World history ch.2


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World history ch.2

  1. 1. Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent
  2. 2. The Geography of Ancient Mesopotamia
  3. 3. Mesopotamia Region where Tigris & Euphrates Rivers flow  Name means: “land between two rivers”  Rivers: provide water and means of travel
  4. 4. Fertile Soil Rain & melting snow caused river flooding  Soil picked up from mts.  Rivers overflowed their banks causing flooding and spreading of silt onto land (good for growing crops)
  5. 5. An Arid Climate Less than 10” of rain w/ hot summers  Arid Climate Ancient people could still grow crops due to rivers and fertile soil 3500 B.C.  Widespread farming villages across Mesopotamia
  6. 6. Flood & Droughts Floods were unpredictable  Extent of floods dependent on amount of rain & snow melt  Too little rain & snow melt meant no flood  Would cause drought & people would starve
  7. 7. Irrigation 6000 B.C.  People took steps to control water supply  Built earth walls to hold back water during floods  Built canals to carry water to the fields  Constant challenge to keep canals free from muddy silt
  8. 8. A Land of Few Resources No forests for wood in Mesopotamia Little stone and minerals Reed & Brick Houses  Used to build homes  Crumbled easily in bad weather & had to be repaired often Brick Walls  Area was invaded easily because it was not surrounded by mts. or other natural barriers  Mesopotamia often conquered or stolen from  Built brick walls around their towns & villages  Sometimes 25 feet thick w/ guard towers and surrounded by open ditches or moats
  9. 9. Trading for Resources Obtained stone, wood, copper, and tin through trade Traded for luxuries such as gold, ivory, ebony, and precious stones Offered grain, dates, and other farm products  Could do this due to a surplus of crops Jobs such as trading, digging canals, building walls, and farming were done over and over Community leaders organized groups of people to do the work at the right time
  10. 10. The First Civilizations
  11. 11. The Rise of Civilization Villages grew larger & larger  Eventually became cities Workers Organized to solve problems  Building & cleaning irrigation canals Society & culture grew more complex  Changes led to civilization  1st 3300 B.C. in Sumer
  12. 12. Sumerian City-States Cities were:  Centers of trade, learning, & religion Most people lived in countryside  Over time cities ruled surrounding lands & villages  Called a city-state Sumer had 12 city-states  Babylon, Kish, Nippur, and Ur  Fertile land; farmers grew lots of food; supported larger populations
  13. 13. A Sumerian City Narrow, winding streets; walls surrounded cities, w/ gates to let people in Homes built of reeds and mud or brick  Series of rooms arranged around a courtyard
  14. 14. The Ziggurat: Center of the City Largest & most important structure in city Center of temple complex  Like a city hall (priests ran irrigation system & other important aspects of city life)  People paid for services with grain and other items  Priests controlled grain surplus & city-state’s wealth
  15. 15. Priests Become Leaders Priests  Played political role & religious role  People went to them to ask the gods for help Sumerians believed in polytheism  Believed in many gods and goddesses  4 main gods: gods of the sky, winds, hills, and fresh water  Each city-state worshipped their own main god  Believed gods could prevent bad things from happening  Each god had many priests who worked to satisfy the gods & claimed to have influence with them  Because of this people accepted priests as leaders
  16. 16. New Leaders in Sumer 3000 B.C.  City-states were attacked because of their wealth  Some from far off lands  During these times a powerful man was asked to rule them and protect the city  At 1st just in time of war; eventually full time New leaders  Took over some of priests jobs  Maintained canals, managed grain surplus, & acted as judges  Eventually became a king of people 2375 B.C.  Sumer became a kingdom under one king  Priests were still important for pleasing the gods and keeping
  17. 17. Sumerian Society Social Classes created  King & priests were part of upper class  Believed to have links to gods  Landowners, gov’t officials, & rich merchants were also part of upper class  Middle class  All other free people (farmers, artisans, etc.)  Lowest class  Slaves: had some rights; could conduct business, borrow money, & buy freedom
  18. 18. Role of Women Women were included in all social classes Some were priestesses, owned land, worked as merchants and artisans, and raised children
