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  • 1. Section 3
    The End of Reconstruction
  • 2. Reconstruction’s Conclusion
    Radical Republicans
    Support declined
    People focused more on their own lives
    Grant’s Scandals
    Poor public office appointments
    Corruption of appointees
    Grant
    Claimed no part in scandals, but reputation was hurt
    Won reelection in 1872, but Northerners lost faith in Republicans & their policies
  • 3. Self-rule for the South
    Amnesty for Confederates?
    Northerners & Southerners both wanted the withdrawal of federal troops & amnesty for Confederates
    1869
    Republican opponents: began taking back the south one state at a time
    Chipped away at African Americans rights
  • 4. The Election of 1876
    End of Reconstruction resulted from this election
    Choice of President decided by Congress
    Due to election returns
    Deal made between Republicans & Democrats
    Republicans: Rutherford B. Hayes; would continue reconstruction
    Democrats: Tilden; would end reconstruction
    Won popular vote; 20 electoral votes disputed; one vote short of 185 needed to win electoral college
    Special Commissions
    15 members appointed by Congress
    Most were Republicans
    20 electoral votes given to Hayes
    Democrats did not fight decision because Hayes told them privately he would end reconstruction
    Once in office Hayes removed federal troops from the South
  • 5. African Americans Lose Rights
    End of Reconstruction
    African Americans lost political & civil rights
    Several techniques used to stop blacks from voting
    Poll tax: must pay a tax before voting; kept poor whites & freedmen from voting
    Literacy test: required to read & explain section of Constitution
    Grandfather clause allowed illiterate white males to vote; test avoided if father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1, 1867
    Segregation: enforced separation of races; barred mixing of races in almost every aspect of life, know as Jim Crow laws (born in separate hospitals, buried in separate cemeteries, separate playgrounds, restaurants, & schools, travel on specific seats on streetcars or take black streetcars); Laws were upheld in local courts
  • 6. 1896
    Supreme Court upheld segregation laws
    Plessy v. Ferguson
    Homer Plessy arrested for sitting in a coach marked for whites only
    Court upheld Louisiana law of segregated streetcars
    Ok if they were equal
    Separate but equal rule was in effect until the 1950s
    Facilities were rarely equal
  • 7. A Cycle of Poverty
    Poverty forced freedmen & poor whites to become sharecroppers
    Work the land for the farmer in return for a share in the value of the crop
    Landlord
    Supplied living quarters, tools, seed, & food on credit
    Crops were harvested & sold and amount given to sharecroppers was figured out
    In times of bad harvests or low crop prices sharecroppers often earned enough money to pay what they owned landlords
    Locked into a cycle of debt
  • 8. Industrial Growth
    South’s economy began to recover
    1880s
    New industries
    Agriculture in the South recovered, especially cotton production
    Tobacco production also increased
    Southern investors started or expanded industries
    Textile industry became important part of economy
    South began to develop their natural resources
    New mills to use South’s iron, timber, & oil
    South no longer dependent on cotton