810 0.0617 % Total 93.395 % BENCH-C Brick with Numbers Total % Expansion Found Inspected Found % 3.6 40 900 4.444 % 3.8 113 900 12.56 % 4 250.5 900 27.83 % 4.2 217 900 24.11 % 4.4 150 900 16.67 % 4.6 63.5 900 7.056 % 4.8 29.5 900 3.278 % 5 4 900 0.444 % Total 96.39 % Page 56
  • 58. BENCH-D Brick with Numbers Total % Expansion Found Inspected Found %3.6 15 810 1.8519 %3.8 47.5 810 5.8642 %4 230 810 28.395 %4.2 253 810 31.235 %4.4 166 810 20.494 %4.6 46.5 810 5.7407 %4.8 28.5 810 3.5185 %5 3 810 0.3704 % Total 97.469 % Aggregate of Bench-A,C & D Brick with Numbers Total % Expansion Found Inspected Found %3.6 102.5 2520 4.0675 %3.8 228.5 2520 9.0675 %4 704.5 2520 27.956 %4.2 650.5 2520 25.813 %4.4 367.5 2520 14.583 %4.6 204 2520 8.0952 %4.8 78 2520 3.0952 %5 7 2520 0.2778 % Total 92.956 % Page 57
  • 59. 5.3.3 ANALYSIS Bench-A250 250 225200 200 180 166150 150 225100 100 89 180 16650 53 50 89 27.5 53 15.5 27.5 15.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 Bench-C300 300250 250.5 250 217200 200150 150 150 250.5 113 217100 100 150 63.5 50 50 113 40 29.5 63.5 40 29.5 0 4 0 4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 Page 58
  • 60. Bench-D300 300250 253 250 230200 200 166150 150 253 230100 100 16650 47.5 46.5 50 28.5 47.5 46.5 15 28.5 0 3 0 15 3 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 Aggregate of All benches800 800700 704.5 700 650.5600 600500 500400 400 367.5 704.5 650.5300 300 228.5200 204 200 367.5100 102.5 100 228.5 204 78 102.5 78 0 7 0 7 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 Page 59
  • 61. 5.3.4 Interpretation  The curve of bench-A is like a bell curve with maximum probability at 4.0%. Followed by 4.2%,4.4%.The probability is low at both the extremes that is 3.6 % & 5.0%  The curve of bench-C is like a bell curve with maximum probability at 4.0%. Followed by 4.2%,4.4%.The probability is low at both the extremes that is 3.6 % & 5.0%  The curve of bench-D is like a bell curve with maximum probability at 4.2%. Followed by 4.0%,4.4%.The probability is low at both the extremes that is 3.6 % & 5.0%5.3.5 OVERALL FINDINGS  Maximum probability is of getting a brick with 4.0% expansion,followed by 4.2%,4.4%.  The probability of getting bricks is low at both the extremes of expansion that is 3.6 % & 5.0%  The probability that bricks will expand only between 3.6% to 5.0% is 92.9%4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION  Bricks should be monitored carefully that what is their expansion %.  If the number of bricks falling above 5.0% & below 3.6% goes more than 7.1%, the situation can be considered alarming and hence the whole process of firing in kiln should be reevaluated & reviewed.4.2.5 CONCLUSION  92.9% of bricks as per the box plot diagram falls within the 1.5 times of inter quartile ranges.( expansion between 3.6 % to 5%)  7.1% of bricks can be outliers ( expansion below 3.6% & above 5.0%)  Most common expansion figure expected is 4.0% Page 60
  • 62. 5.3 Apparent Posrosity Versus Bulk Density5.3.1 METHODOLOGY  Collecting 150 raw datas from kiln  Regression analysis  Correlation Analysis  Graphical AnalysisRegression AnalysisIn linear regression, the model specification is that the dependent variable, yi is a linearcombination of the parameters (but need not be linear in the independent variables). Forexample, in simple linear regression for modeling n data points there is one independentvariable: xi, and two parameters, β0 and β1: straight line:In multiple linear regression, there are several independent variables or functions ofindependent variables. For example, adding a term in xi2 to the preceding regression gives: parabola:This is still linear regression; although the expression on the right hand side is quadratic inthe independent variable xi, it is linear in the parameters β0, β1 and β2.In both cases, is an error term and the subscript i indexes a particular observation. Givena random sample from the population, we estimate the population parameters and obtainthe sample linear regression model:The residual, , is the difference between the value of the dependent variablepredicted by the model, and the true value of the dependent variable yi. One method ofestimation is ordinary least squares. This method obtains parameter estimates thatminimize the sum of squared residuals, SSE: Page 61