  19. 19. Sumerian Scientific Developments Good at solving problems Invented and developed knowledge to better their lives Early Inventions:  The plow: helped farmers  The wheel: transport goods & used to make pottery faster Mathematics:  Developed arithmetic to keep records of crops and trade goods  Number system based on 60
  20. 20. Written language Invented writing to meet business needs  Merchants needed records of exchange  Also wanted to label goods  Marked outside of containers with pictographs Pictographs:  1st showed actual objects  Later stood for ideas & sounds Eventually stopped using pictures & used wedge-shaped symbols  Wedge-shaped writing called cuneiform Writing System was complex  600 different symbols; took years to learn; few people were able to read and write  Scribes: people to specialized in writing  Professional record keepers Writing later used to write about wars, floods, & reigns of kings
  21. 21. Empires of the Fertile Crescent
  22. 22. The First Empire Builders 3000 to 2000 B.C.  Kings fought over Sumer land  More land = more wealth and power to king  No single king was able to control all of Mesopotamia
  23. 23. The Akkadian Empire Sargon  2371 B.C. took control of region  1st creator of 1st empire (Akkadian Empire)  Eventually ruled lands from Persian Gulf through Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea  Area known as Fertile Crescent: rich soil and water made area good for farming Empires  Important because they change the way people live  May bring peace, encourage trade, include people from several cultures (ideas, technology, & customs)
  24. 24. The Babylonian Empire &Hammurabi Akkadian Empire fell apart due to attacks from outside people Amorites invaded Sumer & set capital in Babylon Hammurabi ruled Empire  Created a code of law to control the lands & that people had to follow  He reviewed all existing laws and drew up a single law & displayed it on a huge pillar in Babylon
  25. 25.  Hammurabi Code  Goal: justice to everyone in empire  Id wrongdoings & their punishment  Society should be run by the rule of law & apply to everyone  People have right to know laws and the punishment for not following them
  26. 26. Assyrians & of F.C. Assyria took control Chaldeans  Built powerful army and set out to control neighboring lands A Powerful Empire  Used latest inventions for war  Iron swords, iron-tipped spears, battering rams, ladders,& dug tunnels Ashurbanipal  Ruled during height of Assyrian Empire Assyrians governed land by appoint governor to rule each land  Sent tribute to Assyrian emperor  Pay for protection give by Assyrian army  Fail to pay & army destroyed cities in governors land & people where exiled
  27. 27. Assyria Crumbles Medes & Chaldeans joined forces to defeat Assyrians  Burned capital of Nineveh to the ground
  28. 28. A New Babylonian Empire Chaldeans ruled former Assyrian empire  Capital was Babylon Nebuchadnezzar II was emperor  Rebuilt city of Babylon  Added artificial mts. covered with trees and plants; appeared to be floating gardens Chaldeans were cruel rulers  Destroyed Hebrews’ sacred temple in Jerusalem  Held thousands of Hebrews captive
  29. 29. Persia Controls Southwest Asia Medes  Controlled east of F.C.  Area bounded by mts. ranges Perians  Nomads from Central Asia  Created tiny kingdoms & thrived through trade  Grew in power and threatened for control
  30. 30. Cyrus Founds the Persian Empire Cyrus took control of Medes Empire Vision of conquering lands around Persia & uniting to form one empire Conquered Anatolia, lands once controlled by Assyrians & Chaldeans Needed way to control lands filled w/ different people Set up a policy of toleration  Allowed people to keep their customs & beliefs  Worship their own gods, speak their language, & practice their own way of life  Had to pay tribute though  Fewer revolts & people lived in peace
  31. 31. Darius Expands the Empire Cambyses  Successor of Cyrus  Ruled through hard means  After his death rebellions broke out  Darius  Strong leader who came to power & dealt with rebellions  Looked to expand boundaries  Expanded as far east as India (2,800 miles)  New policies for huge empire  Empire divided into 20 provinces  Each had local gov’t  Satraps (governors) carried out orders in provinces and collected taxes  Military commander for each satrap  Had spies (king’s eyes and ears) to be sure satraps followed orders
  32. 32.  Darius also built a Royal Road to help unite the empire  1,775 miles long  Royal messages sent along the road  Mail and military troops also used road Darius set up a code of law based on Hammurabi’s model & minted coins (promoted business and made it easy to pay taxes) Planned a march against Egyptian rebels  But died before that happened  Son Xerxes dealt with Egypt