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    Chapter 9 blog notes Chapter 9 blog notes Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9
      Caribbean South America
    • Section 1
      Physical Geography
    • Physical Features
      World’s highest waterfall, S.A. largest lake, & world’s largest rodent
      Rugged mts., highlands, & plains drained by huge river system
      Mountains & highlands
      Andes: 18,000 feet
      Forms a three-pronged cordillera (mt. system made up of parallel ranges)
      Active volcanoes & earthquakes
      Guiana Highlands
      Eroding for millions of years
      Steep sided plateaus capped by sandstone (called tepuis)
    • Plains, Rivers, & Wildlife
      Llanos
      Region of plains between the highlands & the Andes
      Mostly grassland w/ few trees
      Plains flood easily
      Orinoco River
      River flows for about 1,600 miles
      River & tributaries drain the plains & highlands
      Cauca & Magdalena Rivers drain the Andean region
      Wildlife
      Orinoco River Basin
      Capybara, piranhas, catfish, & crocodiles
      100s of bird species, jaguars, ocelots, & monkeys
    • Climate & Vegetation
      Near equator = mostly warm temps year-round
      Temps do vary w/ elevation
      Llanos region has tropical savanna climate
      Wet & dry seasons
      Rain forests
      Humid tropical climate
      Rain throughout the year
    • Resources
      Rich agriculture
      Good soil & moderate climates
      Crops: rice, coffee, bananas, & sugarcane
      Valuable Resources
      Oil, iron ore, coal, & timber
      Coastal areas
      Fish & shrimp
      Rivers in area used to produce hydroelectric power
    • Colombia
      Section 2
    • Columbia’s History
      The Chibcha
      Well developed civilizations
      Practiced pottery making, weaving, & metalworking
      Customs
      New rulers covered with gold dust & then taken to a lake to wash it off
      Gold & emerald objects were thrown into the lake when ruler was being washed off
      These customs inspired the legend of El Dorado
    • Spanish Conquest
      Spanish Conquest
      Spanish arrived in the 1500s
      Expanding the Spanish empire
      Conquered Chibcha & seized their treasure
      Founded other colonies along Caribbean coast
      By the 1600s they had set up large estates in Columbia
      Powerful landlords forced South American Indians & enslaved Africans to work the land
    • Independence
      1700 struggle for independence began
      Republic of Gran Colombia was created
      Included Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, & Venezuela
      1830
      Republic dissolved & New Granada (now Colombia) was created
      After independence people argued over amount of power central gov’t & Roman Catholic Church should have
      Rugged geography & little contact between people in Colombia lead to development of separate economies & identities
      Uniting groups was difficult
      Outbreaks of violence between the 1800s & 1900s killed thousands
    • Colombia Today
      Caribbean South America’s most populous country
      Most live in fertile valleys & basins among mt. ranges
      Moderate climate good for farming here
      Rivers help connect settlements between mts. & coast
      Cattle ranches are common in the Llanos
      Few people live in the tropical rain forests in the south
    • Cultural Life
      Geography has isolated regions from one another
      People know by the area they live
      African traditions influence songs & dances
      Soccer is enjoyed by many Colombians
      Tejo is also played
      Chibcha sport similar to a ring toss
      Roman Catholicism is main religion
      Conflict
      Big problem today
      Border conflicts w/ Venezuela has gone on for many years
      Different groups have waged war with each other & Colombian gov’t
      Groups control large areas of the country & force farmers off their land, damaging the economy
    • Economy
      Resources
      Coffee, bananas, corn, rice, cassava, sugarcane, & flowers
      Oil is leading export (found in eastern Colombia)
      Iron Ore, gold, emeralds, coal, & tin
      Many Colombians have low incomes even with rich resources
      Urban poverty & rapid population growth are challenges for Colombia
    • Civil War
      Major problem today
      Many different groups fighting each other & the gov’t
      Over past 40 years
      Guerrillas
      Militant group that uses irregular military force
      Have forced farmers off their land & caused thousands to flee the country
      Groups also grow illegal plants used to make cocaine
      Civil War have created uncertain future for Colombia
      New laws have made it harder for guerrillas & other militant groups to operate freely
      U.S. also provides assistance in the form of foreign aid
    • Section 3
      Venezuela & The Guianas
    • History & Culture of Venezuela
      Many small tribes of South American Indians prior to arrival of Spanish
      Became independent in 1800s, but Spanish rule shaped the history & culture of country
      Spanish Settlement & Colonial Rule
      Spanish explorers came looking for gold & pearls
      Forced South American Indians to dive for pearls & pan for gold
      Little gold, however
      Agriculture
      Indigo was grown; South American Indians forced to work the fields
      Many died & enslaved Africans were brought in
      Many escaped to remote areas & began governing themselves
    • Independence & Self-Rule
      Simon Bolivar
      Led revolt against Spanish armies throughout the region
      Struggle for independence ended in 1830
      1830s
      Caudillos (Dictators) & civil wars plagued Venezuela
      Oil was discovered during this time
      Money from oil was kept by the dictators or caudillos
      1958 last dictator was forced from power
    • People & Culture
      Descended from native Indians, Europeans & Africans
      Majority are mixed Indian & European
      European descent live in large cities
      African descent live along the coast
      Most people are Spanish speaking Roman Catholics
      Indians speak 25 different languages & follow their own religious practices
      Culture
      Dancing, rodeo events, baseball, & soccer
    • Venezuela Today
      Most make a living farming and ranching
      Most wealthy Venezuelans & the gov’t have made money in oil industry
      Agriculture & Ranching
      Northern Venezuela
      Small family farms & large commercial farms
      Llaneros: cowboys; herd cattle
    • Economy
      Based on oil production
      Most people live in poverty
      Poor moved to cities to find work
      Settled in outskirts & lived in shacks w/ no running water, sewers, or electricity
      Wealth of country has attracted many immigrants
      Economy & people suffer when oil prices drop (like in the 1980s)
      Member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
      Lake Maracaibo in a source of rich oil
      Are trying to reduce dependence on oil income
      Guiana Highlands
      Rich minerals like iron ore & gold
      Dams on Orinoco River produce hydroelectricity
    • Government
      1st president elected in 1959
      Economic turmoil & political protests are common
      2002
      President Hugo Chavez started distributing oil income equally among Venezuelans
      Millions went on strike to protest actions some for 2 months
      This strike damaged the economy & oil exports fell dramatically
      2004
      Venezuelans called for a referendum (recall vote)
      58% voted for Chavez
      Chavez adopted new policies in 2nd term to help end poverty, illiteracy, & hunger
    • The Guianas
      Guyana, Suriname, & French Guiana
      Dense tropical rain forests cover much of region
    • Guyana
      “Land of Waters”
      Agricultural land located on the flat, fertile plains along the coast
      Rice & sugar most important crops
      Population is diverse
      ½ are descended from those who migrated to Guyana from India
      Came to work sugar plantations
      Today
      Most farm small plots of land or run small businesses
      1/3 are descended from former African slaves
      Operate large businesses & hold most gov’t positions
    • Suriname
      Resources & economy similar to Guyana
      Diverse population
      South Asians, Africans, Chinese, Indonesians, & Creoles (mixed heritage)
    • French Guiana
      Territory of France
      Send reps. to gov’t in Paris
      People live mostly along coastal areas
      2/3 of people are of African descent
      Europeans, Asians, & South American Indians as well
      Depend on imports for its food & energy