INTRODUCTIONWhat is a gesture ? Gestures are expressive , meaningful body motions with the intent to convey information or to interact with the environment. Body motions physical movements of the fingers, hands, arms head, head, face or body. What is Surface computing ? It is a computer that interacts with the user through the surface of an ordinary object, rather than a keyboard or monitor. User interacts with touch sensitive screen. People use their fingers to manipulate it.
A key challengeTraditional input using the keyboard, mouse, and mouse-based widgets is nolonger preferable No keyboard used No mouse used Human-computer interaction have been exploring interactive TABLETOPS for use by individuals and groups, as part of multi-display environments, and for fun and entertainment.
STRUCTURE OF TABLETOP History This idea came up in 2001 by the Microsoft researchers “Steve bark son” & “ Andy Wilson”. In 2003 they presented to bill gates for the approval. Later in 2007 this interactive table top device was built. Tabletop Computer
WORKING OF MICROSOFT SURFACEThe Surface is not a touch-sensitive screen device…It uses multiple infrared cameras beneath the screen to sense objects,physical touch, etc. .This information is processed and displayed using “Rear Projection”. (1)Screen Diffuser : ”Multi-touch" screen. Can process multiple inputs and recognize objects by their shapes or coded "domino" tags.
Cont.…(2) Infrared: The ”Machine Vision" is aimed at the screen. Once an object touches the tabletop ; the light reflects back and is picked up by infrared cameras.(3) CPU: Uses similar components as current desktop computers, Core 2 Duo processor, 2GB of RAM and a 256MB graphics card, Wireless communication, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth antennas, Operating system. (4) Projector: Uses a DLP (digital light processing) light engine.
CLASSIFICATION OF HUMAN GESTURE“Microsoft Surface represents a fundamental change in the way we interact withdigital content.With Surface, we can actually grab data with our hands, and move informationbetween objects with natural gestures and touch.” 1. Efron conducted studies of human gesture he categorized it into five categories – a) Physiographic b) Kinetographic c) Ideographic d) Deictic and e) Batons.
2. Kendon Showed that gestures exist on a spectrum of formality and speech-dependency. From least to most formal, the spectrum was: language-like gestures, emblems, and sign languages.3. Tang Analyzed people collaborating around a large drawing surface. Gestures emerged as an important element for simulating operations, indicating areas of interest, and referring to other group members. Tang noted actions and functions, i.e., behaviors and their effects, which are like the signs and referents in our guessability methodology.
CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACE GESTURES Three authors independently designed their own gestures for the 27 Referents. Among those 27 referents Four were not assigned as gestures: Insert Maximize Task switch Close
Instead • Insert used by dragging• Maximize used by enlarging• Task switch by tapping an imaginary taskbar button.• Close by tapping an imaginary button in the top-right corner of an open view. And they manually classified each gesture along four dimensions: 1. Form 2. Nature 3. Binding 4. Flow
1. Form:• The scope of this dimension is within one hand.• It is applied separately to each hand in a 2-hand gesture.• These are worth distinguishing because of their similarity to mouse actions. 2. Nature: • In the nature dimension, symbolic gestures are visual depictions. • Examples : Tracing a caret (“^”) to perform insert, Or Forming the O.K. pose on the table (“ ”) for accept.
3. Binding:• In this dimension, object-centric gestures only require information about the object they affect or produce.• An example is pinching two fingers together on top of an object for shrink. 4. Flow: • A gesture’s flow is discrete if the gesture is performed, delimited, recognized, and responded to as an event. • An example is tracing a question mark (“?”) to bring up help. .
Although the authors are experts in human computer interaction, it was hypothesized that the “wisdom of crowds” would generate a better set than the authors. Each author individually came up with only 43.5% of the user-defined gestures. Even combined, the authors only covered 60.9% of the users’ set. This suggests that three experts cannot generate the scope of gestures that 20 participants can.
Later the authors asked 20 people to participate to find different gestures based on their ideas thinking it would make better gesture set. Among those 20 participants some used 1-hand gestures and some used 2-hand gestures. Totally they made 1080 gestures set . [27refrents X 20 participants X 2 = 1080]
How is the Surface used ?• Wireless! Transfer pictures from camera toSurface and cell phone. “Drag and drop virtualcontent to physical objects.”• Digital interactive painting using paint brush• At a phone store.• At a restaurant.• Play games and use the Internet.• Jukebox! Browse music, make play lists.• Maps and Billboard for advertising
FEATURES OF SURFACE COMPUTING A form of computing that offers “a natural way of interacting with information,” rather than traditional user interface:• Direct Interaction: The ability to "grab" digital information with hands - interacting with touch/gesture, not with a mouse or keyboard. • Multi–Touch: The ability to recognize multiple points of contact at the same time, not just one (Ex. one finger, like with most touch screens), but dozens.
• Multi–User: The Surface’s screen is horizontal, allowing many people to come together around it and experience a “collaborative , face–to–face computing experience”. • Object Recognition: Physical objects can be placed on the Surface’s screen to “trigger different types of digital responses” . (Ex. cell phones, cameras, & glasses of wine).
WHO’S USING SURFACE TODAY ? Financial Services Healthcare Leisure and Entertainment Retail Casino Hotels and Resorts Disney Innovations AT&T T-Mobile
MICROSOFT SURFACE PROBLEMS• $$$$$$$ Surface machines very expensive, cost between $5,000 and $10,000.•Not portable .•Poor accuracy as fat fingers are not as accurateas mouse or stylus.•Objects need to be tagged (domino tags) • Must own devices such as a cell phone to upload photos into or share with others. • Have to be careful of the table surface not to damage it.
CONCLUSIONo The study of surface gestures leading to a user-defined gesture set based on participants’ agreement over 1080 gestures. o Beyond reflecting user behavior, the user-defined set has properties that make it a good candidate for deployment in tabletop systems, such as Ease of recognition Consistency Reversibility and versatility through aliasing.
o Also a taxonomy of surface gestures useful for analyzing and characterizing.o This work represents a necessary step in bringing interactive surfaces closer to the hands and minds of tabletop users.o Its not just a touch screen but more of a touch -grab-move-slide-resize-and- place-objects on top of the screen. o Surface takes existing technology and presents it in a new way. o Fundamentally changes the way we interacts with technology. o So it opens up new possibilities that weren’t there before.
“A COMPUTER ON EVERY DESKTOP “ NOW WE SAY“EVERY DESKTOP WILL BE A COMPUTER” THANK YOU……