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Transcript

  • 1. Section 5
    Decisive Battles
  • 2. The Tide Turns
    1862 Battle of Antietam
    After this battle war began to go badly for the North
    Poor leadership was the result
    McClellan replaced with General Ambrose Burnside
  • 3. Confederate Victories
    December 1862
    Burnside marched army of 120,000 men toward Richmond
    General Lee massed 75,000 men at Fredericksburg, VA to block his path
    Burnside ordered charge after charge during this battle
    Union lost 13,000 men to the Confederates 5,000
    Lincoln replaced Burnside with General Joseph Hooker
    May 1863
    Hooker marched Union army toward Richmond
    Union army was smashed at the Battle of Chancellorsville by a force half its size
    Battle was costly for the South; Stonewall Jackson was shot and wounded & later died
  • 4. The Battle of Gettysburg
    After Lee’s army defeated Union forces at Chancellorsville he gained confidence & headed north to Pennsylvania
    Union forces now under the command of General George G. Meade meet Lee accidentally at Gettysburg
    Confederates were in search of shoes desperately needed in the South
    Bloody battle marked a turning point in the war
    Union troops took position on the crest of a low ridge
    Confederates’ task was to dislodge them from their position
    Confederate attempts failed several times, concluding with a suicidal charge across an open field by General George Pickett on July 3
    After 3 days 23,000 Union soldiers & 28,000 Confederate soldiers had been killed or wounded
    Lincoln wired Meade, “Do not let the enemy escape”
    July 4, Lee retreated to Virginia & the Union army failed to pursue him
  • 5. Gettysburg Address
    Both sides suffered heavy casualties at Gettysburg
    Sparsely populated South could not recover from
    November 19, 1863 President Lincoln visited Gettysburg to dedicate the battlefield cemetery & to honor the soldiers buried there
    He promised, “these dead shall not have died in vain”
  • 6. The Fall of Vicksburg
    July 4, 1863
    Vicksburg surrendered to General grant
    Was last city on the Mississippi River in Confederate hands
    Grant was able to capture Vicksburg not by force, but by surrounding the city & cutting it off from supplies
    Day after day the Union bombarded Vicksburg
    Residents took shelter in cellars & caves they had dug in hillsides
    They ate mules & rats to keep from starving
    After 6 weeks the Confederate troops gave up
    Last Confederate stronghold at Port Hudson, LA fell a few days later
    Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg along with loses at Vicksburg & Port Hudson made July 1863 a major turning point in the war
  • 7. Closing in on the Confederacy
    1864
    Grant given command of Union forces
    Decided to attack Richmond no matter how large the Union losses
  • 8. Grant vs. Lee
    Grant’s huge army hammered the Confederates in several battles in northern Virginia
    They were unable to break through, but continued to attack
    Grant’s army suffered 55,000 casualties in 7 weeks of fighting; Confederates suffered 35,000
    Grant knew he could count of a steady supply of men & supplies while Lee was running low on both
    Petersburg
    Grant used the same tactic he used a Vicksburg of besieging the Confederate troops
    While Grant & Lee battled, Union forces under command of William T. Sherman advanced toward Atlanta
  • 9. Sherman’s March
    Sherman believed in total war
    All-out attacks aimed at destroying an enemy’s army, its resources, & it’s people’s will to fight
    Confederates were unable to stop Sherman’s advance
    Union troops captured Atlanta, GA on September 2, 1864
    Victory gave Lincoln’s reelection campaign a boost
    Northerners were growing tired of the war prior to this event & support for Lincoln was also lagging; Lincoln won election victory over General George McClellan
    November 1864
    Sherman ordered Atlanta to be burned & he continued his march to the Atlantic Ocean
    Along the way Union forces set fires to buildings, seized crops & livestock, & pulled up railroad tracks leaving a 60 mile path of destruction
  • 10.
  • 11. Peace at last
    March 1865
    Grant’s army continued to besiege Petersburg
    Grant extended his battle lines east & west
    Lee knew the city would fall
    Lincoln also saw end of war too
    2nd inaugural address
    “With malice toward none; with charity for all; …let us strive together… to bind up the nation’s wounds”
  • 12. Surrender at Appomattox
    April 2
    Grant’s troop broke through Confederate lines
    Richmond was captured by the Union
    Lee retreated to Appomattox Court House
    April 9, 1865
    Lee surrendered
    Grant offered:
    Confederates to give up their weapons & leave in peace
  • 13. The War’s Terrible Toll
    Bloodiest conflict U.S. ever fought
    Confederates: 260,000 men died
    Union: exceeded 360,000 men including 37,000 African Americans
    ½ million were wounded
    Many returned home disfigured for life
    Key results of the war
    Reunited the nation
    Put an end to slavery