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Chapter 6 blog notes

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  • 1. Chapter 6
    Ancient China
  • 2. Section 1
    Geography Shapes Ancient China
  • 3. Geographic Features of China
    Civilization centered around two rivers which brought water and silt
    Made farming possible
    Isolated by Barriers
    Water barriers: Yellow Sea, East China Sea, & Pacific Ocean
    Desert barriers: Gobi Desert & Taklimakan Desert
    Mts.: Pamir, Tian Shan, & Himalaya mts.
    Geographically isolated
    Made spread of ideas & goods difficult
    Few outside influences
  • 4. Two River Systems
    Chang Jiang a.k.a. Yangtze Rivers
    Central China
    Huang He (or Yellow River)
    North China
    Ancient farming
    Done between Chang Jiang & Huang He
    Silt made fertile soil
    Center of Chinese civilization
  • 5. A Varied Climate
    Had varied climate
    Western China: dry, mostly deserts & mts.; sparsely populated & usable farmland
    Northeast China: cold winters & warm summers
    Southeast China: mild winters & hot, rainy summers
    Climate variety lead to variety of crops produced
    Rice, wheat, soybeans, & millet
  • 6. The Shang Dynasty
    Shang Kings
    1766 B.C. Shang family began to control some cities
    Set-up dynasty (a family or group that rules for several generations)
    Kings: responsible for religious activities
    Ruled w/ god’s permission
    Ruled central North China Plain
    Used chariots to defend themselves against nomads
  • 7. Shang Families
    Respect for parents & ancestors was important
    Close tie to religion
    Spirits of ancestors could bring good fortune
    Animals were sacrificed
    Men ruled within the family
  • 8. Developing Language
    Kings claimed to be able to influence gods
    Received messages through oracle bones
    Animal bones that were scratched to question the gods (became early form of writing)
    Developed pictographs
    Used huge # of symbols
    Could read Chinese w/o being able to speak it
    Helped to unify a large varied land
  • 9. The Zhou Dynasty
    Zhou moved down from the northwest
    Clashed w/ Shang
    1027 B.C.
    Wu Wang led forces & defeated Shang
    Adopted many Shang ways
    New ideas also introduced
  • 10. The Zhou & the Dynastic Cycle
    New dynasty est.
    Dynasties rose & fell in a pattern
    Dynastic Cycle
    Trouble resulted from rulers losing heaven’s favor
    Claimed last Shang ruler was bad & god took away Shang right to rule & gave it to Zhou
