Chapter 5


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Chapter 5

  1. 1. Ancient India
  2. 2. Geography & Indian Life
  3. 3. Physical Geography of India Subcontinent Large landmass that is part of a continent, butconsidered a separate region Includes: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, & most ofPakistan Referred to a South Asia Used to be a separate landmass Collided with Asia & mts. were pushed up where the two landsmet
  4. 4. Mountains & Waterways Mountains Hindu Kush Mts. Himalayas Stretch along northern India & separate it from China andAsia Rivers Ganges & Indus Rivers Carry water for irrigation Deposit silt which makes land fertile Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, & Bay of Bengal surround India Ancient people sailed waters to other lands for trade
  5. 5. Climate Mts. help block cold north winds Temps are warm Seasonal wind systems (Monsoons) shape climate Produce wet or dry season Monsoons can provide rain for crops or cause floods
  6. 6. Cities in the Indus Valley Earth mounds cover Indus Valley Bricks & tiny stone seals were found Ancient civilizations discovered
  7. 7. Early Inhabitants Civilization began with agriculture Raised wheat, barley, & eventually cotton that was madeinto fabric Domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, & chickens Made copper & bronze tools People traded with each other & eventually with othercivilizations further away Developed into more complex culture
  8. 8. Great Cities Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa Harappa is the name given to entire culture; called Harappancivilization Harappa Good city planning Partially built of mud-brick platforms to protect fromflooding Thick wall 3 ½ miles long surrounded city Citadel located inside for royal family & served as a temple Wide streets were laid out in grid system Houses laid out in blocks
  9. 9. Dealing with Problems Big problem of removing human waste Harappan cities Every house had bathroom & toilet Underground sewers carries waste away Good planning to accomplish this task Must have had powerful leaders
  10. 10. Harappan Culture Mysterious form of writing was discovered 500 pictographs may stand for words, sounds, or both Not known how to read writing yet Only learn about Harappan culture through the studyof artifacts
  11. 11. Harappan Religion No temples of specific deities, or gods, found yet Public baths, figures of animals, & clay figurines havebeen found Possible religious ties Priests Probably prayed for good harvests & safety from floods Religious objects show links to modern Hindu culture
  12. 12. A Widespread and ProsperousCulture People shared Harappan culture Cities spread Common design of cities shared
  13. 13. Culture & Trade People used standard weights & measures Made similar bronze statues & clay toys Showed Harappans could afford more than just thenecessities Wealth gained through agriculture & trade Traded as far away as Mesopotamia Harappans traded timber, ivory, & beads for silver, tin, &woolen cloth
  14. 14. Indus Valley Culture Ends 1700 B.C. Quality of buildings in Indus Valley declined Cities fell to decay May Indus River changed course & floods no longerfertilized the land or people wore out the land 1970s Satellite images revealed evidence of ancient movementsin the earth’s crust Probably caused earthquakes & floods Altered course of the Indus River
  15. 15. Impact of Disaster Some cities along the Indus River survived disasterswhile others were destroyed Saraswati River might have also dried up Trade became impossible & cities died Agriculture was also influenced Could not produce large quantities of food
  16. 16. Influence of Nomads Nomadic people from the north of the Hindu Kushmts. came into region May have been a factor on Indian subcontinent
  17. 17. The Origins of Hinduism
  18. 18. Aryans Move Into India Indo-Europeans Nomads Lived in clans (family groups) Herded cattle, sheep, & goats Warriors who used horse-driven chariots Fought w/ long bows & arrows and axes
  19. 19. The Indo-European Migrations 2,000 B.C. Drought, a plague, or invasion forced I-E to leavehomeland Different groups went to different areas Hittites = Southwest Asia Others = parts of Europe
  20. 20. The Aryan Migrations 1500 B.C. Aryans migrated to India Simple herders who lived in simple houses Spoke Sanskrit Not believed to have caused Harappans to flee