  • 63. Minimization of this function results in a set of normal equations, a set of simultaneouslinear equations in the parameters, which are solved to yield the parameter estimators, .Illustration of linear regression on a data set.In the case of simple regression, the formulas for the least squares estimates arewhere is the mean (average) of the x values and is the mean of the y values. See simplelinear regression for a derivation of these formulas and a numerical example. Under theassumption that the population error term has a constant variance, the estimate of thatvariance is given by:This is called the mean square error (MSE) of the regression. The standard errors of theparameter estimates are given by Page 62
  • 64. Under the further assumption that the population error term is normally distributed, theresearcher can use these estimated standard errors to create confidence intervals andconduct hypothesis tests about the population parameters.CorrelationThe population correlation coefficient ρX,Y between two random variables X and Y withexpecte values μX and μY and standard deviations σX and σY is defined as:where E is the expected value operator, cov means covariance, and, corr a widely usedalternative notation for Pearsons correlation.The Pearson correlation is defined only if both of the standard deviations are finite andboth of them are nonzero. It is a corollary of the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality that thecorrelation cannot exceed 1 in absolute value. The correlation coefficient is symmetric:corr(X,Y) = corr(Y,X). Page 63
  • 65. 5.3.2OBSER VATION AP Vs BD 2 1.95 y = -0.0207x + 2.2537 1.9 R² = 0.9051 1.85 1.8 1.75 1.7 1.65 0 5 10 15 20 25 30∑ e² 0.07238N 150 AP Vs GGBD 2.4 2.35 y = -0.0249x + 2.7098 2.3 R² = 0.9051 2.25 GGBD 2.2 2.15 2.1 2.05 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30∑ e² 0.1N 150 Page 64
  • 66. 5.3.3 ANALYSIS5.3.3.1 DERIVATION Page 65
  • 67. Applying X% = 4.1699% expansion as per the standards from target1 Applying L% = 6% ,loss of moisture as per the laboratory standard BBD = -0.02 AP + 2.253 FGBD = -0.0251 AP + 2.8246 GGBD= -0.024 AP + 2.709 AGBD= -0.0245 AP + 2.7668 BBD = 0.7976 FGBD FGBD = 1.2537 BBD5.3.4 InterpretationApparent Porosity is inversely related to burnt Bulk Density. BBD α 1/ AP BBD = - K * AP + Cwhere K is the rate at which BBD decreases with increase in AP.C is a constantRate is 0.020 change per unit alterationFormula Accuracy: 90.5%Green Burnt Bulk density is directly related to Burnt Bulk Density GBD α BBD GBD = M* BBD + C Page 66
  • 68. where M is the rate at which BBD increases with increase in AP.Again M = (1 + X°)/ (1-L°) X° = X/100; L° = L /100X is Expansion % of bricksL is % Loss in weightFormula Accuracy: 100 %Apparent Porosity is inversely related to burnt Bulk Density. GBD α 1/ AP GBD = - L * AP + Cwhere L is the rate at which BBD decreases with increase in AP.C is a constantAgain L = { 0.020 (1 + X°)} / (1-L°) X° = X/100; L° = L /100X is Expansion % of bricksL is % Loss in weightFormula Accuracy: 90.5 %5.3.5 FINDINGS  AP vs GGBD is a linearly decreasing function where GGBD is inversely proportional to AP. GGBD decreases with increase in AP.  Slope is negative.  R² > 0.8, suggest that AP & GGBD are well correlated & forms a property.  AP vs. BBD is a linearly decreasing function where BBD is inversely proportional to AP. BBD decreases with increase in AP.  Slope is negative.  R² > 0.8, suggest that AP & BBD are well correlated & forms a property  Moisture loss ( weight loss) & expansion in kiln is an important parameter to get apparent porosity because density decreases in both of above situation4.2.5 RECCOMENDATION  Weight loss % due to moisture loss should be reviewed on monthly basis by the laboratory & also when their is some changes done to the operation of kiln temperature as it can alter the existing the AP and BBD relationship  Expansion % due to firing isnide kiln should be reviewed as it can alter the existing the AP and BBD relationship. Page 67
