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Section 4 Section 4 Presentation Transcript

  • Section 4
    The Civil War and American Life
  • Divisions over the war
    Nation divided as well as divisions in the North & South
    Northerners: some did not support the war or want to restore the Union
    Southerners: some did not support a war to defend slavery or secession
  • Divisions in the South
    Georgia
    Only half supported secession
    North Carolina
    Held nearly 100 peace protests
    Supplied second most number of troops to Confederate army
    Regions w/ large plantations supported the more stronger than poor black country regions
    States’ Rights
    Created divisions
    Objections to officers from other states leading troops
    Objection to Confederate government forcing men to do military service
  • Division in the north
    Many opposed the Emancipation Proclamation
    Others believed South had a right to secede
    Northern Democrats
    Blamed Lincoln & Republicans of forcing the South into War
    Called Copperheads; strongest in Ohio, Indiana, & Illinois; criticized the war & called for peace
  • Dealing with disruptions
    People on both sides tried to disrupt the war
    Tried to encourage soldiers to desert
    Helped prisoners of war escape
    Southern peace groups worked against the Confederacy
    Tried to prevent men from volunteering for military service
    Habeas Corpus suspended
    Lincoln & Jefferson Davis suspended Habeas Corpus in some places (constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment)
    Empowered judges to determine if prisoners were being legally held
    13,000 people in the North were arrested and jailed without trials
  • The Draft
    April 1862
    South: men aged 18-35 & later to 50 were drafted into the army
    March 1863
    North: U.S. Congress created a military draft
    Draft laws
    Incomplete & discriminatory
    Could hire a substitute to avoid service
    Could buy out by paying the government $300.00
    Critics began calling the Civil War “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight”
    Southern governors helped their citizens evade the draft
    July 1863
    Riots took place in New York City to show opposition to the draft
  • Bounty, or lump sum, of $1,500 was paid for a 3-year enlistment
    This led to the practice of bounty jumping
    A man would enlist, collect his bounty and then desert, only to reenlist somewhere else
  • The war and economic strains
    Northern Industries
    boomed during the war; turned out goods Union needed
    Draft did drain away workers
    August 1861
    Congress levied 1st income tax in history
    Union printed $400 million of paper money
    Pay for expenses
    1st federal paper money printed
    Led to inflation; prices of goods in raised 80% during the war in the North
    South
    Less able to sustain war
    Union blockade prevented ability to raise money
    Shortages made goods more expensive
    Led to greater inflation than in the North
    $18 shoes now cost $800
    Food production fell as Union armies destroyed farmland & crops
    Led to riots for food, cloth, & shoes
  • Women in the civil war
    400 women disguised as men fought in the war
    Became spies
    Took over businesses, farms, plantations for men who were fighting in the war
    Some women in the South worked the field to meet the needs of workers
    Work in factories
    Became teachers & nurses
    Barriers to women fell
    Elizabeth Blackwell became 1st female physician
    Dorothea Dix became head of Union army nurses
    Harriet Tubman continued to lead enslaved people to freedom
    Clara Barton cared for wounded soldiers on the battlefield