Uploaded on

 

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
206
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Ancient Greece
  • 2. The Geography of Greece
  • 3. Geography Shapes Ancient GreekLife Mainland extends into Mediterranean Sea  Is a peninsula: a body of land that is nearly surrounded by water Greece also includes thousands of islands Gulf of water nearly divides Greek peninsula in two  Southern tip forms a 2nd peninsula called the Peloponnesus, it is linked to the rest of Greece by an isthmus (a narrow strip of land)
  • 4. Landscape and Climate Mts. Cover most of Greece & divides land into many regions No large rivers Transportation was difficult in ancient times & difficult to unite under one gov’t Mild, rainy winters & hot, dry summers  Warm climate encourages outdoor life
  • 5. Agriculture Only a small part of region was good for farming  Even though ½ of Greek were farmers or herders  Farming took place in valleys between mts. Landowners were part of upper class  Usually only men owned property & could support himself  Could pay for equipment (helmets, shields, & swords)  Could serve in the army and defend his homeland To get more farmland, Greeks founded colonies in other regions  Like in Anatolia
  • 6. Resources Greece also lacked natural resources like precious metals  Had to find resources in other places Had two important resources  Plentiful stone for building  Coastline with good sites for harbors
  • 7. A Seafaring People Sea influenced ancient Greece Mediterranean Sea, Ionian Sea, & Aegean Sea  Linked most parts of Greece with one another  Used as transportation routes  Became skilled sailors and shipbuilders  Built rowing ships for fighting & sailing ships for trading  Some warships had 2 or 3 levels oars  Sea was a source of fish
  • 8. Trade & Commerce Greeks did not produce much grain  Surplus of olive oil, wine, wool, & fine pottery Bought & sold surplus goods from each other  Also traded w/ other regions  Main items bought was grain, timber, animal hides, & slaves  As well as nuts, figs, cheese, & flax
  • 9. Mycenaean Civilization Mycenae was 1st Greek civilization  Built on Peloponnesus  Was surrounded by a protective wall  A king rules each city of Mycenaean Greece as well as the surrounding villages & farms Nobles lived in luxury  Had great feasts, drank from gold cups, & had bronze weapons Mycenaeans were traders  Culture featured writing, gold jewelry, bronze weapons, & fine pottery Civilization collapsed about 1200 B.C.  Maybe invaders
  • 10. New Advances in Greek Culture Phoenicians  Trading people who lived on eastern coast of Mediterranean  Developed a recording system to track trade transactions  Used 22 symbols to stand for sounds  Spread their writing system as the traded w/ other people Greeks began using Phoenician writing system between 900 and 800 B.C.  Changed some letters to suit their language  Later evolved into our alphabet of 26 letters Greeks also learned about coins from trading w/ others Also developed new forms of literature & gov’t
  • 11. Life in Ancient Greece
  • 12. Greek Gods and Myths Gods were important part of daily lives Told vivid stories about them Had divine & human qualities Constantly competed against one another Zeus  Ruler of the gods  Lived on Mount Olympus w/ 11 other major gods & goddesses Each city had a special god/goddess
  • 13. Greek Mythology Myths: stories that people tell to explain beliefs about their world  Often begin as oral stories Myths developed to explain creation of the world & human beings Other myths described the gods/goddesses & how they related to one another & to humans Others portrayed Greek heroes & heroines
  • 14. Honoring the Gods Important to honor gods  Angry gods = trouble Created statues & built temples Held special events
  • 15. Holy Festivals Certain days of each month were holy to different gods/goddesses or to an aspect of nature  Held sacrifices & ceremonies Most important honored 12 Olympian gods
  • 16. The Olympics Largest & most elaborate games Held every 4 years as part of festival to honor Zeus Only men competed Started with just a foot race, but later included much more
  • 17. Early Greek Literature Stories also told about ancient heroes  Stories passed down through generations and from long poems that told stories  Epics: long poems that tell a story Epics of Homer  Iliad & the Odyssey  Backdrop: Trojan War
  • 18. Aesop’s Fables Fable: a short story usually involving animals, that teaches a moral lesson Aesop  A slave who lived in Greece & wrote fables ?  The Hare & the Tortoise
  • 19. The City-State and Democracy
  • 20. The Rise of City-States City-State (polis in Greek)  A state formed by a city and its surrounding lands  Colonies founded were also city-states
  • 21. Greek City-States Most were small  Limited by geographic features  Athens & Sparta were largest 50-500 square miles Most had fewer than 20,000 people Small size & number of people created close community
  • 22. Layout of the City Agora  Open space where people came for business and gatherings Males meet to discuss politics Festivals & athletic contests were also held here Statues, temples, & public buildings located in and around agora Acropolis  Fortified hilltop  1st used for military purposes, later a place to build temples
  • 23. Forms of Government Each city-state was independent  Citizens determined what form of gov’t worked for them
  • 24. Monarchs & Aristocrats Monarchy  Early form of gov’t  King or queen has supreme power and rules Aristocracy  Gov’t ruled by the upper class or nobles  Upper class: descended from high-born ancestors (mythical heroes)
  • 25. Oligarchy Oligarchy  Ruled by the few  Minority group controls gov’t  People rule based on wealth or land ownership
  • 26. Tyrants Poor not part of gov’t in monarchies, aristocrats, or oligarchies  Resented being shut out of power & often rebelled Sometimes a wealthy person would ask the poor to support him in becoming a leader  Tyrant: someone who took power in an illegal way  Achieved king rule without being of royal birth  Some worked to help the poor  Played important rule in development of rule by the people; showed common people united behind a leader could gain power & make changes
