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Eszter Hargittai, "The Implications of Digital Inequality for Internet Research"
 

Eszter Hargittai, "The Implications of Digital Inequality for Internet Research"

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    Eszter Hargittai, "The Implications of Digital Inequality for Internet Research" Eszter Hargittai, "The Implications of Digital Inequality for Internet Research" Presentation Transcript

    • Digital Inequality and its Implications  for Internet Research f h Eszter Hargittai Eszter Hargittai Associate Professor, Communication Studies Department Faculty Associate, Institute for Policy Research Faculty Associate, Science in Human Culture Faculty Associate Science in Human Culture Affiliated Faculty, Sociology Department Northwestern University & Fellow, Berkman Center for Internet & Society Harvard University www.eszter.com t @eszterEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • ? ? ?Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Overall Framework $ Context Socio‐ Economic Status Technical Social Skill Types of uses T fEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Overall Framework Productivity $ Context Job Performance Creative  Output p Academic  Socio‐ Achievement General  Economic Well‐Being g Political  Status Technical Social Participation i i i ? SkillEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University Types of uses T f
    • Central Research Question: Who benefits most  Who benefits most from their digital media uses? Social Mobility    vs   Social Reproduction Do digital media reduce or contribute to social inequality? Mere connectivity          Effective, efficient usesEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Who benefits most  from their digital media uses? Human capital Financial capital ? Social capital Cultural capitalEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • The relationship between socioeconomic  status (SES) and Internet uses status (SES) and Internet uses Info seeking for news,  SES  = SES = finance, health Based on the following national samples: Germany 2004 (Zillien & Hargittai 2008) Switzerland 1999, 2000 (Bonfadelli 2002) United Kingdom 2001, 2002 (Anderson 2008) United Kingdom 2001 2002 (Anderson 2008) United Kingdom 2003, 2005, 2007 (Eynon 2009) United States 2000‐2004 (Buente & Robbins 2008) United States 2004 (Hargittai & Hinnant 2008) United States 2005 (Hale et al., 2010) For review, see: H F i Hargittai, E & H i h Y P (F th itt i E. Hsieh, Y.P. (Forthcoming). Di it l I i ) Digital Inequality. lit In Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies. Edited by William H. Dutton. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Domains of skill • Awareness and understanding • Efficient information seeking • Credibility assessment Credibility assessment • Knowledge of privacy, security issues Skill • Participation – joining communities – contributing content ib iEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Data?Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Data:  Observations of search and information seeking  Observations of search and information seeking 100 randomly sampled adults Mercer County, NJ, 2001 2002 Mercer County NJ 2001‐2002 Political info Health info Job search Job search Tax forms Tax forms Gov’t documents Local cultural events Hargittai, E. (2002) First Monday Hargittai, E. (2003) IT & Society Hargittai, H itt i E. E (2003) Society Online S i t O li Hargittai, E. (2004) First Monday Hargittai, E. (2006) Journal of the Association of Information Systems Hargittai, E. (2007) Media Diversity and Localism: Meaning and Metrics Hargittai, E. (2008) The Hyperlinked Society Measures of actual skill; survey instrumentsEszter Hargittai, Northwestern UniversityEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Measuring awareness & understanding How familiar are you with the following computer and Internet-related items? Please choose a number between 1 and 5 where 1 represents “no a d e e ep ese ts o understanding” and 5 represents “full understanding” of the item item. For methodological details see: details, * Hargittai, E. (2005). Survey Measures of Web-Oriented Digital Literacy. Social Science Computer Review, 23(3):371-379. * Hargittai, E. (2009). An Update on Survey Measures of Web-Oriented Digital Literacy. Social Science Computer Review. 27(1):130-137. * Hargittai, E. & Hsieh, Y.P. (2012). Succinct Measures of Web-Use Skills. Social Science Computer Review. 30(1):95-107.Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University http://webuse.org/pubs/
    • For details, see: * Hargittai, E. & Hsieh, Y.P. (2012). Succinct Measures of Web-Use Skills. Social Science Computer Review. * Hargittai, E. (2009). An Update on Survey Measures of Web-Oriented Digital Literacy. Social Science Computer Review. 27(1):130-137. * Hargittai, E. (2005). Survey Measures of Web-Oriented Digital Literacy. Social Science Computer Review, 23(3):371-379.Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University http://webuse.org/pubs/