  • 69.  The composition of powder put in press machine must be ensured, otherwise wrong composition may produce wrong data due to variation in standard density,leading to altered apparent porosity.4.2.5 CONCLUSION  When the weight loss %increases , the apparent porosity for the same pressure applied increases. L% α AP  When the expansion % increases , the apparent porosity for the same pressure applied increases. X% α AP . Page 68
  • 70. KAIZEN & 5S Page 69
  • 71. 4.1 KAIZENKaizen (Japanese for "improvement" or "change for the better") refers to philosophy orpractices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing,engineering, supporting business processes, and management. It has been applied inhealthcare, psychotherapy, life-coaching, government, banking, and many other industries.When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activitiesthat continually improve all functions, and involves all employees from the CEO to theassembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics, thatcross organizational boundaries into the supply chain.By improving standardized activitiesand processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste (see lean manufacturing). Kaizen was firstimplemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in partby American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It hassince spread throughout the world and is now being implemented in many other venuesbesides just business and productivity.The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as:  Standardize an operation  Measure the standardized operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory)  Gauge measurements against requirements  Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity  Standardize the new, improved operations  Continue cycle ad infinitumThis is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA. Page 70
  • 72. 4.2 5S5S is the name of a workplace organization methodology that uses a list of five Japanesewords which are seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu and shitsuke. Transliterated or translatedinto English, they all start with the letter "S". The list describes how items are stored andhow the new order is maintained. The decision-making process usually comes from adialogue about standardization which builds a clear understanding among employees ofhow work should be done. It also instills ownership of the process in each employee.4.2.1 Phases of 5SThere are 5 primary phases of 5S: sorting, straightening, systematic cleaning,standardizing, and sustaining. Additionally, there are two other phases sometimesincluded, safety & security.Sorting (Seiri)Eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts, and instructions. Go through all tools, materials,and so forth in the plant and work area. Keep only essential items and eliminate what is notrequired, prioritizing things as per requirements and keeping them in approachable places.Everything else is stored or discarded.Straightening or setting in order / stabilize (Seiton)There should be a place for everything and everything should be in its place. The placefor each item should be clearly labeled or demarcated. Items should be arranged in amanner that promotes efficient work flow. Workers should not have to bend repetitively toaccess materials. Each tool, part, supply, or piece of equipment should be kept close towhere it will be used – in other words, straightening the flow path. Seiton is one of thefeatures that distinguish 5S from "standardized cleanup". This phase can also be referred toas SimplifyingSweeping or shining or cleanliness / systematic cleaning (Seiso)Keep the workplace tidy and organized. At the end of each shift, clean the work area andbe sure everything is restored to its place. This makes it easy to know what goes where andensures that everything is where it belongs. A key point is that maintaining cleanlinessshould be part of the daily work – not an occasional activity initiated when things get toomessy.Standardizing (Seiketsu)Work practices should be consistent and standardized. Everyone should know exactlywhat his or her responsibilities are for adhering to the first 3 Ss. Page 71
