The Beginnings of RomeAncient Rome began with the overthrow of foreign Kings in 503B. C. But romans like to say the history of their city began at753 B. C.
The Founding of RomeThe legend keeps going with the twins Romulus andRemus the descendants of Aeneas who foundedRome. Their mother abandoned them, but they weresaved by a wolf. When the twins grew up they foughtover Rome’s location so Romulus killed his brotherRemus and traced Rome’s location around Palatinehill. After Romulus a series of Roman kings ruled thecity. In the 600s B. C. the Etruscans from northernItaly conquered Rome. In order to regain self-rule theromans overthrew the Etruscans King.
Romes Geography and EarlyLife Over throw of Estrucans Rome grew from a city to a country, and eventually into an empire
Hills and Rivers 1st settlers of Rome were Latin They built Rome on seven steep hills They chose Rome for it’s mild climate, good farmland, and strategic location Located a short distance from the Mediterranean Sea on ancient trade routes, it also lay next to the Tiber River, an important resource
Italian Peninsula Location on Italian Peninsula played important role in development The 2 main mountain ranges of Italy helped protect Rome The Alps border Italy on the North and the Apennies form Italy’s spine Italy also had big plains that were good farming
Farm Life Roman farmers planted wheat, barley, beans, vegetables, and fruit. They later planted olives and grapes. They raised pigs, goats, sheep, and chickens. They used oxen to pull their plows. Most Roman farmers lived in simple homes of mud or timber.
Farm Life Most Roman farmers lived in simple homes of mud or timber. Had little furniture. Lived with grandparents, aunts& uncles, nieces& nephews, or cousins. They had to obey the orders they got.
Rise of the Republic• Rome developed into 2 classes the Patricians and the Plebeians• There was a conflict between the two classes; when the conflict ended it defined the citizens rights ○ They used this system for 500 years to keep the people under control
• Patricians were wealthy land owners that had seats in the gov’t • Upper class• Plebeians were commoners that had the right to vote but didn’t have gov’t seats • Lower class• The Twelve Tables was a system made around 450b.c. to establish basic rights and duties • Made by patricians
The leaders ofthe Romanrepublicestablished atripartitegovernment.
The type of government hasthree branches legislative judicial executive
Types and what they doLegislative: makes lawsJudicial: interprets law in courtExecutive: enforces a country’s laws
Legislative branch included the senate and the assemblies
The senate Was made up of 300 Judicial branch members that advise consisted of eight Roman leaders. judges they served for Most senators were one year. patricians. They oversaw the The assemblies were courts and governed made up of plebeians. the provinces. Their representatives 2 consuls led Rome’s protected the rights of executive branch. plebeian. For 1 year they commanded the army and the directed the government.
Going on each consul had the power to veto or overrule theother.In times of crisis the consuls could choose adictator – a leader with absolute power.
The republic expands For hundred of years after the founding of the republic, Rome expanded it territories. By the 300s B.C., the Romans dominated central Italy. By 275 B.C., all of the and the Italian Peninsula was under Roman control. Rome did not impose harsh rule on conquered peoples. The republic offered Roman citizenship to most of them and allowed them to govern themselves. In return , the new citizens had to pay taxes and provide soldiers for the Roman army.
