Chapter 9<br />Caribbean South America<br />
Section 1<br />Physical Geography<br />
Physical Features<br />World’s highest waterfall, S.A. largest lake, & world’s largest rodent<br />Rugged mts., highlands,...
Plains, Rivers, & Wildlife<br />Llanos<br />Region of plains between the highlands & the Andes<br />Mostly grassland w/ fe...
Climate & Vegetation<br />Near equator = mostly warm temps year-round<br />Temps do vary w/ elevation<br />Llanos region h...
Resources<br />Rich agriculture<br />Good soil & moderate climates<br />Crops: rice, coffee, bananas, & sugarcane<br />Val...
Colombia<br />Section 2<br />
Columbia’s History<br />The Chibcha<br />Well developed civilizations<br />Practiced pottery making, weaving, & metalworki...
Spanish Conquest<br />Spanish Conquest<br />Spanish arrived in the 1500s<br />Expanding the Spanish empire<br />Conquered ...
Independence<br />1700 struggle for independence began<br />Republic of Gran Colombia was created<br />Included Colombia, ...
Colombia Today<br />Caribbean South America’s most populous country<br />Most live in fertile valleys & basins among mt. r...
Cultural Life<br />Geography has isolated regions from one another<br />People know by the area they live<br />African tra...
Economy<br />Resources<br />Coffee, bananas, corn, rice, cassava, sugarcane, & flowers<br />Oil is leading export (found i...
Civil War<br />Major problem today<br />Many different groups fighting each other & the gov’t<br />Over past 40 years<br /...
Section 3<br />Venezuela & The Guianas<br />
History & Culture of Venezuela<br />Many small tribes of South American Indians prior to arrival of Spanish<br />Became in...
Independence & Self-Rule<br />Simon Bolivar<br />Led revolt against Spanish armies throughout the region<br />Struggle for...
People & Culture<br />Descended from native Indians, Europeans & Africans<br />Majority are mixed Indian & European<br />E...
Venezuela Today<br />Most make a living farming and ranching<br />Most wealthy Venezuelans & the gov’t have made money in ...
Economy<br />Based on oil production<br />Most people live in poverty<br />Poor moved to cities to find work<br />Settled ...
Government<br />1st president elected in 1959<br />Economic turmoil & political protests are common<br />2002<br />Preside...
The Guianas<br />Guyana, Suriname, & French Guiana<br />Dense tropical rain forests cover much of region<br />
Guyana<br />“Land of Waters”<br />Agricultural land located on the flat, fertile plains along the coast<br />Rice & sugar ...
Suriname<br />Resources & economy similar to Guyana<br />Diverse population<br />South Asians, Africans, Chinese, Indonesi...
French Guiana<br />Territory of France<br />Send reps. to gov’t in Paris<br />People live mostly along coastal areas<br />...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 9 blog notes

333 views
301 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
333
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 9 blog notes

