A Growing Conflict Andrew Johnson Proposed lenient plan of Reconstruction Put plan into effect himself, did not consult w/ legislators
13th Amendment January 1865 Congress approved amendment to abolish slavery throughout the nation Banned slavery & forced labor Congress had power to make laws to enforce its terms
Johnson’s Plan Amnesty offered Southern states could organize new gov’t & elect reps. for Congress Had to abolish slavery & ratify the 13th Amendment December 1865 Most states met Johnson’s requirements Senators elected included many former Confederate leaders Congress rejected plan 1st: refused to seat southern senators & reps. 2nd: two houses appointed a committee to form a new plan for the South Heard testimony about black codes: new laws used by southern states to control African Americans
Black Codes Replaced slavery w/ near slavery Caused hard line in Congress Radical Republicans Wanted to prevent former Confederates from regaining control over southern politics To protect the freedmen & guarantee them a right to vote
Civil Rights Act of 1866 Granted citizenship rights to African Americans and guaranteed the civil rights of all people except Native Americans Vetoed by Johnson & another bill extending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau Congress voted to overturn vetoes, & both received 2/3 vote of each house & became law
14th Amendment All people born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens States may not pass laws that take away a citizen’s rights; cannot deprive any person of life, liberty, or property w/o due process of law, or deny equal protection of the laws. Any state that denies the vote to any male citizen over the age of 21, will have representation in Congress reduced (not enforced until 1970s) Became powerful tool for enforcing civil rights
Radical Reconstruction 1866 election Rioters & police killed many African Americans in southern cities Led Congress to push for a stricter form of Reconstruction
Radicals In Charge Radical Republicans Won support to begin strict reconstruction Reconstruction Act of 1867 Removed gov’t of all southern states that did not ratify 14th Amendment Imposed military rule & divided states into five military districts Before returning to Union, each state had to write new state constitution & ratify 14th Amendment Also had to let African Americans vote
Time of Hope and Advancement African Americans Were elected as sheriffs, mayors 18 served in Congress Radical Reconstruction Southern states opened public schools, legislators spread tax money more evenly, & made fairer voting rules, gave property rights to women, states rebuilt bridges, roads & buildings Republican Party built a strong following from 3 groups Scalawags: southern whites who had opposed secession Freedmen voters Carpetbaggers: name given by southerners to northern whites who went south to start businesses or pursue political office
15th Amendment Approved in 1869 Barred all states from denying African American males the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude Did not prevent states from requiring voters to own property or pay a voting tax
Ku Klux Klan Secret societies created by white shut out of power to terrorize African Americans & their white allies Would threaten African American voters, burn crosses in their yard When threats failed they would: whip, torture, shoot, or hang African Americans & white Republicans Congress responded to violence w/ new laws Ku Klux Klan Acts of 1870 & 1871 Barred use of force against voeters
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