Chapter 7


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Chapter 7

  1. 1. Chapter 7Ancient Greece
  2. 2. Section 1The Geography of Greece
  3. 3. Geography Shapes AncientGreek Life Mainlandof Greece extends into Mediterranean  Peninsula: body of land nearly surrounded by water Peloponnesus  Southern tip of Greece  Linked by an isthmus to the rest of Greece
  4. 4. Landscape & Climate Covered by mountains  Divides land into many regions No large rivers  Made transportation difficult Rugged landscape  Made it difficult for Greece to unite under single gov’t Mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers
  5. 5. Agriculture Rocky land  Small region good for farming  More than ½ Greeks were farmers Greek society  Landowners were upper class & men  Could also supply himself w/ equipment needed to defend his homeland  Had higher place in society than merchants & poor Got more farmland by founding colonies in other regions  Anatolia
  6. 6. Resources Lacked natural resources  Had to find in other locations2 important resources  Plentiful stone for building  Coastline w/ good sites for harbors
  7. 7. A seafaring People Mediterranean Sea, Ionian Sea, & Aegean Sea  Highways of water  Used for transportation routes  Skilled sailors & ship builders  Rowing ships: war  Sailing ships: trade Seas were source of food too  Fish important part of diet
  8. 8. Trade & Commerce Did not produce much grain Surplus of olive oil, wine, wool, & fine pottery  Bought & sold goods between city-states & other regions  Main items bought was grain, timber, animal hides, & slaves  Alsotraded for nuts, figs, cheese, & flax (used to make linen)
  9. 9. Mycenaean Civilization Peloponnesus  Site of 1st civilizations  Mycenae (most important city)  On hills surrounded by a protective wall  King ruled each city of Mycenaean Greece & the surrounding villages & farms  Nobles within Mycenae lived in luxury Mycenaeans were traders  Culture: featured writing, gold jewelry, bronze weapons, & fine pottery  Civilization collapsed around 1200 B.C. because of invaders  Written records no longer kept; little known until around 750 B.C.
  10. 10. New Advances in GreekCulture Greeks learned from others  Phoenicians  Developed a writing system that used 22 symbols that stood for sounds Greeks picked up on alphabet between 900 & 800 B.C.  Later evolved into own alphabet of 26 letters Also learned about coins from trading w/ other peoples Eventually developed new forms of literature & gov’t
  11. 11. Section 2Life in Ancient Greece
  12. 12. Greek Gods & Myths Gods involved in peoples lives The Gods of Greece  Had divine & human qualities (powerful, but also had human emotions)  Constantly competed w/ each other Zeus  Ruler of the gods  He & 11 other major gods & goddesses lived on Mount Olympus Each city had a special god or goddess to protect it  i.e. Athena was protector of Athens
  13. 13. Greek Mythology Myths: stories that people tell to explain beliefs about their world Developed to explain the creation of the world & human beings Many myths described how gods & goddess related to one another & to humans Others portray Greek heroes & heroines
  14. 14. Honoring the Gods Important to honor gods  Angry god could cause trouble  Built statues, temples, & had special events
  15. 15. Holy Festivals Certaindays each month were hold to different gods or goddess  Celebrated w/ sacrifices & public ceremonies
  16. 16. The Olympics Often part of religious festivals  Held every four years during major festival that honored Zeus  Took place in Olympia  Only men competed in contests During Olympics a festival to honor the goddess Hera wife of Zeus took place  Unmarried girls competed in foot races
  17. 17. Early Greek Literature Stories told of ancient heroes  Passed down through generations & from long poems that told stories (called epics) Epics of Homer  Iliad & the Odyssey  Trojan War Iliad  Greek warrior Achilles  Mother held him by his heel & dipped him in a special river. Every place the water touched was protected from injury. He was unbeatable in battle except when struck by an arrow in his weak spot, his heel, & he died Odyssey  Describes the adventures of the Greek hero Odysseus. On his trip home from the Trojan War, Odysseus offended Poseidon (God of the sea). In revenge Poseidon made Odysseus’ journey take 10 years. He & his men traveled through strange & dangerous lands on trip home. He used his wits & trickery to survive
  18. 18. Aesop’s Fables Fable:a short story, usually involving animals, & teaches a moral lesson. Many today are credited to a Greek named Aesop  Most famous is “The Hare & the Tortoise”