  • 73. Sustaining the discipline or self-discipline (Shitsuke)Maintain and review standards. Once the previous 4 Ss have been established, theybecome the new way to operate. Maintain focus on this new way and do not allow a gradualdecline back to the old ways. While thinking about the new way, also be thinking about yetbetter ways. When an issue arises such as a suggested improvement, a new way of working,a new tool or a new output requirement, review the first 4 Ss and make changes asappropriate.4.3 SafetyA sixth phase, "Safety", is sometimes added. While it is reasonable to assume that aproperly planned and executed 5S program will improve workplace safety, some arguethat explicitly including this sixth "S" ensures that workplace safety is given at least asecondary consideration.4.4 SecurityA seventh phase, "Security", can also be added. In order to leverage security as aninvestment rather than an expense, the seventh "S" identifies and addresses risks to keybusiness categories including fixed assets (PP&E), material, human capital, brandequity, intellectual property, information technology, assets-in-transit and the extendedsupply chain.It is important to have continuous education about maintaining standards. When there arechanges that affect the 5S program such as new equipment, new products or new workrules, it is essential to make changes in the standards and provide training. Companiesembracing 5S often use posters and signs as a way of educating employees and maintainingstandards.4.5 SMALL IMPROVEMENT & SAFETY5.5.1 METHODOLOGY  Identifying the problem  Drawing layout & Analizing it  Observational analysis  Deriving Solution & Suggestion Page 72
  • 74. DRAWING LAYOUT5.3.2 Observation  Different Work stations were observed  Operations of machinery items & how the workers operated it was observed  Plant layout including traffic system was Observed  All safety plans & precautionary measures were understood  All instructions in the boards were read & noted down  The vesting area, seminar hall, executive desks etc were observed  Timings,meetings,shifts time etc were recorded  All old accidental records were noted down irrespective of whether it was major or minor  The company management hierarchy was also observed Page 73
  • 75. 5.3.3 ANALYSISTASK PRIORITY5.3.4 INTERPRETATION  It was difficult to identify which are the high alert & risky zones within the plant  Cautions & safety measures were not conveyed each & every part of the company  Safety plan were their for third part but not for those who directly were in thaw work station  Road safety was a major concern, as people & cranes moved on the same road  Road were covered with producer gas hot steam chambers that generated hot coal residue with touched the corner of road  Minor accidents with mixer buckets falling or trolleys derailing occurred  Transfer cars were driven fast.  Transfer car jam on the rail was a major concern because of bidirectional movement on one single rail track  Machines that were operating & non operating was difficult to be identified by inspectors, outsiders & new comers.  During loading & unloading of kiln the routes become very busy  Telephone extension code should was not written on the telephone itself.  Refractory layout was so big & identical that reaching & identifying a particular work station from other was very difficult. New Comers would get confused that in which plant they are working. Page 74
  • 76. 5.3.5 KEY FINDINGS  Most of the workers were so uneducated that they didn’t know how to read a digital machine  Most of the workers didn’t have time to attend training on safety techniques  Though saftety plans were made, most of the workers were not aware of it  Importnace & priority towards safety was a less concern  Safety is not about taking measures but making a habit5.3.6 RECCOMENDATION  There should be various safety zones within a work station. Safe Zone, Highly Alert Zone & Core member zone.  Different Colour codes should be used to represent each zone  Safety plan should be made with the help of industry layout .  Road safety layout is a must, having different passage for employee walking & cranes that are moving.  Transfer cars should be handled properly, driven slowly & only pushed. No pulling effort should be given. Alert message should be written on transfer car.  