  1. 1. Chapter 9<br />Caribbean South America<br />
  2. 2. Section 1<br />Physical Geography<br />
  3. 3. Physical Features<br />World’s highest waterfall, S.A. largest lake, & world’s largest rodent<br />Rugged mts., highlands, & plains drained by huge river system<br />Mountains & highlands<br />Andes: 18,000 feet<br />Forms a three-pronged cordillera (mt. system made up of parallel ranges)<br />Active volcanoes & earthquakes<br />Guiana Highlands<br />Eroding for millions of years<br />Steep sided plateaus capped by sandstone (called tepuis)<br />
  4. 4. Plains, Rivers, & Wildlife<br />Llanos<br />Region of plains between the highlands & the Andes<br />Mostly grassland w/ few trees<br />Plains flood easily<br />Orinoco River<br />River flows for about 1,600 miles<br />River & tributaries drain the plains & highlands<br />Cauca & Magdalena Rivers drain the Andean region<br />Wildlife<br />Orinoco River Basin<br />Capybara, piranhas, catfish, & crocodiles<br />100s of bird species, jaguars, ocelots, & monkeys<br />
  5. 5. Climate & Vegetation<br />Near equator = mostly warm temps year-round<br />Temps do vary w/ elevation<br />Llanos region has tropical savanna climate<br />Wet & dry seasons<br />Rain forests<br />Humid tropical climate<br />Rain throughout the year<br />
  6. 6. Resources<br />Rich agriculture<br />Good soil & moderate climates<br />Crops: rice, coffee, bananas, & sugarcane<br />Valuable Resources<br />Oil, iron ore, coal, & timber<br />Coastal areas<br />Fish & shrimp<br />Rivers in area used to produce hydroelectric power<br />
  7. 7. Colombia<br />Section 2<br />
  8. 8. Columbia’s History<br />The Chibcha<br />Well developed civilizations<br />Practiced pottery making, weaving, & metalworking<br />Customs<br />New rulers covered with gold dust & then taken to a lake to wash it off<br />Gold & emerald objects were thrown into the lake when ruler was being washed off<br />These customs inspired the legend of El Dorado<br />
  9. 9. Spanish Conquest<br />Spanish Conquest<br />Spanish arrived in the 1500s<br />Expanding the Spanish empire<br />Conquered Chibcha & seized their treasure<br />Founded other colonies along Caribbean coast<br />By the 1600s they had set up large estates in Columbia<br />Powerful landlords forced South American Indians & enslaved Africans to work the land<br />
  10. 10. Independence<br />1700 struggle for independence began<br />Republic of Gran Colombia was created<br />Included Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, & Venezuela<br />1830<br />Republic dissolved & New Granada (now Colombia) was created<br />After independence people argued over amount of power central gov’t & Roman Catholic Church should have<br />Rugged geography & little contact between people in Colombia lead to development of separate economies & identities<br />Uniting groups was difficult<br />Outbreaks of violence between the 1800s & 1900s killed thousands<br />
  11. 11. Colombia Today<br />Caribbean South America’s most populous country<br />Most live in fertile valleys & basins among mt. ranges<br />Moderate climate good for farming here<br />Rivers help connect settlements between mts. & coast<br />Cattle ranches are common in the Llanos<br />Few people live in the tropical rain forests in the south<br />
  12. 12. Cultural Life<br />Geography has isolated regions from one another<br />People know by the area they live<br />African traditions influence songs & dances<br />Soccer is enjoyed by many Colombians<br />Tejo is also played<br />Chibcha sport similar to a ring toss<br />Roman Catholicism is main religion<br />Conflict<br />Big problem today<br />Border conflicts w/ Venezuela has gone on for many years<br />Different groups have waged war with each other & Colombian gov’t<br />Groups control large areas of the country & force farmers off their land, damaging the economy<br />
  13. 13. Economy<br />Resources<br />Coffee, bananas, corn, rice, cassava, sugarcane, & flowers<br />Oil is leading export (found in eastern Colombia)<br />Iron Ore, gold, emeralds, coal, & tin<br />Many Colombians have low incomes even with rich resources<br />Urban poverty & rapid population growth are challenges for Colombia<br />
  14. 14. Civil War<br />Major problem today<br />Many different groups fighting each other & the gov’t<br />Over past 40 years<br />Guerrillas<br />Militant group that uses irregular military force<br />Have forced farmers off their land & caused thousands to flee the country<br />Groups also grow illegal plants used to make cocaine<br />Civil War have created uncertain future for Colombia<br />New laws have made it harder for guerrillas & other militant groups to operate freely<br />U.S. also provides assistance in the form of foreign aid<br />
  15. 15. Section 3<br />Venezuela & The Guianas<br />
  16. 16. History & Culture of Venezuela<br />Many small tribes of South American Indians prior to arrival of Spanish<br />Became independent in 1800s, but Spanish rule shaped the history & culture of country<br />Spanish Settlement & Colonial Rule<br />Spanish explorers came looking for gold & pearls<br />Forced South American Indians to dive for pearls & pan for gold<br />Little gold, however<br />Agriculture<br />Indigo was grown; South American Indians forced to work the fields<br />Many died & enslaved Africans were brought in<br />Many escaped to remote areas & began governing themselves<br />
  17. 17. Independence & Self-Rule<br />Simon Bolivar<br />Led revolt against Spanish armies throughout the region<br />Struggle for independence ended in 1830<br />1830s<br />Caudillos (Dictators) & civil wars plagued Venezuela<br />Oil was discovered during this time<br />Money from oil was kept by the dictators or caudillos<br />1958 last dictator was forced from power<br />
  18. 18. People & Culture<br />Descended from native Indians, Europeans & Africans<br />Majority are mixed Indian & European<br />European descent live in large cities<br />African descent live along the coast<br />Most people are Spanish speaking Roman Catholics<br />Indians speak 25 different languages & follow their own religious practices<br />Culture<br />Dancing, rodeo events, baseball, & soccer<br />
  19. 19. Venezuela Today<br />Most make a living farming and ranching<br />Most wealthy Venezuelans & the gov’t have made money in oil industry<br />Agriculture & Ranching<br />Northern Venezuela<br />Small family farms & large commercial farms<br />Llaneros: cowboys; herd cattle<br />
  20. 20. Economy<br />Based on oil production<br />Most people live in poverty<br />Poor moved to cities to find work<br />Settled in outskirts & lived in shacks w/ no running water, sewers, or electricity<br />Wealth of country has attracted many immigrants<br />Economy & people suffer when oil prices drop (like in the 1980s)<br />Member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)<br />Lake Maracaibo in a source of rich oil<br />Are trying to reduce dependence on oil income<br />Guiana Highlands<br />Rich minerals like iron ore & gold<br />Dams on Orinoco River produce hydroelectricity<br />
  21. 21. Government<br />1st president elected in 1959<br />Economic turmoil & political protests are common<br />2002<br />President Hugo Chavez started distributing oil income equally among Venezuelans<br />Millions went on strike to protest actions some for 2 months<br />This strike damaged the economy & oil exports fell dramatically<br />2004<br />Venezuelans called for a referendum (recall vote)<br />58% voted for Chavez<br />Chavez adopted new policies in 2nd term to help end poverty, illiteracy, & hunger<br />
  22. 22. The Guianas<br />Guyana, Suriname, & French Guiana<br />Dense tropical rain forests cover much of region<br />
  23. 23. Guyana<br />“Land of Waters”<br />Agricultural land located on the flat, fertile plains along the coast<br />Rice & sugar most important crops<br />Population is diverse<br />½ are descended from those who migrated to Guyana from India<br />Came to work sugar plantations<br />Today<br />Most farm small plots of land or run small businesses<br />1/3 are descended from former African slaves<br />Operate large businesses & hold most gov’t positions<br />
  24. 24. Suriname<br />Resources & economy similar to Guyana<br />Diverse population<br />South Asians, Africans, Chinese, Indonesians, & Creoles (mixed heritage)<br />
  25. 25. French Guiana<br />Territory of France<br />Send reps. to gov’t in Paris<br />People live mostly along coastal areas<br />2/3 of people are of African descent<br />Europeans, Asians, & South American Indians as well<br />Depend on imports for its food & energy<br />

×