  19. 19. Section 3The City-State andDemocracy
  20. 20. The Rise of City-States Geography divided Greece into small regions Basic form of gov’t became the city-state  A state formed by a city and its surrounding lands
  21. 21. Greek City-States Greek word for city-state is polis Most were small  Limited by geographic features  Athens & Sparta were the largest  Most controlled from 50 to 500 square miles of territory & had fewer than 20,000 residents  Formed close communities
  22. 22. Layout of the City Center of city-life was the agora (an open space where people came for business & public gatherings)  Male citizens meet to discuss politics  As well as festivals & athletic events  Statues, temples, & other public buildings were found in and around this area  Many had a fortified hilltop or acropolis  1st used for military later as places for temples & palaces
  23. 23. Forms of Gov’t Each city-state was independent  People figured out what kind worked for them Some kept the same form of gov’t over time while others changed from one system to another
  24. 24. Monarchs & Aristocrats Monarchy  Earliest form of gov’t  King or queen has supreme power & rules Aristocracy  Gov’t ruled by the upper class of society or by nobility  Descended from high born ancestors (claimed to be mythical heroes)  Corinth began as a monarchy, then an aristocracy
  25. 25.  Oligarchy  Rule by the few  People rule because of wealth or land ownership (not inherited social class like aristocracy) Tyrants  Someone who took power in an illegal way  Became king w/o royal birth  Poor were not part of gov’t in monarchies, aristocracies, or oligarchies (they resented this & often rebelled)  Sometime a wealthy person wanted to seize power & would ask the poor for help to become the leader  Tyrant would work to help the poor or created building programs to provide jobs for them  Also made laws to cancel their debts owed  Tyrants helped to overthrow oligarchies & also showed if common people united behind a leader, power could be gained
  26. 26. Athens Builds a LimitedDemocracy Poor started to demand more political power Citizenship  A person who is loyal to a country & who is entitled to protection by the gov’t of that country  Only adult males (other variation depending on your city-state)  Both upper & lower classes were citizens  Gradual reforms took place over time make a major change to society
  27. 27. Solon 500 B.C.  Poor farmers had huge debts & were forced to work the lands of someone else or become slaves  They became very angry 594 B.C.  Solon chosen to lead Athens  Created reforms to prevent a revolt  Freed enslaved people  Made a law ending slavery  Organized citizens into four classes based on wealth not birth  Richest: had most power  All citizens could serve in assembly (lawmaking
  28. 28. Cleisthenes 500 B.C.  Increased the power of Athenian citizens even more  Reorganized the assembly to take power away from the nobles  Organized citizens into 10 groups/tribes  Based on place of residence instead of wealth or family ties  Set up a group of 10 commanders to lead the military  Tribe elected leader to serve for 1 year  Also reformed the council that helped the assembly to govern  Council of Five Hundred
  29. 29. Direct Democracy Council of 500  50 men from each of the 10 tribes  Any citizen over the age of 30 qualified to be a member  Chosen by lot (random) to serve for a term of 1 year  Could be reelected only once  Council of 500 could suggest laws to the assembly for debate & possible passage  Laws passed by majority vote Changes moved Athens to early form of democracy  Gov’t in which the citizens make political decisions either directly or through elected representatives  Athens had a direct democracy: all citizens meet to decide on the laws
  30. 30. Limited Democracy &Ostracism Gov’t did not include all of the people Only free adult males were citizen & could take part in gov’t  Not women, enslaved people, or foreigners Also included a system called ostracism  Any member of the assembly who though someone was a danger to the city-state could submit the name of the person for a vote by the assembly. If enough votes were received then that person was sent way for 10 years
  31. 31. Citizens’ Responsibilities Hadto serve in the army whenever they were needed  Athenian citizens were trained for warfare Also served on juries  Had to be at least 30  Had several hundred people to hear charges against a person  All citizens were equal in the courts  No professional lawyers or judges  Citizens argued cases before the jury directly