Chamber kiln operation status should be labeled  Operation status of almost all work station should be mentioned whether operating/not operating  Name & contact number of person who holds in charge of that particular work station should be mentioned.  Busy routes should be tackled by creating passage from alternate routes that are free with the help of direction board mentioning stipulated time till it will remain busy.  All desk should have purpose mentioned on there table. All work station should have note of what they do.  Name of the person should be mentioned on their cabin desk.  Telephone extension code should be written on the telephone itself.  We should prioritize our task according to how urgent or important or both it is, on the basis of that we should arrange our table & documents for the day. Page 75
  • 77.  Map & additional information should be provided inside the plant.  Caution & Danger symbol must be well defined.  Mixer bucket should be operated carefully. Helmet is a must. While string pulls up, the person should leave the station area & close the gate. Whistle before operation starts to create alert.  Use of railway tracks should be optimized to reduce the traffic5.3.7 CONCLUSION  The safety plan was developed with the help of pictorial layouts  List of recommendations were suggested with pictorial diagrams  Small startegic improvement plans were proposed All plans were implemented & specially with the help of pictures so that they can be understood by the lay man & those worker who didn’t understand. The layouts should be brought out in three languages English,Hindi & Oriya ( state lenguage) Page 76
  • 78. EXCELSIMULATION TOOL Page 77
  • 79. 6.EXCEL SIMULATION TOOL 6.1 Tool-1 CHECK ABNORMAL CASES HELP 0Check Output 5 NORMAL Enter Expansion REMARK 0.806 Value % Deviation OK A from MEAN % STATUS Enter Bench After entering press ENTER KEY This tool will give an idea about 1) Maximum possible expansion % 2) Minimum possible expansion % 3) Average expansion % USER GUIDE * In left hand side top enter the sigma σ level to fix standard deviation * Press ENTER to see the result at right hand side Page 78
  • 80. 6. 2 Tool-2 CALCULATE Expansion % Range HELP Check Output 2 4.680984672 % % Sigma Level σ Maximum Expansion 4.165504359 3.650024045 % After entering press Average ENTER KEY Minimum ExpansionCALCULATE Bench wise Expansion % Range HELP Check Output 3.8 5.190651846 % % Enter Maximum Expansion 4.692610691 Sigma Level σ 4.194569536 % a Average Enter Bench Minimum Expansion After entering press ENTER KEY Page 79
  • 81. 6.3 Tool-3Check Output EQUATION IS A Y= -0.075 X + 4.347 Y -> Expansion %ENTER BENCH -0.075 NO X-> Layer Number After entering press SLOPE ENTER KEY 57.96 4.347 Meets at X-axix Meets Y- at Axix at A Intercept 85.71085 ° 175.71085 °Check Output 1 Angle with Y-axixENTER LAYER Function Increasing NO After entering press 4.272 % 86.4 % ENTER KEY Expansion Accuracy Page 80
  • 82. 6.4 Tool-4 CHECK VERTICAL HELP VARIATION Check Output 45 4.23633333 % Enter Height in Expansion 0.070828975 % mm Deviation 68.2 % from MEAN After entering press ACCURACY ENTER KEY Page 81
  • 83. 6.5 Tool-5 Enter Bench No Enter Bench NoBench Comaprision T T After entering press After entering press ENTER KEY ENTER KEY Enter Bench Number at Top shown with Arrow Mark . Enter both the entries.*Brench No should be : A,B,C D.* ENTER T in case to see the aggregate summary of all benches together* Press Enter to see the results down6.6 Tool-6 % ENTER Expansion 5 Loss in Weight 6 % ENTER Page 82
  • 84. PICTORIALRECOMMENDATION Page 83
  • 85. 7.PICTORIAL RECCOMENDATION7.1 Suggestion 1:7.2 Suggestion 2: Page 84
  • 86. 7.3 Suggestion 3:7.4 Suggestion 4: Page 85
  • 87. 7.5 Suggestion 5:7.6 Suggestion 6: 7.7 Suggestion 7: Page 86
  • 88. 7.8 Suggestion 8:7.9 Suggestion 9: Page 87
  • 89. 7.10 Suggestion 10:7.11 Suggestion 11: Page 88
  • 90. 7.12 Suggestion 12:7.13 Suggestion 13: Page 89