    • Surveys US Map f from Wikipedia iki diEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Surveys US Map f from Wikipedia iki diEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Why the Average temperature: Feb: 28.2°F   Mar: 39.6°F University of Illinois, Chicago? University of Illinois Chicago?Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Why the Average temperature: Feb: 28.2°F   Mar: 39.6°F University of Illinois, Chicago? University of Illinois Chicago?Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Data & Methods • Students enrolled in the one Students enrolled in the one required course on campus (First‐Year Writing Program) • Paper/pencil survey Wave 1 Wave 2  February‐April, 2009  April‐July, 2010  1,115 first‐years  505   80.5% response rate  45% response rate ( g g) Wave 3 (ongoing) July‐August, 2012  504+  50%+ response rateEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Data & Methods Wave 3 (ongoing) ( g g) July‐August, 2012  504+  50%+ response rateEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Data & Methods The purpose of this question is to assess your attentiveness to question wording. For this question please mark the “Very often” response. Never Wave 3 (ongoing) ( g g) Rarely July‐August, 2012  Sometimes  504+ Often Very Often  50%+ response rateEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Sample descriptives (2009) 99% 18‐19 years old 41% male; 59% female 41% male; 59% female 47% neither parent has a  college degree college degree Race & ethnicity: White 41% Asian/Asian American  22% Hispanic  24% Black/African American  11% American Indian/Alaskan Native  i di / l k i .5% %Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • The Wired Generation (2009)  100% either own or have easy access to a laptop or  desktop  98% have access to the Internet at home  95% had access to the Internet at home during 95% had access to the Internet at home during  senior year in high school  70% t t d i th I t 70% started using the Internet regularly in middle  t l l i iddl school or earlier  O On average, spend 17 hours on the Web weekly  d h h b kl (excluding email, chat and VoIP)  87% h k 87% check email daily (the majority check several  il d il (th j it h k l times a day)Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Basic Internet‐related terms Range: 14‐65 R 14 65 Mean: 47 St.dev.: 10Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • 34% could not identify the correct  description of bcc functionality on a  multiple‐choice question (UIC  10) multiple‐choice question (UIC ‘10)Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Web 2.0‐related terms Range: 14 65 R 14-65 Range: 14‐70 Mean: 47 Mean: 37 St.dev.: 10 St.dev.: 13 St dev : 13Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Relationship of skill & genderEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Relationship of skill & race/ethnicityEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Relationship of skill & socioeconomic status 4.10 4 10 2.73 Low High Socioeconomic status S i i t tEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • How about skill differences nationally? ? 4.10 ? 2.73 ? ? US Map from WikipediaEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Explaining skill differences nationally Explaining skill differences nationally (2009) ? Income Education Skill Age (=<50) Data source: Federal Communications  Commission broadband surveyEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Explaining skill differences nationally Explaining skill differences nationally (2009) Income + + Education Skill Age (=<50) x Data source: Federal Communications  Commission broadband surveyEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Is adoption of services  random?Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Use of Facebook vs MySpace  by Race/Ethnicity, 2007 Hargittai, E Hargittai E. (2007) Whose Space? Differences among Users and Non Users of Social Non-Users Network Sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 13(1).276-297. http://webuse.org/p/a21Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Use of Facebook vs MySpace  by Race/Ethnicity, 2009 Hargittai, E. (2011). Open Doors, Closed Spaces? Differentiated Adoption of Social Network Sites by User Background. In Race After the Internet. Edited by Peter Chow- White and Lisa Nakamura. Routledge.Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Data more representative than may first appearEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • The Wired Generation .. but not in every way UIC ‘09 = 4% UIC ‘10 = 18%Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Who uses Twitter? Hargittai, E. & Litt, E. (2011). The Tweet Smell of Celebrity Success: Explaining Twitter Adoption among a Diverse Group of Young Adults New Adults. Media & Society. 13(5):824-842. http://webuse.org/p/a36Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Who uses Twitter? ( g (longitudinal data 2009‐2010) ) African American Texting often Web access on cell phone Internet skill in 2009 Interest in entertainment/  celebrity news in 2009 .. local/national news .. international news + + + .. politics Twitter use in 2010Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • August, 2011 August, 2010Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Is there a participation gap?Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Online Engagement (ever) In percentages Men Women … created a quiz or poll for people to take online 38 38 37 … uploaded a video to a video sharing site (such as YouTube) 49 57 44 … voted on the quality of content available on sites where users can rate content (such as YouTube or 49 64 38 Digg) … submitted a review about a product or service (on sites such as Amazon or Yelp) p) 34 47 25 … changed/added information to a Wikipedia entry 17 29 8 … changed the privacy settings of your Facebook account 81 77 85Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Online Engagement (ever) In percentages Men Women … created a quiz or poll for people to take online 38 38 37 … uploaded a video to a video sharing site (such as YouTube) 49 57 44 … voted on the quality of content available on sites where users can rate content (such as YouTube or 49 64 38 Digg) … submitted a review about a product or service (on sites such as Amazon or Yelp) p) 34 47 25 … changed/added information to a Wikipedia entry 17 29 8 … changed