Romans brought great wealth and slaves They bought large estates and farmed them with slaves But because many small farmers couldn’t compete, they lost their farms Unemployment and poverty increased The gap between rich and poor grew wider
Conflicts at Home w/ expansion wealthy Romans neglected civic duties They wanted more power & wealth Distance between rich & poor increased Threat of an uprising increased ○ Poor resented the wealthy
Reform Fails Reformers tried to break up huge estates & give land to poor Wealthy landowners in the Senate opposed reforms & had reformers killed
Civil War General who conquered other lands became hungry for power Hired poor farmers to serve as soldiers ○ Loyalty shifted from Republic to generals Civil War broke out One side was generals who supported the plebeians On the other were generals backed by patricians & senators Marius General for plebeians Sulla General for patricians 82 B.C. Patricians won war Sulla took power & became a dictator
Julius Caesar Rose to power after death of Sulla General, politician, & dictator Born into noble family Many of many talents & ambition Would have to prove himself on the battlefield
Military Leader Gauls Fierce fighters in France Defeated by Caesar in a brilliant military campaign ○ Conquests won new lands & great wealth for Rome ○ Also won him fame & fortune ○ Wrote about exploits in a book entitled Commentaries on the Gallic War
Dictator for Life Caesar gain reputation as a reformer who supported common people Popular w/ plebeians Had enemies Powerful Romans (senators) opposed him ○ Cicero is one such person (key consul) Distrusted Caesar & his quest for power When Caesar returned from Gaul he was ordered to break up his army, but instead he marched into Italy and began fighting for control of Rome Caesar was victories 46 B.C. he was appointed Roman ruler 44 B.C. he was named dictator for life
Caesar’s Reform He expanded the senate by appointing supporters from Italy & other regions Some feared he would make himself king ○ He would rule for a lifetime & family members would also rule after him
Assassination & Legacy Concerns over his growing power were his downfall Senate resented his power March 15 44 B.C. some senators surrounded Caesar & assassinated him Leaders of this conspiracy were eventually killed or committed suicide
Emperors Rule Rome Several Roman leaders struggled to gain power after Caesars death Octavian (great-nephew of Caesar) was one Struggles led to another civil war War destroyed what was left of Roman Republic Octavian eventually wins the war and took the name Augustus (means exalted one)
Augustus Rebuilds Rome Was 1st emperor of Rome Liked to be called 1st citizen instead Restored some aspects of republican gov’t ○ Senators, consuls, & tribunes held office again Augustus had power over them though He brought provinces under control & strengthened defenses Began a civil service (a group of officials employed by the gov’t) Collected taxes, oversaw postal system, & managed grain supply He also rebuilt & beautified Rome Built grand temples, theaters, & monuments
The Roman Peace Rome experienced peace & stability Called Pax Romana (Roman Peace) Lasted about 200 years Empire grew in size (2 million square miles) Roman army became greatest fighting force in the world 300,000 men Guarded empire’s frontiers Built roads, bridges, & tunnels Strong navy created
A Strong Government Pax Romana continued after Augustus died in A.D. 14 Good & bad rulers followed him The gov’t started by Augustus was so effective that it continued to do well By A.D. 100s empire reached from Spain to North Africa to Britain
Agriculture Helped empire prosper Everything depended on it Most people were farmers Most survived on produce from their local area Additional food could be obtained through trade Industry also grew Manufacturing of pottery, metal goods, & glass increased Wine & olive oil as well
Trade Economy grew through trade routes Traders sailed Mediterranean Sea Traveled by land to Gaul & other parts of Europe Acquired valuable good not available at home Grain, ivory, silk, spices, gold/silver, & wild animals
Currency Economy was united by a common currency Silver coins called denarius was used throughout empire Made trade between different pats of the empire easier Expanding economy benefited the already wealthy Division between rich & poor grew
Family and Society Head of family was father Owned all property & had control over other family members ○ Power limited by public opinion & custom (Society disapproved of punishing family w/o good cause)
Women Had some freedoms Expected to run the household & take care of children Could inherit property & run small businesses when husbands were away Had little power outside the home & could not vote
Children Most educated at home Wealthy families sent boys to private schools Girls stayed home & learned household skills ○ Usually married by 14