  • 91. 8. LEARNING OUTCOME:Follwoing were the learning & notions that i got from my internship project,that would becareerd by me wherever I work further.8.1 QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT: 1. Microscopic level observation is very important though it may not be helpful in broader sense, beacuse it is always important to know the scientific reasons behind any happenings 2. Predicting future results statistically helps taking neccessary action before hand. 3. Statistical tools used efficiently makes our work easy,systematic,fast & gives a new perception & way to look at existing things 4. But results derived statistically has to be updated on timely basis & should be improved,croscheckd,re calculated with the evolutionof new tools & techniques & modernization in technology. 5. Quality ensures how much value we add to our customers & satisfy them , resulting in better return on investment & loyal relationship with them8.2 KAIZEN,5S & SAFETY PROJECT 1. Safety is has to be a major priority 2. Smaller level strategic operational improvement make a comany shine longer 3. House keeping gives a good impression to outsiders,visitors & brings a feel good factor within the emplyees 4. Safety is not about taking measures,following instructions,obeying,cautioning ourselves or becoming carefull.It should be made unconditional habit within each employee.Instructions may be skipped but nature of habit decides certain actions which a person cannot skip even when he is busy,absence minded & is not thinking deep into it. This is how company should position & implement safety policy within its employees. 5. Adopting Safety policy should be a culture within a company. 6. It helps developing better relationship between the company & employee. Page 90
  • 92. APPENDIX-1 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION Brick with Numbers Total % Expansion Found Inspected Found %3.6 102.5 2520 4.0675 %3.8 228.5 2520 9.0675 %4 704.5 2520 27.956 %4.2 650.5 2520 25.813 %4.4 367.5 2520 14.583 %4.6 204 2520 8.0952 %4.8 78 2520 3.0952 %5 7 2520 0.2778 % Total 92.956 % SAMPLE SIZE Sample No of Sample Distribution samples type Type Bench Wise 850/bench Bench A,C & D 540/layer Top,bottom, Layer wise Layer type 2nd,3rd,4th Each Half of 425/half 1st half & Partiion bench bench 2nd half CAPACITY Bottom Layer : 0.8 Tone 2nd Layer : 1.0 Tone 3rd Layer : 2.0 Tone 4th Layer : 1.5 Tone Top Layer : 0.5 Tone Page 91
  • 93. APPENDIX-2 EXPANSION % LAYER WISE 1st Half Top 4th 3rd 2nd Bottom 4.29876543 4.17160494 4.19259259 4.01728395 4.008642 4.04555556 4.20888889 4.19222222 4.17111111 3.926667 4.11358025 4.20740741 3.9691358 4.29506173 4.046914Total 4.15263374 4.19596708 4.11798354 4.16115226 3.994074 2nd Half Top 4th 3rd 2nd Bottom 4.12555556 4.28 4.19111111 4.16222222 3.94 4.26790123 4.21851852 4.08518519 3.91604938 4.028395 4.25679012 4.25925926 3.9382716 4.27777778 4.087654Total 4.21674897 4.25259259 4.07152263 4.11868313 4.018683 Aggregate Top 4th 3rd 2nd Bottom 4.18518519 4.23333333 3.9537037 4.28641975 4.067284 4.28333333 4.19506173 4.13888889 3.96666667 4.018519 4.08555556 4.24444444 4.19166667 4.16666667 3.933333Total 4.18469136 4.22427984 4.09475309 4.1399177 4.006379 EXPANSION % BENCH WISE Layer Bench- Bench-C Bench-D A Top Layer 4.28333 4.08556 4.18519 4.19506 4.24444 4.23333 4th Layer 3rd Layer 4.13889 4.19167 3.9537 2ndLayer 3.96667 4.16667 4.28642 Bottom Layer 4.01852 3.93333 4.06728 Total 4.194 4.149 4.155 Page 92
  • 94. APPENDIX-3 At 6% wieght loss 5% Expansion AP-BD table BBD FGBD GGBD AGBDAP % gm/CC gm/CC gm/CC gm/CC 14 1.973 2.429780984 2.373 2.401390514.1 1.971 2.427317952 2.3706 2.39895914.2 1.969 2.42485492 2.3682 2.396527514.3 1.967 2.422391888 2.3658 2.394095914.4 1.965 2.419928856 2.3634 2.391664414.5 1.963 2.417465824 2.361 2.389232914.6 1.961 2.415002793 2.3586 2.386801414.7 1.959 2.412539761 2.3562 2.384369914.8 1.957 2.410076729 2.3538 2.381938414.9 1.955 2.407613697 2.3514 2.3795068 15 1.953 2.405150665 2.349 2.377075315.1 1.951 2.402687633 2.3466 2.374643815.2 1.949 2.400224601 2.3442 2.372212315.3 1.947 2.397761569 2.3418 2.369780815.4 1.945 2.395298537 2.3394 2.367349315.5 1.943 2.392835505 2.337 2.364917815.6 1.941 2.390372473 2.3346 2.362486215.7 1.939 2.387909441 2.3322 2.360054715.8 1.937 2.38544641 2.3298 2.357623215.9 1.935 2.382983378 2.3274 2.3551917 16 1.933 2.380520346 2.325 2.352760216.1 1.931 2.378057314 2.3226 2.350328716.2 1.929 2.375594282 2.3202 2.347897116.3 1.927 2.37313125 2.3178 2.345465616.4 1.925 2.370668218 2.3154 2.3430341 Page 93
