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pigeon and rabbit.
4. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells ...
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II. Genetics and Evolution (45 Periods)
Heredityandvariation:MendelianInheritance;DeviationsfromMen...
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succession;EcologicalServices-Carbonfixation,pollination,oxygenrelease.
Biodiversity and its conser...
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8. Exerciseoncontrolledpollination-Emasculation,taggingandbagging.
9. Identificationofcommondisease...
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Class 12 Cbse Biology Syllabus 2012-13

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Class 12 Cbse Biology Syllabus 2012-13

  1. 1. w w w .edurite.com 113 pigeon and rabbit. 4. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells (e.g. palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, squamous epithelium,musclefibersandmammalianbloodsmear)throughtemporary/permanentslides. 5. Study of mitosis in onion root tips cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides. 6. Studyofdifferentmodificationsinroot,stemandleaves. 7. Studyandidentificationofdifferenttypesofinflorescence. 8. Studyofimbibitioninseeds/raisins. 9. Observationandcommentsoftheexperimentalsetupforshowing: a. Anaerobicrespiration b. Phototropism c. Apicalbudremoval d. Suctionduetotranspiration 10. Studyofhumanskeletonanddifferenttypesofjoints. 11. Studyofexternalmorphologyofcockroachthroughmodels. CLASS XII (THEORY) (180 Periods) 1. Reproduction Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuationofspecies;Modesofreproduction-Asexualandsexualreproduction;Modes- Binaryfission,sporulation,budding,gemmule,fragmentation;vegetativepropagationin plants. Sexualreproductioninfloweringplant:Flowerstructure;Developmentofmaleandfemale gametophytes;Pollination-types,agenciesandexamples;Outbreedingsdevices;Pollen- Pistilinteraction;Doublefertilization;Postfertilizationevents-Developmentofendosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy,polyembryony;Significanceofseedandfruitformation. Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisationembryodevelopmentuptoblastocystformation,implantation;Pregnancyand placentaformation(Elementaryidea);Parturition(Elementaryidea);Lactation(Elementary idea).
  2. 2. w w w .edurite.com 114 II. Genetics and Evolution (45 Periods) Heredityandvariation:MendelianInheritance;DeviationsfromMendelism-Incomplete dominance,Co-dominance,MultipleallelesandInheritanceofbloodgroups,Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomesandgenes;Sexdetermination-inhumans,birds,honeybee;Linkageand crossingover;Sexlinkedinheritance-Haemophilia,Colourblindness;Mendeliandisorder inhumans-Thalassemia;chromosomaldisordersinhumans;Down'ssyndrome,Turner's andKlinefelter'ssyndromes. MolecularBasisofInheritance:SearchforgeneticmaterialandDNAasgeneticmaterial; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genomeandhumanganeomeproject;DNAfingerprinting. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological,comparativeanatomy,embryologyandmolecularevidence);Darwin's contribution,ModernSynthetictheoryofEvolution;Mechanismofevolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection;Geneflowandgeneticdrift;Hardy-Weinberg'sprinciple;AdaptiveRadiation; Humanevolution. III. Biology and Human Welfare (35 Periods) Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis,Typhoid,Pneumonia,commoncold,amoebiasis,ringworm);Basicconcepts ofimmunology-vaccines;Cancer,HIVandAIDs;Adolescene,drugandalchololabuse. Improvement in food production : Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification,ApiculatureandAnimalhusbandry. Microbesinhumanwelfare:Inhouseholdfoodprocessing,industrialproduction,sewage treatment,energygenerationandasbiocontrolagentsandbiofertilizers. IV. Biotechnology and ItsApplications (30 Periods) Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production,genetherapy;Geneticallymodifiedorganisms-Btcrops;TransgenicAnimals; Biosafetyissues-Biopiracyandpatents. V. EcologyandEnvironment Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations; Populationinteractions-mutualism,competition,predation,parasitism;Populationattributes- growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. Ecosystems:Patterns,components;productivityanddecomposition;Energyflow;Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological
  3. 3. w w w .edurite.com 115 succession;EcologicalServices-Carbonfixation,pollination,oxygenrelease. Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks andsanctuaries. Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicalsandtheireffects;Solidwastemanagement;Radioactivewastemanagement; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation;Any three case studiesassuccessstoriesaddressingenvironmentalissues. Practicals 60 Periods A. List of Experiments 1. Studypollengerminationonaslide. 2. Collectandstudysoilfromatleasttwodifferentsitesandstudythemfortexture,moisture content,pHandwaterholdingcapacityofsoil.Correlatewiththekindsofplantsfoundin them. 3. CollectwaterfromtwodifferentwaterbodiesaroundyouandstudythemforpH,clarity andpresenceofanylivingorganisms. 4. Studythepresenceofsuspendedparticulatematterinairatthetwowidelydifferentsites. 5. Study of plant population density by quadrate method. 6. Study of plant population frequency by quadrate method. 7. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. 8. To study the effect of the different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivaryamylaseonstarch. Study/observation of the following (Spotting) 1. Flowersadaptedtopollinationbydifferentagencies(wind,insect). 2. Pollengerminationonstigmathroughapermanentslide. 3. Identification of stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. testis and T.S. ovary through permanentslides(fromanymammal). 4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slides. 5. T.S.ofblastulathroughpermanentslides. 6. Mendelianinheritanceusingseedsofdifferentcolour/sizesofanyplant. 7. Preparedpedigreechartsofgenetictraitssuchasrollingoftongue,bloodgroups,widow's peak, colour blindness.
  4. 4. w w w .edurite.com 116 8. Exerciseoncontrolledpollination-Emasculation,taggingandbagging. 9. IdentificationofcommondiseasecausingorganismslikeAscaris,Entamoeba,Plasmodium, ringwormthroughpermanentslidesorspecimens.Commentonsymptomsofdiseasethat theycause. 10. Two plants and two animals found in xerophytic conditions. Comment upon their morphologicaladaptations. 11. Plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

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