the privacy settings of your Facebook account 81 77 85Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Online Engagement (ever) In percentages Men Women … created a quiz or poll for people to take online 38 38 37 … uploaded a video to a video sharing site (such as YouTube) 49 57 44 … voted on the quality of content available on sites where users can rate content (such as YouTube or 49 64 38 Digg) … submitted a review about a product or service (on sites such as Amazon or Yelp) p) 34 47 25 … changed/added information to a Wikipedia entry 17 29 8 … changed the privacy settings of your Facebook account 81 77 85Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Online Engagement (ever) – summary Range: 0‐5 Mean: 1.85 Mean: 1 85 No activities N ti iti 26.0% 26 0% 1 activity 21.1% 2 activities 2 ti iti 18.7% 18 7% 3 activities 17.1% 4 activities 4 ti iti 10.3% 10 3% 5 activities 6.7%Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Number of online engagement activities by genderEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Number of online engagement activities by race Range: 0‐5 Mean: 1.8 St.dev.: 1.6 *** * ***Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University * p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001
    • Number of online engagement activities by  p parental education 3.02 1.07Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Number of online engagement activities by skill Low High g SkillEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • The implications of  digital inequality  di i l i li for Internet research for Internet researchEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Data? Log data L d t  A record of actions d f 123.45.67.89 - 25/Mar/2003 10:15:32 - http://www.google.com/search?q=politics - Firefox 1.0.7; Windows NT 5.1 - 740674ce2123e969 Source: http://www.google.com/privacy/faq.htmlEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Data? Log data L d t  A record of actions d f 123.45.67.89 - 25/Mar/2003 10:15:32 - http://www.google.com/search?q=politics - Firefox 1.0.7; Windows NT 5.1 - 740674ce2123e969 Source: http://www.google.com/privacy/faq.htmlEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Challenges of relying on log data • Becoming user of a service is not a random  event • People understand and use sites/services  differently • Site usage is likely only one of many ways in  which people engage in a particular behavior hi h l i ti l b h i Hargittai, E & Hsieh, Y. P. (2010). Predictors and Consequences of Differentiated Social Network Site Uses. Information, Communication and Society.13(4):515-536. Puckett, C. & Hargittai, E. (Forthcoming). From Dot-Edu to Dot-Com: Predictors of College Students’ Job and Career Information Seeking. Sociological Focus. Dobransky, K Dobransky K. & Hargittai, E. (In Press). Inquiring Minds Acquiring Hargittai E Press) Wellness: Uses of Online and Offline Sources for Health Information. Health Communication.Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • ? rticipation ion Higher SES Higher SES Higher SES Higher SES rticipati Political par Political par Lower SES Lower SES Lower SES Time TimeEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University SES = socioeconomic status
    • ? rticipation ion Higher SES Higher SES Higher SES Higher SES rticipati Political par Political par Lower SES Lower SES Lower SES Time TimeEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University SES = socioeconomic status
    • ? rticipation ion Higher SES Higher SES Higher SES Higher SES rticipati Political par Political par Lower SES Lower SES Lower SES Time TimeEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University SES = socioeconomic status
    • ion rticipati Political par TimeEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • The challenges of data  opportunitiesEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Implications of differentiated uses for  research design • Actions and opinions on a site are not  necessarily (in fact, rarely) representative of a  il (i f t l ) t ti f broader range of Internet  users • Must be cautious when relying on online  data sources for generalizable resultsEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Who benefits most  from their digital media uses? SkillEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Why is it helpful to focus on skill? Why is it helpful to focus on skill? $ SkillEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • What are the implications of  differentiated uses? diff i d ?Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Possible outcomes Higher SES Higher SES nities/Benefits Higher SES Higher SES Lower SES Lower SES Lower SES pportun OR? OR?Op Time “SES” = “socioeconomic status” Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Possible outcomes Higher SES Higher SES nities/Benefits Higher SES Higher SES Lower SES Lower SES Lower SES pportun OR? OR?Op Time “SES” = “socioeconomic status” Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Take‐aways • Adoption of a service is not a random event • People’s background relates to what they do  online • The more privileged tend to be more skilled • The more skilled tend to do more online The more skilled tend to do more online • Online voices are not representative of all  opinions i iEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Thanks to funders: Robert and Kaye Hiatt Fund for Research  on Media, Technology, and Society on Media Technology and Society Thanks to students/former students: Thanks to students/former students:Eszter Hargittai, Northwestern University
    • Thank you! Questions? Q ti ? www.eszter.com www eszter com @eszter Gplus.to/eszter webuse.org bEszter Hargittai, Northwestern University