  • 95. 16.5 1.923 2.368205186 2.313 2.340602616.6 1.921 2.365742154 2.3106 2.338171116.7 1.919 2.363279122 2.3082 2.335739616.8 1.917 2.36081609 2.3058 2.33330816.9 1.915 2.358353059 2.3034 2.330876517 1.913 2.355890027 2.301 2.32844517.1 1.911 2.353426995 2.2986 2.326013517.2 1.909 2.350963963 2.2962 2.32358217.3 1.907 2.348500931 2.2938 2.321150517.4 1.905 2.346037899 2.2914 2.318718917.5 1.903 2.343574867 2.289 2.316287417.6 1.901 2.341111835 2.2866 2.313855917.7 1.899 2.338648803 2.2842 2.311424417.8 1.897 2.336185771 2.2818 2.308992917.9 1.895 2.333722739 2.2794 2.306561418 1.893 2.331259707 2.277 2.304129918.1 1.891 2.328796676 2.2746 2.301698318.2 1.889 2.326333644 2.2722 2.299266818.3 1.887 2.323870612 2.2698 2.296835318.4 1.885 2.32140758 2.2674 2.294403818.5 1.883 2.318944548 2.265 2.291972318.6 1.881 2.316481516 2.2626 2.289540818.7 1.879 2.314018484 2.2602 2.287109218.8 1.877 2.311555452 2.2578 2.284677718.9 1.875 2.30909242 2.2554 2.282246219 1.873 2.306629388 2.253 2.279814719.1 1.871 2.304166356 2.2506 2.277383219.2 1.869 2.301703324 2.2482 2.274951719.3 1.867 2.299240293 2.2458 2.272520119.4 1.865 2.296777261 2.2434 2.270088619.5 1.863 2.294314229 2.241 2.267657119.6 1.861 2.291851197 2.2386 2.265225619.7 1.859 2.289388165 2.2362 2.262794119.8 1.857 2.286925133 2.2338 2.2603626 Page 94
  • 96. 19.9 1.855 2.284462101 2.2314 2.257931120 1.853 2.281999069 2.229 2.255499520.1 1.851 2.279536037 2.2266 2.25306820.2 1.849 2.277073005 2.2242 2.250636520.3 1.847 2.274609973 2.2218 2.24820520.4 1.845 2.272146941 2.2194 2.245773520.5 1.843 2.26968391 2.217 2.24334220.6 1.841 2.267220878 2.2146 2.240910420.7 1.839 2.264757846 2.2122 2.238478920.8 1.837 2.262294814 2.2098 2.236047420.9 1.835 2.259831782 2.2074 2.233615921 1.833 2.25736875 2.205 2.231184421.1 1.831 2.254905718 2.2026 2.228752921.2 1.829 2.252442686 2.2002 2.226321321.3 1.827 2.249979654 2.1978 2.223889821.4 1.825 2.247516622 2.1954 2.221458321.5 1.823 2.24505359 2.193 2.219026821.6 1.821 2.242590559 2.1906 2.216595321.7 1.819 2.240127527 2.1882 2.214163821.8 1.817 2.237664495 2.1858 2.211732221.9 1.815 2.235201463 2.1834 2.209300722 1.813 2.232738431 2.181 2.206869222.1 1.811 2.230275399 2.1786 2.204437722.2 1.809 2.227812367 2.1762 2.202006222.3 1.807 2.225349335 2.1738 2.199574722.4 1.805 2.222886303 2.1714 2.197143222.5 1.803 2.220423271 2.169 2.194711622.6 1.801 2.217960239 2.1666 2.192280122.7 1.799 2.215497207 2.1642 2.189848622.8 1.797 2.213034176 2.1618 2.187417122.9 1.795 2.210571144 2.1594 2.184985623 1.793 2.208108112 2.157 2.182554123.1 1.791 2.20564508 2.1546 2.180122523.2 1.789 2.203182048 2.1522 2.177691 Page 95
  • 97. 23.3 1.787 2.200719016 2.1498 2.175259523.4 1.785 2.198255984 2.1474 2.17282823.5 1.783 2.195792952 2.145 2.170396523.6 1.781 2.19332992 2.1426 2.16796523.7 1.779 2.190866888 2.1402 2.165533423.8 1.777 2.188403856 2.1378 2.163101923.9 1.775 2.185940824 2.1354 2.160670424 1.773 2.183477793 2.133 2.158238924.1 1.771 2.181014761 2.1306 2.155807424.2 1.769 2.178551729 2.1282 2.153375924.3 1.767 2.176088697 2.1258 2.150944324.4 1.765 2.173625665 2.1234 2.148512824.5 1.763 2.171162633 2.121 2.146081324.6 1.761 2.168699601 2.1186 2.143649824.7 1.759 2.166236569 2.1162 2.141218324.8 1.757 2.163773537 2.1138 2.138786824.9 1.755 2.161310505 2.1114 2.136355325 1.753 2.158847473 2.109 2.133923725.1 1.751 2.156384441 2.1066 2.131492225.2 1.749 2.15392141 2.1042 2.129060725.3 1.747 2.151458378 2.1018 2.126629225.4 1.745 2.148995346 2.0994 2.124197725.5 1.743 2.146532314 2.097 2.121766225.6 1.741 2.144069282 2.0946 2.119334625.7 1.739 2.14160625 2.0922 2.116903125.8 1.737 2.139143218 2.0898 2.114471625.9 1.735 2.136680186 2.0874 2.112040126 1.733 2.134217154 2.085 2.109608626.1 1.731 2.131754122 2.0826 2.107177126.2 1.729 2.12929109 2.0802 2.104745526.3 1.727 2.126828059 2.0778 2.10231426.4 1.725 2.124365027 2.0754 2.099882526.5 1.723 2.121901995 2.073 2.09745126.6 1.721 2.119438963 2.0706 2.0950195 Page 96
  • 98. 26.7 1.719 2.116975931 2.0682 2.09258826.8 1.717 2.114512899 2.0658 2.090156426.9 1.715 2.112049867 2.0634 2.087724927 1.713 2.109586835 2.061 2.085293427.1 1.711 2.107123803 2.0586 2.082861927.2 1.709 2.104660771 2.0562 2.080430427.3 1.707 2.102197739 2.0538 2.077998927.4 1.705 2.099734707 2.0514 2.075567427.5 1.703 2.097271676 2.049 2.0731358 Page 97