    Mandate of Heaven
    Bad or foolish ruler = approval of the gods would be taken away
    Examples: uprisings, invasions, floods, or earthquakes
  • 11. Zhou Government
    Central gov’t was weak
    People w/ family ties or other trusted people were in charge
    Local rulers (lords) owed loyalty & military service to king
    King promised in return to protect their lands
    Lords became more powerful as cities grew
    More group under their power
    Less dependent on king
    Lords began to fight with each other & other peoples
    Added lands expanded Chinese territory
  • 12. The Time of the Warring States
    Invasion was a constant theme
    800 B.C.
    Nomads from the north & west invaded
    771 B.C.
    Invaders destroyed capital city of Hao & king was killed
    Kings were weak
    Lords fought constantly
    As their power grew they claimed to be kings of their own territories (Time of the Warring States)
  • 13. Section 2
    China’s Ancient Philosophies
  • 14. Intro
    During Time of Warring States Chinese society experienced much disorder
    Kings & Warlords fought over land, while scholars wondered what it would take to bring peace
    3 ways of thinking developed
    Legalism
    Confucianism
    Daoism
  • 15. Legalism
    Belief that a powerful, efficient gov’t and a strict legal system are the keys to social order
    Feared disorder
    Strong gov’t & strict laws would restore order
  • 16. Strict Laws & Harsh Punishments
    Legalists believed human nature was wicked
    People do good only when forced to
    Gov’t should pass strict laws to control behavior in people
    Needed to make people afraid to do wrong
  • 17. An Increase in Government Control
    Legalists believed rulers should reward those who carried out their duties well
    Punishment was, however, stressed more than rewards
    Shang Yang (Legalist)
    Wanted people to report lawbreakers
    Those who didn’t should be executed
    Legalists
    Did not want people ? or complain about the gov’t
    Arrested those that did
    Burned books that contained different philosophies or ideas
  • 18. Confucianism
    Confucius
    Lived from 551-479 B.C. during time of unrest in China
    Wanted to restore order
    Believed more in peace to end conflict
    Respect for others was absolutely necessary for peace and order
    Gov’t leaders should set good example for people to see
    Ideas were collected in a book called the Analects
    Became belief system of Confucianism
  • 19. The Five Relationships
    Code of proper conduct/behavior for people
    5 basic relationships in Confucianism each with its own duties and its own code
    Father and son
    Elder brother and younger brother
    Husband and wife
    Friend and friend
    Ruler and subject
    *Two basic categories: proper conduct in the family & proper conduct in society
  • 20. Proper Conduct
    Confucius
    Good conduct & respect began at home
    Husband good to wives, wives obeyed husbands, brothers kind to brothers, younger had to follow wishes of older
    Most important teaching
    Filial piety: treating parents w/ respect
    Behavior in society
    Authority should be respected
    Ruler was to live correctly & respect subjects
    Subjects should obey if they did
    Peace in society would come if followed
  • 21. The Impact of Confucianism
    Chinese found ways to avoid conflict and live peacefully
    Many rulers tried to live up to Confucius’s model for a good ruler
    Groundwork was laid for fair and skilled gov’t officials
  • 22. Daoism
    Laozi
    500s B.C.
    Book of his teachings was Daodejing
    The Way
    Believed a universal force called the Dao (or Way) guides things
    All creatures, except humans, live in harmony w/ this force
    Humans argue about right and wrong (arguments are pointless)
    To relate to nature humans had to find individual was to follow
    Each should learn to live in harmony w/ nature & their inner feelings
    Natural order was more important than social order
    Social order would follow if everyone learned to live in their own individual harmony
  • 23. Following the Way
    Daoists
    Didn’t not argue about good and bad & didn’t try to change things
    Accepted things as they were
    Didn’t want to be involved with gov’t
    Thought gov’t should leave people alone
    Yin and Yang
    Two things that interact w/ each other and represent the natural rhythms of life
    Yin (black): all that is cold, dark, & mysterious
    Yang (white): all that is warm, bright, and light
    Forces complement each other; forces always change and evolve
    Helps people understand how they fit into the world
    Daoists pursued scientific studies
    Astronomy & medicine
  • 24. Section 3
    The Qin & the Han
  • 25. The Qin Unified China
    New rulers of China
    New Emperor: Shi Huangdi
    Unified & expanded China
  • 26. A Legalistic Ruler
    221 B.C.
    Shi Huangdi began to end internal battles between warring states
    Believed in legalism (killed 460 critics & Confucianists)
    Also burned books w/ ideas he disliked
  • 27. Uniting China
    Huangdi wanted strong central gov’t
    To gain control
    Tried to weaken China’s noble families
    Took their land & forced them to live at the capital
    This strengthened emperor’s power
    Linked lands together
    Built highways & irrigation projects
    Forced peasants to work & set taxes high to pay for projects
    Set gov’t standards for weights, measures, coins, & writing
    Made business easier everywhere in China
  • 28. The Great Wall
    Wall along northern boarder to keep out nomadic invaders
    Great Wall linked together other walls built during Warring States period
    Peasants & criminals were forced to build the wall
    Many died from hard labor
    Great resentment among people
  • 29. The Qin Dynasty Ends
    210 B.C.
    Shi Huangdi died
    Buried in an elaborate tomb guarded by army of clay soldiers
  • 30. The Han Dynasty
    Shi Huangi’s son was not an effective ruler
    Rebellion & civil war broke out
    Military leader Liu Bang ended civil war & reunited China (started Han Dynasty)
  • 31. Han Government
    Liu Bang kept Qin policies of strong central gov’t, but lowered taxes
    Made punishments less harsh
    Peasants owed 1 month labor on emperor’s public projects
    Built roads, canals, & irrigation projects
    Bureaucracy was set up
    System of departments to carry out the work of the gov’t
    Officials chosen by ruler ran offices
    Helped enforce emperor’s rule
    Han put family members & trusted people in local gov’t
    Later skills of people determined appointment
    Set up system to find most educated & ethical people
    Tested people on their knowledge of Confucianism
  • 32. Empress Rules
    195 B.C. Liu Bang died
    Wife Empress Lu ruled for their young son
    Actually outlived her son & continued to place infants on the throne (allowed her to retain power because infants were too young to rule)
    When she died those loyal to Liu Bang executed every member of Empress Lu’s family
  • 33. Expanding & Unifying the Empire
    141 – 87 B.C.
