Chapter 7


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Chapter 7

  1. 1. Ancient Greece
  2. 2. The Geography of Greece
  3. 3. Geography Shapes Ancient GreekLife Mainland extends into Mediterranean Sea  Is a peninsula: a body of land that is nearly surrounded by water Greece also includes thousands of islands Gulf of water nearly divides Greek peninsula in two  Southern tip forms a 2nd peninsula called the Peloponnesus, it is linked to the rest of Greece by an isthmus (a narrow strip of land)
  4. 4. Landscape and Climate Mts. Cover most of Greece & divides land into many regions No large rivers Transportation was difficult in ancient times & difficult to unite under one gov’t Mild, rainy winters & hot, dry summers  Warm climate encourages outdoor life
  5. 5. Agriculture Only a small part of region was good for farming  Even though ½ of Greek were farmers or herders  Farming took place in valleys between mts. Landowners were part of upper class  Usually only men owned property & could support himself  Could pay for equipment (helmets, shields, & swords)  Could serve in the army and defend his homeland To get more farmland, Greeks founded colonies in other regions  Like in Anatolia
  6. 6. Resources Greece also lacked natural resources like precious metals  Had to find resources in other places Had two important resources  Plentiful stone for building  Coastline with good sites for harbors
  7. 7. A Seafaring People Sea influenced ancient Greece Mediterranean Sea, Ionian Sea, & Aegean Sea  Linked most parts of Greece with one another  Used as transportation routes  Became skilled sailors and shipbuilders  Built rowing ships for fighting & sailing ships for trading  Some warships had 2 or 3 levels oars  Sea was a source of fish
  8. 8. Trade & Commerce Greeks did not produce much grain  Surplus of olive oil, wine, wool, & fine pottery Bought & sold surplus goods from each other  Also traded w/ other regions  Main items bought was grain, timber, animal hides, & slaves  As well as nuts, figs, cheese, & flax
  9. 9. Mycenaean Civilization Mycenae was 1st Greek civilization  Built on Peloponnesus  Was surrounded by a protective wall  A king rules each city of Mycenaean Greece as well as the surrounding villages & farms Nobles lived in luxury  Had great feasts, drank from gold cups, & had bronze weapons Mycenaeans were traders  Culture featured writing, gold jewelry, bronze weapons, & fine pottery Civilization collapsed about 1200 B.C.  Maybe invaders
  10. 10. New Advances in Greek Culture Phoenicians  Trading people who lived on eastern coast of Mediterranean  Developed a recording system to track trade transactions  Used 22 symbols to stand for sounds  Spread their writing system as the traded w/ other people Greeks began using Phoenician writing system between 900 and 800 B.C.  Changed some letters to suit their language  Later evolved into our alphabet of 26 letters Greeks also learned about coins from trading w/ others Also developed new forms of literature & gov’t
  11. 11. Life in Ancient Greece
  12. 12. Greek Gods and Myths Gods were important part of daily lives Told vivid stories about them Had divine & human qualities Constantly competed against one another Zeus  Ruler of the gods  Lived on Mount Olympus w/ 11 other major gods & goddesses Each city had a special god/goddess
  13. 13. Greek Mythology Myths: stories that people tell to explain beliefs about their world  Often begin as oral stories Myths developed to explain creation of the world & human beings Other myths described the gods/goddesses & how they related to one another & to humans Others portrayed Greek heroes & heroines
  14. 14. Honoring the Gods Important to honor gods  Angry gods = trouble Created statues & built temples Held special events
  15. 15. Holy Festivals Certain days of each month were holy to different gods/goddesses or to an aspect of nature  Held sacrifices & ceremonies Most important honored 12 Olympian gods
  16. 16. The Olympics Largest & most elaborate games Held every 4 years as part of festival to honor Zeus Only men competed Started with just a foot race, but later included much more
  17. 17. Early Greek Literature Stories also told about ancient heroes  Stories passed down through generations and from long poems that told stories  Epics: long poems that tell a story Epics of Homer  Iliad & the Odyssey  Backdrop: Trojan War
  18. 18. Aesop’s Fables Fable: a short story usually involving animals, that teaches a moral lesson Aesop  A slave who lived in Greece & wrote fables ?  The Hare & the Tortoise
  19. 19. The City-State and Democracy
  20. 20. The Rise of City-States City-State (polis in Greek)  A state formed by a city and its surrounding lands  Colonies founded were also city-states
  21. 21. Greek City-States Most were small  Limited by geographic features  Athens & Sparta were largest 50-500 square miles Most had fewer than 20,000 people Small size & number of people created close community
  22. 22. Layout of the City Agora  Open space where people came for business and gatherings Males meet to discuss politics Festivals & athletic contests were also held here Statues, temples, & public buildings located in and around agora Acropolis  Fortified hilltop  1st used for military purposes, later a place to build temples
  23. 23. Forms of Government Each city-state was independent  Citizens determined what form of gov’t worked for them
  24. 24. Monarchs & Aristocrats Monarchy  Early form of gov’t  King or queen has supreme power and rules Aristocracy  Gov’t ruled by the upper class or nobles  Upper class: descended from high-born ancestors (mythical heroes)
  25. 25. Oligarchy Oligarchy  Ruled by the few  Minority group controls gov’t  People rule based on wealth or land ownership
  26. 26. Tyrants Poor not part of gov’t in monarchies, aristocrats, or oligarchies  Resented being shut out of power & often rebelled Sometimes a wealthy person would ask the poor to support him in becoming a leader  Tyrant: someone who took power in an illegal way  Achieved king rule without being of royal birth  Some worked to help the poor  Played important rule in development of rule by the people; showed common people united behind a leader could gain power & make changes
