CHAPTER 9Caribbean South America
SECTION 1Physical Geography
Physical Features   World’s highest waterfall, S.A. largest lake, &    world’s largest rodent   Rugged mts., highlands, ...
Plains, Rivers, & Wildlife   Llanos       Region of plains between the highlands & the Andes       Mostly grassland w/ ...
Climate & Vegetation   Near equator = mostly warm temps year-round     Temps   do vary w/ elevation   Llanos region has...
Resources   Rich agriculture     Good soil & moderate climates     Crops: rice, coffee, bananas, & sugarcane   Valuabl...
SECTION 2Colombia
Columbia’s History   The Chibcha     Well developed civilizations     Practiced pottery making, weaving, &      metalwo...
Spanish Conquest    Spanish Conquest      Spanish arrived in the 1500s      Expanding the Spanish empire      Conquere...
   Independence     1700 struggle for independence began     Republic of Gran Colombia was created       Included Colo...
Colombia Today   Caribbean South America’s most populous    country   Most live in fertile valleys & basins among mt.   ...
Cultural Life   Geography has isolated regions from one another       People know by the area they live   African tradi...
Economy   Resources     Coffee,  bananas, corn, rice, cassava, sugarcane,      & flowers     Oil is leading export (fou...
Civil War   Major problem today     Many different groups fighting each other & the gov’t     Over past 40 years   Gue...
SECTION 3Venezuela & The Guianas
History & Culture of Venezuela   Many small tribes of South American Indians    prior to arrival of Spanish     Became i...
Independence & Self-Rule   Simon Bolivar     Led revolt against Spanish armies throughout the      region     Struggle ...
People & Culture   Descended from native Indians, Europeans &    Africans     Majority are mixed Indian & European     ...
Venezuela Today   Most make a living farming and ranching   Most wealthy Venezuelans & the gov’t have    made money in o...
Economy   Based on oil production   Most people live in poverty     Poor moved to cities to find work     Settled in o...
Government   1st president elected in 1959   Economic turmoil & political protests are    common   2002     PresidentH...
The Guianas   Guyana, Suriname, & French Guiana     Dense   tropical rain forests cover much of region
Guyana   “Land of Waters”   Agricultural land located on the flat, fertile    plains along the coast     Rice   & sugar...
Suriname   Resources & economy similar to Guyana   Diverse population     SouthAsians, Africans, Chinese, Indonesians, ...
French Guiana   Territory of France     Send   reps. to gov’t in Paris   People live mostly along coastal areas   2/3 ...
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Chapter 9 blog notes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 9Caribbean South America
  2. 2. SECTION 1Physical Geography
  3. 3. Physical Features World’s highest waterfall, S.A. largest lake, & world’s largest rodent Rugged mts., highlands, & plains drained by huge river system Mountains & highlands  Andes: 18,000 feet  Forms a three-pronged cordillera (mt. system made up of parallel ranges)  Active volcanoes & earthquakes  Guiana Highlands  Eroding for millions of years  Steep sided plateaus capped by sandstone (called tepuis)
  4. 4. Plains, Rivers, & Wildlife Llanos  Region of plains between the highlands & the Andes  Mostly grassland w/ few trees  Plains flood easily Orinoco River  River flows for about 1,600 miles  River & tributaries drain the plains & highlands  Cauca & Magdalena Rivers drain the Andean region Wildlife  Orinoco River Basin  Capybara, piranhas, catfish, & crocodiles  100s of bird species, jaguars, ocelots, & monkeys
  5. 5. Climate & Vegetation Near equator = mostly warm temps year-round  Temps do vary w/ elevation Llanos region has tropical savanna climate  Wet & dry seasons Rain forests  Humid tropical climate  Rain throughout the year
  6. 6. Resources Rich agriculture  Good soil & moderate climates  Crops: rice, coffee, bananas, & sugarcane Valuable Resources  Oil, iron ore, coal, & timber Coastal areas  Fish & shrimp Rivers in area used to produce hydroelectric power
  7. 7. SECTION 2Colombia
  8. 8. Columbia’s History The Chibcha  Well developed civilizations  Practiced pottery making, weaving, & metalworking  Customs  New rulers covered with gold dust & then taken to a lake to wash it off  Gold & emerald objects were thrown into the lake when ruler was being washed off  These customs inspired the legend of El Dorado
  9. 9. Spanish Conquest  Spanish Conquest  Spanish arrived in the 1500s  Expanding the Spanish empire  Conquered Chibcha & seized their treasure  Founded other colonies along Caribbean coast  By the 1600s they had set up large estates in Columbia  Powerfullandlords forced South American Indians & enslaved Africans to work the land
  10. 10.  Independence  1700 struggle for independence began  Republic of Gran Colombia was created  Included Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, & Venezuela  1830  Republic dissolved & New Granada (now Colombia) was created  After independence people argued over amount of power central gov’t & Roman Catholic Church should have  Rugged geography & little contact between people in Colombia lead to development of separate economies & identities  Uniting groups was difficult  Outbreaks of violence between the 1800s & 1900s killed thousands