    Wudi ruled China (descendant of Liu Bang)
    Called Martial Emperor because he used war to expand China
    Brought southern Chinese provinces, northern Vietnam, & northern Korea under his control
    Chased nomadic invaders out of northern China
    To unify:
    Encouraged conquered people to assimilated (adopt China’s culture)
    Chinese farmers sent out to settle newly colonized areas
    Encouraged to marry conquered people to spread Chinese culture
    Schools were set up to teach about Confucianism
    Appointed local scholars to gov’t offices
    Han faced rebellions, peasant revolts, floods, famine, & economic disasters but strong gov’t & unified population helped them stay in power
  • 34. Life in Han China
    Han were industrious people whose civilization prospered for many decades
    Daily Life in Han China
    Most worked on farms
    Farmers lived in villages near the land they worked
    Lived in 1-2 story houses
    Rich farmers had ox to pull plow, but poor had to pull plow themselves
    Farmers had a few simple tools to make farming easier
    They wore simple clothing & sandals
    Grew wheat & millet in the north & rice in the south
    Vegetable gardens were kept for additional food
    Fish and meat were available, but expensive
  • 35. City living
    Cities were centers of trade, education, and gov’t
    Merchants, craftspeople, & gov’t officials lived here
    Cities were crowded & had many kinds of entertainment
    Musicians, jugglers, & acrobats
    Also had street gangs
  • 36. Section 4
    The Legacy of Ancient China
  • 37. The Silk Road
    Han Dynasty
    Only Chinese knew how to make silk
    it was important in opening trading routes to the west
  • 38. A Trans-Eurasian Link
    Silk Road: overland trade route
    Traders carried silk & other goods on caravan trails
    From China-Asia-Mesopotamia-Europe
    Called trans-Eurasian because they stretched across two continents
    100 B.C
    Silk Roads were well est.
    Traders made fortunes carrying goods
    Trips could take several years
    Cities along the road provided food, water, shelter & goods for trade
    Goods traded: silk, paper, jade, pottery, sesame seeds, oil, metals, precious stones, & horses
  • 39. Cultural Diffusion
    Ideas & cultural customs also moved on the Silk Roads
    Known as cultural diffusion
    Can occur whenever one group of people comes in contact w/ another group of people
    New goods, ideas, & customs began to enter China
    i.e. military techniques, Buddhist teachings, western cultural style
    Chinese art, silks, & pottery influenced the west
  • 40. The Spread of Buddhism
    Buddhist missionaries entered China during Han Dynasty
    Few followers at first
    After fall of Han Dynasty China suffered
    The Buddhist promise of escape from suffering attracted many Chinese
    Buddhism was modified by Chinese to better fit w/ their own traditions
  • 41. Influential Ideas & Beliefs
    Philosophies continued to influence China & the world
    Standards of Confucianism remained significant in Chinese gov’t & education
    Spread to Japan, Korea, & Vietnam
    Daoism had lasting influence in China
    Became religion w/ priests, rituals, & volumes of writings
    Remained primarily a Chinese belief system
  • 42. Chinese Inventions & Discoveries
    Population of China was growing
    Farming was the most important & honored profession
    Agricultural Improvements
    Perfected a two blade plow
    Better iron farm tools
    Both helped increase crop production
    Collar harness for horses
    Horses could pull heavier loads
    Wheelbarrow
    Water mills
  • 43. Paper
    A.D. 105
    Paper was invented
    Made from mixture of old rags, mulberry tree bark, & fibers from the hemp plant
    Inexpensive paper made book more available
    Paper also affected the gov’t
    Now gov’t documents were not recorded on wood, but paper; more convenient
  • 44. Silk
    Allowed Chinese to get silver and gold from lands to the west
    Was important because China did not have rich deposits of either mineral