  • 27. Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Lower class began demanding more political power Citizenship  A person who is loyal to a country & entitled to protection by the gov’t of that country  In Greece only adult males In most places upper & lower classes were citizens, but only upper class held power  By demanding more political power lower class were asking for a major change to society  Gradually happened over time  Two leaders (Solon & Cleisthenes) gradually reformed to give people more power
  • 28. Solon 500s B.C.  Poor farmers owed lots of money & had to work land or become slaves, this angered lower class 594 B.C.  Solon elected leader of Athens  Made reforms that prevented revolt of poor  Freed enslaved people of debts & made law that no citizen could be enslaved  Organized citizens into 4 classes based on wealth not birth  Richest had most power  Changes allowed all citizens to serve in the assembly (lawmaking body) & help elect leaders  Solon also reformed laws making them less harsh
  • 29. Cleisthenes 500 B.C.  Cleisthenes increased citizens power  Reorganized assemble to take power from nobles  Organized citizens into 10 groups (called tribes)  Tribes based on place of residence, not wealth  10 commanders lead the military  Commanders elected for 1 year  Reformed the council, which helped the assembly govern  Became known as Council of 5 Hundred
  • 30. Direct Democracy Council of 500  500 men, 50 from each of the 10 tribes  Any citizen over 30 was qualified  Chosen by lot (random) to serve for 1 year & could be reelected only once Cleisthenes’ plan  Allowed Council members to suggest laws to assembly for debate & possible passage  Laws were passed by a majority vote Changes moved Athens towards early form of Democracy  A gov’t in which the citizens make political decisions either directly or through elected representatives
  • 31. Limited Democracy & Ostracism Direct democracy benefits limited Gov’t did not include all people who lived in city-state  Only free adult males were citizens (women, slaves, & foreigners were not citizens and could not become citizens) Democracy system included a system called ostracism  Any member of assembly who though someone was a danger to the city-state could submit the name of the person for a vote by the assembly. If enough votes were received that person could be sent away for 10 years.
  • 32. Citizens’ Responsibilities Citizens had to  Serve in the army whenever needed  Serve on juries  All citizens were equal & argued cases directly before the jury who then voted if person was guilty
  • 33. Sparta & Athens
  • 34. Sparta’s Military State 715 B.C.  Sparta conquered neighboring land  Defeated people became slaves (called helots)  Had to work farms & give ½ of crops to Spartans  Revolted several times, but failed  Lead Sparta to focus attention on building a strong army
  • 35. Government & Society Gov’t was part monarchy & part oligarchy & part democracy  2 kings(ruled), 5 elected supervisors(ran gov’t), Council of Elders (made up of 30 citizens) proposed laws All citizens were part of the Assembly  Elected officials and voted on laws proposed Social Groups  Citizens: descendants from original inhabitants  Lived in city & spent all their time training to be soldiers  Free noncitizens: no political rights & lived in nearby villages  Helots: laborers; allowed Spartans to train to be soldiers
  • 36. Education Goal was to have strong army Boys at age 7 move to military houses (called barracks)  Education stressed discipline, duty, strength, & military skill (learned to read a little)  Entered army at 20 & served until 60
  • 37. Women’s Roles Had to be tough (emotional & physical) Education focused on physical toughness ( athletic training & learned to defend themselves) Family life was less important  Husbands & wives spent lots of time apart Women could own property
  • 38. Athens’ Democratic Gradually developed direct democracy  All citizens met to vote on laws  Only free men were citizens
  • 39. Athenian Society 4 Classes  Citizens  Women  Noncitizen free persons  Enslaves: 1/3 of population; captured during war; children of enslaved were also slaves  Worked in homes, agriculture, industry, & mines  Some earned wages & bought their freedom Each class had smaller classes within  Example: level of citizen based on wealth
  • 40. Education Designed to prepare boys to become good citizens  Wealthy families started boys at age 6 or 7  Studied logic & public speaking  Reading, writing, poetry, arithmetic, & music  Athletic activities
  • 41. Women’s Roles Not part of gov’t Had to be good wives & mothers  Help keep families & society strong Religious roles  Priestesses in temples Not much freedom  Could inherit property only if no sons  Girls did not attend school, learned from mothers
  • 42. Persian Wars 500’s B.C.  Persia conquered Anatolia (region w/ Greek colonies) 499 B.C.  Greeks revolted  Athens sent ships & soldiers to help  Revolt failed  Persia decided to punish Athens for helping 490 B.C.  Persians arrived to Athens on the plain of Marathon  Athenians sent a runner to ask Sparta for help (Sparta came to late)
  • 43.  Athenians were greatly outnumbered, so they had to use a clever plan  Drew Persians toward the center of the Greek line  Greeks then surrounded them & attacked  Greek spears better than Persian arrows  Persians lost 6,400 men to Greeks 192 Marathon runner ran about 25 miles from Marathon to Athens to tell of the victory  He reached Athens w/ the news then collapsed & died
  • 44. Greek Victory 480 B.C.  Persia again invaded Greece  Several Greek city-states united 300 Spartans guarded narrow pass at Thermopylae  To stop Persians from reaching Athens  Held pass for 2 days before all being killed  Gave Athenians time to prepare for battle Athenians left the city to fight naval battle against Persians  Persian fleet could not maneuver  300 Persian ships were sunk