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  • 1. The End of Reconstruction
  • 2. Radical Republicans • Support declined  People focused more on their own lives Grant’s Scandals • Poor public office appointments  Corruption of appointees • Grant  Claimed no part in scandals, but reputation was hurt  Won reelection in 1872, but Northerners lost faith in Republicans & their policies
  • 3. Amnesty for Confederates? • Northerners & Southerners both wanted the withdrawal of federal troops & amnesty for Confederates  1869 • Republican opponents: began taking back the south one state at a time • Chipped away at African Americans rights
  • 4.  End of Reconstruction resulted from this election  Choice of President decided by Congress • Due to election returns • Deal made between Republicans & Democrats  Republicans: Rutherford B. Hayes; would continue reconstruction  Democrats: Tilden; would end reconstruction  Won popular vote; 20 electoral votes disputed; one vote short of 185 needed to win electoral college  Special Commissions • 15 members appointed by Congress • Most were Republicans • 20 electoral votes given to Hayes  Democrats did not fight decision because Hayes told them privately he would end reconstruction  Once in office Hayes removed federal troops from the South
  • 5.  End of Reconstruction • African Americans lost political & civil rights • Several techniques used to stop blacks from voting  Poll tax: must pay a tax before voting; kept poor whites & freedmen from voting  Literacy test: required to read & explain section of Constitution  Grandfather clause allowed illiterate white males to vote; test avoided if father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1, 1867  Segregation: enforced separation of races; barred mixing of races in almost every aspect of life, know as Jim Crow laws (born in separate hospitals, buried in separate cemeteries, separate playgrounds, restaurants, & schools, travel on specific seats on streetcars or take black streetcars); Laws were upheld in local courts
  • 6. 1896 • Supreme Court upheld segregation laws  Plessy v. Ferguson  Homer Plessy arrested for sitting in a coach marked for whites only  Court upheld Louisiana law of segregated streetcars  Ok if they were equal • Separate but equal rule was in effect until the 1950s  Facilities were rarely equal
  • 7.  Poverty forced freedmen & poor whites to become sharecroppers • Work the land for the farmer in return for a share in the value of the crop  Landlord • Supplied living quarters, tools, seed, & food on credit • Crops were harvested & sold and amount given to sharecroppers was figured out  In times of bad harvests or low crop prices sharecroppers often earned enough money to pay what they owned landlords  Locked into a cycle of debt
  • 8.  South’s economy began to recover  1880s • New industries • Agriculture in the South recovered, especially cotton production • Tobacco production also increased  Southern investors started or expanded industries  Textile industry became important part of economy  South began to develop their natural resources • New mills to use South’s iron, timber, & oil • South no longer dependent on cotton