Social Classes Old division of patricians & plebeians evolved into upper & lower classes Patricians & wealthy plebeians became upper class Middle Class: prosperous business leaders & officials Lower Class: Farmers Lowest Class: slaves (largest class in society) ○ 1/3 of population ○ Some prisoners of war ○ Some slaves because parents were ○ Slaves worked as low-level clerical positions, performed physical labor (worked in mines, on large estates, & as servants)
Roman Beliefs Worshipped 100’s of spirits Spirits lived in everything around them Household gods protected them Set up shrines in their homes
Religious Influences Beliefs became influenced by culture Etruscans & Greeks influenced Roman religion ○ Etruscans: adopted idea of gods in human form, rituals designed to predict the future ○ Greeks: borrowed many gods from Greeks Jupiter similar to Greek god Zeus
Religion & Public Life Government & Religion were linked in Rome Priests were gov’t officials Emperor was head of church Roman gods were symbols of the state Expected to honor gods in public ceremonies Overtime emperors became worshipped as gods
Life in Roman Cities At the height of the Roman Empire, Rome had nearly 1 million people People from across the empire moved to Rome ○ Created a blend of ideas & customs
The Crowded City Crowded, dirty, & noisy Many were unemployed & poor Lived in rundown apartment buildings w/ no running water or toilets Public bathhouses were a means of adapting People dropped their trash out the windows injuring pe0ple walking on the streets below Fire was a constant danger
Rich and Poor Poor had little to eat Bread, olives, & fruit Gov’t provided free grain Wealthy Life of luxury Lived in large, comfortable homes in the countryside Went to theaters Had fancy dinner parties Had fine foods: dates, oranges, ham, salted jellyfish, roast parrot, & boiled flamingo tongue
Responding to UrbanProblems Built sewer & plumbing systems for sanitation Built aqueducts to carry water to Roman towns Public baths All classes visited baths to bathe & socialize Gov’t provided entertainment to distract Romans from problems w/ city life Circus Maximus: oval stadium where chariot races took place
Christianity’s Jewish Roots 63 B.C. Romans conquered Jewish kingdom of Judah (Judea) ○ Jews had been treated badly & wanted to be free from foreign rulers Sacred writings promised a Messiah (descended from King David) who would free them
The Life of Jesus Born in a province of Judea Followed many teachings of Judaism Also taught ideas & practices that differed
Birth & Early Life Know of the life of Jesus from the Gospels He was born in Bethlehem & grew up in Nazareth Was raised by Mary & Joseph
Jesus’ Followers He became a traveling teacher Biblical accounts say he cured the sick & lame & turned water to wine He had 12 disciples (close followers)
The Teachings of Jesus He preached justice, compassion, & the coming of God’s kingdom Delivered messages in parables or stories with morals 3 best known are: Good Samaritan, the Prodigal Son, & the Lost Sheep Good Samaritan: teaches importance of helping others, even if they are different Prodigal Son: deals w/ God’s call for the lost soul to repent The Lost Sheep: deals w/ God’s concern for every individual, no matter how lost or seemingly insignificant
The Death of Jesus Claim of Jesus as the Messiah threatened the Romans Questioned their political power & authority
The Early Christians Jesus’ disciples were Jews Eventually developed beliefs & practices that broke away from Judaism ○ Became known as Christians
The Early Church Disciples though Jesus fulfilled prophecies Tried to convince other Jews to accept Jews as the Messiah The early Church Stressed sharing property, charity, helping prisoners, & taking common meals ○ Women & slaves were eager to join Disciples hoped to spread Jesus’ message & convert others
Conflicts Arises 1st members of church were Jewish converts to Christianity Conversions of Gentiles (non-Jewish people) to Christianity sparked debate Roman leaders ignored early Christians Viewed as a division of Judaism
Paul Spreads Christianity Saul Early leader of Christian church The Road to Damascus Saul experienced a sudden conversion ○ Jesus was revealed to him as son of God ○ Saul was appointed to proclaim Jesus among the Gentiles ○ Became to believe Jesus was the Jewish Messiah Saul’s cultural & political background helped to convert nonbelievers
The Journeys ChangeChristianity Paul made 4 missionary journeys Christianity spread through Roman Empire Paul thought people did not have to become Jews before becoming Christians Separated Christianity from Judaism Made new religion appealing to Gentiles
The Letters Paul started new churches & kept in touch by writing letters Letters explained Christian beliefs & urged coverts to live according to God’s law
Paul’s Death & Legacy Paul wanted to travel to Rome to spread Christian faith He reached Rome but not in the way he had hoped Near the end of his career he returned to Jerusalem He was taken into custody by Romans (was in prison for 2 years, demanded to be tried before Caesar in Rome) A.D. 60 He arrived in Rome & remained under