  27. 27. Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Lower class began demanding more political power Citizenship  A person who is loyal to a country & entitled to protection by the gov’t of that country  In Greece only adult males In most places upper & lower classes were citizens, but only upper class held power  By demanding more political power lower class were asking for a major change to society  Gradually happened over time  Two leaders (Solon & Cleisthenes) gradually reformed to give people more power
  28. 28. Solon 500s B.C.  Poor farmers owed lots of money & had to work land or become slaves, this angered lower class 594 B.C.  Solon elected leader of Athens  Made reforms that prevented revolt of poor  Freed enslaved people of debts & made law that no citizen could be enslaved  Organized citizens into 4 classes based on wealth not birth  Richest had most power  Changes allowed all citizens to serve in the assembly (lawmaking body) & help elect leaders  Solon also reformed laws making them less harsh
  29. 29. Cleisthenes 500 B.C.  Cleisthenes increased citizens power  Reorganized assemble to take power from nobles  Organized citizens into 10 groups (called tribes)  Tribes based on place of residence, not wealth  10 commanders lead the military  Commanders elected for 1 year  Reformed the council, which helped the assembly govern  Became known as Council of 5 Hundred
  30. 30. Direct Democracy Council of 500  500 men, 50 from each of the 10 tribes  Any citizen over 30 was qualified  Chosen by lot (random) to serve for 1 year & could be reelected only once Cleisthenes’ plan  Allowed Council members to suggest laws to assembly for debate & possible passage  Laws were passed by a majority vote Changes moved Athens towards early form of Democracy  A gov’t in which the citizens make political decisions either directly or through elected representatives
  31. 31. Limited Democracy & Ostracism Direct democracy benefits limited Gov’t did not include all people who lived in city-state  Only free adult males were citizens (women, slaves, & foreigners were not citizens and could not become citizens) Democracy system included a system called ostracism  Any member of assembly who though someone was a danger to the city-state could submit the name of the person for a vote by the assembly. If enough votes were received that person could be sent away for 10 years.
  32. 32. Citizens’ Responsibilities Citizens had to  Serve in the army whenever needed  Serve on juries  All citizens were equal & argued cases directly before the jury who then voted if person was guilty
  33. 33. Sparta & Athens
  34. 34. Sparta’s Military State 715 B.C.  Sparta conquered neighboring land  Defeated people became slaves (called helots)  Had to work farms & give ½ of crops to Spartans  Revolted several times, but failed  Lead Sparta to focus attention on building a strong army
  35. 35. Government & Society Gov’t was part monarchy & part oligarchy & part democracy  2 kings(ruled), 5 elected supervisors(ran gov’t), Council of Elders (made up of 30 citizens) proposed laws All citizens were part of the Assembly  Elected officials and voted on laws proposed Social Groups  Citizens: descendants from original inhabitants  Lived in city & spent all their time training to be soldiers  Free noncitizens: no political rights & lived in nearby villages  Helots: laborers; allowed Spartans to train to be soldiers
  36. 36. Education Goal was to have strong army Boys at age 7 move to military houses (called barracks)  Education stressed discipline, duty, strength, & military skill (learned to read a little)  Entered army at 20 & served until 60
  37. 37. Women’s Roles Had to be tough (emotional & physical) Education focused on physical toughness ( athletic training & learned to defend themselves) Family life was less important  Husbands & wives spent lots of time apart Women could own property
  38. 38. Athens’ Democratic Gradually developed direct democracy  All citizens met to vote on laws  Only free men were citizens
  39. 39. Athenian Society 4 Classes  Citizens  Women  Noncitizen free persons  Enslaves: 1/3 of population; captured during war; children of enslaved were also slaves  Worked in homes, agriculture, industry, & mines  Some earned wages & bought their freedom Each class had smaller classes within  Example: level of citizen based on wealth
  40. 40. Education Designed to prepare boys to become good citizens  Wealthy families started boys at age 6 or 7  Studied logic & public speaking  Reading, writing, poetry, arithmetic, & music  Athletic activities
  41. 41. Women’s Roles Not part of gov’t Had to be good wives & mothers  Help keep families & society strong Religious roles  Priestesses in temples Not much freedom  Could inherit property only if no sons  Girls did not attend school, learned from mothers
  42. 42. Persian Wars 500’s B.C.  Persia conquered Anatolia (region w/ Greek colonies) 499 B.C.  Greeks revolted  Athens sent ships & soldiers to help  Revolt failed  Persia decided to punish Athens for helping 490 B.C.  Persians arrived to Athens on the plain of Marathon  Athenians sent a runner to ask Sparta for help (Sparta came to late)
  43. 43.  Athenians were greatly outnumbered, so they had to use a clever plan  Drew Persians toward the center of the Greek line  Greeks then surrounded them & attacked  Greek spears better than Persian arrows  Persians lost 6,400 men to Greeks 192 Marathon runner ran about 25 miles from Marathon to Athens to tell of the victory  He reached Athens w/ the news then collapsed & died
  44. 44. Greek Victory 480 B.C.  Persia again invaded Greece  Several Greek city-states united 300 Spartans guarded narrow pass at Thermopylae  To stop Persians from reaching Athens  Held pass for 2 days before all being killed  Gave Athenians time to prepare for battle Athenians left the city to fight naval battle against Persians  Persian fleet could not maneuver  300 Persian ships were sunk