  • 99. APPENDIX-4 Brick Expansion % Data Consolidated Data % distribution above 4.2 50% Chamber Kiln Below 4.2 50% b/w 3.55 to 4 25%Mean 4.165504359 b/w 4 to 4.2 25%Standard Error 0.005251262 b/w 4.2 to 4.3 25%Median 4.2 b/w 4.3 to 4.75 25%Mode 4Standard Deviation 0.257740157 IQR 0.3Sample Variance 0.066429988 Lower 4.75Kurtosis -0.362000657 Upper 3.55Skewness 0.063940314Range 1.3Minimum 3.6Maximum 4.9Sum 10034.7Count 2409Largest(1) 4.9Smallest(1) 3.6ConfidenceLevel(95.0%) 0.01029746Q1 4Q2 4.2Q3 4.3 Page 98
  • 100. APPENDIX-5 Box Plot diagram of Expansion % Data Max Val 5 Upper 4.75Q3 4.3Q2 4.2Q1 4 Lower 3.55 Min Val 1.7 Page 99
  • 101. APPENDIX-6Stock Data: Recent Stock Performance: Current Price (11/5/2010): 137.40 1 Week 4.3% 13 Weeks -1.2% (Figures in Indian Rupees) 4 Weeks 5.3% 52 Weeks 24.5% OCL India Ltd Key Data: Ticker: OCL Country: INDIA Exchanges: BOM Major Industry: Construction Sub Industry: Cement Producers 13,696,185,000 2010 Sales Employees: N/A (Year Ending Jan 2011). Currency: Indian Rupees Market Cap: 7,818,060,000 Fiscal Yr Ends: March Shares Outstanding: 56,900,000 Share Type: Ordinary Closely Held Shares: 11,399,293 Page 100
  • 102. APPENDIX-7A7.1 TOTAL ASSETS of OCL ( 2007,2008,2009) 2007 Total Current Assets 2008 Total Assets 2009 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Total Asset = Total Current Asset + Total Fixed Assets 900 800 700 600 Net Block 500 Capital Work in Progress 400 Investments 300 200 100 0 1 2 3A7.2 DEBT & NET WORTH of OCL ( 2007,2008,2009) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Total Debt 50% Total Shareholders Funds 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 2 3 Page 101
  • 103. APPENDIX-8A8.1CREDIT RISK Secured Loans Secured Loans 1 2 Unsecured Loans 2009 2008 2007 Figure 2.4A8.2 TOTAL LIABILILTIES 2009 Share Capital 0% Equity Share Warrants Reserves Total 0% Equity Total Liabilities 16% Application 33% Total Shareholders Money Funds 0% 16% Secured Loans Total Debt 17% 17% Unsecured Loans 1% Page 102
  • 104. APPENDIX-9A9.1 TOTAL INCOME Total Income 1,400.00 1,200.00 1,000.00 Total Income, Axis Title 800.00 841.16 600.00 400.00 200.00 0.00 2009 2008 2007 Figure 2.5 Total Income has increased at an average rate of (22.3 %)With time both income and expenditure have increased. Rise was also found in tax as well asdepreciation charges and interest charged upon various items.A9.2 TOTAL EXPENDITURE Total Expenditure 1000 900 800 700 600 500 Total Expenditure 400 300 200 100 0 2009 2008 2007 Figure 2.6 Total expenditure has increased at an average rate of ( 26.7 %) Page 103
  • 105. APPENDIX-10A10.1 OPERATING PROFIT Operating Profit 300 250 200 Axis Title 150 Operating Profit 100 50 0 1 2 3 Figure 2.7 Total operating profit has increased at an average by ( 9.5 %)A10.2 PROFIT AFTER TAX Reported Net Profit 140 120 100 80 60 Reported Net Profit 40 20 0 1 2 3 Total Income has increased at an average by ( 7.32 %) Page 104
  • 106. GLOSSARY & ABBREVIATION1 AGBD Average Green Bulk Density2 AP Apparent Posrosity3 BBD Burnt Bulk Density4 BD Bulk Density5 BENCH: Each chamber has 4 benches A,B,C and D6 CHAMBER: Eack kilns are further partitioned to chamber7 FGBD Formula Based Green Bulk Density8 GBD Green Bulk Density9 GGBD Graphical Green Bulk Density10 KILN It is long chamber where bricks are being fired11 LAYER: Each bench has 5 layers, Top,4th,Middle,2nd & bottom It is used to transfer mixed materials used by press12 MIXER BUCKET: machines.13 TRANSFER CAR It is used to transfer trolleys between two work stations It is used to transfer bricks bewteen two work stations or14 TRANSFER CAR between work station & transfer car Page 105
  • 107. BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites www.ocl.in www.wikipedia.org www.mathstool.com www.probabilitytool.com www.yahoosearch.com www.google/images.com Books/Journal Mathematics Plus 2 ( By Dr. R. D. Sharma,2008 edition,Tata Mcgrawhil Publication)Stastistics for Business & Economics(Andreson,Sweney,William,11th edition,Prentice hall publication) Production operation management ( by Sheetal Banasari,5th edition,Vikas publication) Total Quality control ( by OCL India Ltd,2005 edition) Page 106