  11. 11. Colombia Today Caribbean South America’s most populous country Most live in fertile valleys & basins among mt. ranges  Moderate climate good for farming here Rivers help connect settlements between mts. & coast Cattle ranches are common in the Llanos Few people live in the tropical rain forests in the south
  12. 12. Cultural Life Geography has isolated regions from one another  People know by the area they live African traditions influence songs & dances Soccer is enjoyed by many Colombians Tejo is also played  Chibcha sport similar to a ring toss Roman Catholicism is main religion Conflict  Big problem today  Border conflicts w/ Venezuela has gone on for many years  Different groups have waged war with each other & Colombian gov’t  Groups control large areas of the country & force farmers off their land, damaging the economy
  13. 13. Economy Resources  Coffee, bananas, corn, rice, cassava, sugarcane, & flowers  Oil is leading export (found in eastern Colombia)  Iron Ore, gold, emeralds, coal, & tin Many Colombians have low incomes even with rich resources  Urban poverty & rapid population growth are challenges for Colombia
  14. 14. Civil War Major problem today  Many different groups fighting each other & the gov’t  Over past 40 years Guerrillas  Militant group that uses irregular military force  Have forced farmers off their land & caused thousands to flee the country  Groups also grow illegal plants used to make cocaine Civil War have created uncertain future for Colombia New laws have made it harder for guerrillas & other militant groups to operate freely
  15. 15. SECTION 3Venezuela & The Guianas
  16. 16. History & Culture of Venezuela Many small tribes of South American Indians prior to arrival of Spanish  Became independent in 1800s, but Spanish rule shaped the history & culture of country Spanish Settlement & Colonial Rule  Spanish explorers came looking for gold & pearls  Forced South American Indians to dive for pearls & pan for gold  Little gold, however  Agriculture  Indigo was grown; South American Indians forced to work the fields  Many died & enslaved Africans were brought in  Many escaped to remote areas & began governing
  17. 17. Independence & Self-Rule Simon Bolivar  Led revolt against Spanish armies throughout the region  Struggle for independence ended in 1830 1830s  Caudillos (Dictators) & civil wars plagued Venezuela  Oil was discovered during this time  Money from oil was kept by the dictators or caudillos  1958 last dictator was forced from power
  18. 18. People & Culture Descended from native Indians, Europeans & Africans  Majority are mixed Indian & European  European descent live in large cities  African descent live along the coast Most people are Spanish speaking Roman Catholics  Indiansspeak 25 different languages & follow their own religious practices Culture  Dancing, rodeo events, baseball, & soccer
  19. 19. Venezuela Today Most make a living farming and ranching Most wealthy Venezuelans & the gov’t have made money in oil industry Agriculture & Ranching  Northern Venezuela  Small family farms & large commercial farms  Llaneros: cowboys; herd cattle
  20. 20. Economy Based on oil production Most people live in poverty  Poor moved to cities to find work  Settled in outskirts & lived in shacks w/ no running water, sewers, or electricity Wealth of country has attracted many immigrants  Economy & people suffer when oil prices drop (like in the 1980s) Member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Lake Maracaibo in a source of rich oil  Are trying to reduce dependence on oil income Guiana Highlands  Rich minerals like iron ore & gold
  21. 21. Government 1st president elected in 1959 Economic turmoil & political protests are common 2002  PresidentHugo Chavez started distributing oil income equally among Venezuelans  Millions went on strike to protest actions some for 2 months  This strike damaged the economy & oil exports fell dramatically 2004  Venezuelans called for a referendum (recall vote)
  22. 22. The Guianas Guyana, Suriname, & French Guiana  Dense tropical rain forests cover much of region
  23. 23. Guyana “Land of Waters” Agricultural land located on the flat, fertile plains along the coast  Rice & sugar most important crops Population is diverse ½ are descended from those who migrated to Guyana from India  Came to work sugar plantations Today  Most farm small plots of land or run small businesses
  24. 24. Suriname Resources & economy similar to Guyana Diverse population  SouthAsians, Africans, Chinese, Indonesians, & Creoles (mixed heritage)
  25. 25. French Guiana Territory of France  Send reps. to gov’t in Paris People live mostly along coastal areas 2/3 of people are of African descent  Europeans, Asians, & South American Indians as well Depend on imports for its food & energy

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