  21. 21. Changes to Indian Life Aryans Entered India gradually Practiced a religion that Dravidians liked Dravidians were people already living in India Aryan language & religion spread Dravidians taught Aryans about city life Complex blended culture developed
  22. 22. Social Structure Aryan society at first Warriors Priests Commoners As society became more complex became known as the caste system(caste = a social class that a person belongs to by birth) Brahmans = priests, scholars, & teachers Ksatriya = rulers, nobles, & warriors Vaisya = bankers, farmers, & merchants Sudra = artisans & laborers Later another group was added Untouchables = below all other groups; did jobs no one else wanted(i.e. disposing of dead bodies)
  23. 23. Aryan Beliefs & Brahmanism Early Aryans religion now called Brahmanism Named after Aryan priests or Brahmins Worshiped many nature deities Sacrificed animals on sacred fire Ceremonies became more complex over time Rituals & hymns found in ancient Sankrit sacred textscalled the Vedas 4 collections of prayers & instruction for rituals most important is Rig Veda
  24. 24.  Religion changed over time Began to question how world came to be Began to believe that all deities were really theexpression of one deity Indians wrote about ancient history in works like theMahabharata An epic poem that retells many legends
  25. 25. Hinduism: The Religion of India Bhagavad Gita is sacred text of Hinduism Modern name of religion developed from Brahmanism Many Deities Many are worshipped, but one supreme God or life forceis recognized 3 most important: Brahma (the creator), Vishnu (theprotector), & Shiva (the destroyer)
  26. 26. Many Lives Hindus believe in reincarnation Each person has many lives What a person does in each life determines what he orshe will be in the next life (known as Karma) Consequences determine fate Reincarnation is a cycle of birth, life, death, & rebirth Cycle ends when a mystical union w/ God is created Person must realize their soul & God’s soul are one
  27. 27. Many Paths to God Connect w/ God by following their own individualpath Part of path deals w/ one’s job (linked to the castesystem) Must faithfully carry out assigned duties in life Choices of spiritual practices to grow closer to God Meditation: making the mind calm Yoga: complex practice including exercise, breathingtech., & diet
  28. 28. Buddhism and India’s Golden Age
  29. 29. The Rise of Buddhism Based on teachings of Siddhartha Gautama Prince who gave up wealth & position to understandmeaning of life Became Buddha (enlightened one) later
  30. 30. The Buddha’s life and Teachings A priests predicted Siddhartha would become holy man His father sheltered him from seeing illness, death & povertyto prevent this At 29 Siddhartha did finally see such troubles & fled his homein search of peace Starved himself for 6 years (did not find answers he sought) Then sat under a fig tree & meditated for understanding Gained insight into reality called them the Four Noble Truths 1st: existence is suffering 2nd: condition comes from wanting what one doesn’t have orfrom wanting life to be different 3rd: people can stop suffering by not wanting 4th: people can stop wanting by following the Eightfold Path
  31. 31.  The Eightfold Path Rightopinions, desires, speech, actions, job, effort, concentration, and meditation Path could lead to nirvana (the end of suffering) Reaching nirvana broke the cycle of reincarnation Buddha believed in the practice of ahimsa, but didn’tworship Hindu deities After Buddha’s death Followers gathered teaching to pass on to others Collections called the dharma
  32. 32. The Maurya Empire Buddhism became influential because famous Indian kingruled by its teachings A United India Separate Aryan kingdoms battled each other Magadha gained strength around 550 B.C. 321 B.C. Chandragupta Maurya became king of Magaha Formed Maurya Empire Controlled empire using spies to learn what people did &army to keep order (600,000 soldiers, 30,000 cavalary, &9,000 elephants) Many officials ran gov’t Heavily taxed land and crops of people
  33. 33. Asoka, the Buddhist King Asoka Grandson of Chandragupta Became emperor in 272 B.C. Ruled by Buddhist teachings Gave up warfare; ruled peacefully & by law Policies were carved on rocks and stone pillars along main roads One edict was for people to show obedience to mother and father Others joined Buddhism Missionaries were also sent to carry the ideas of Buddhism to otherparts of Asia Asoka’s officials planted trees, dug wells, set up hospitals, & built resthouses along roads Improvements allowed more comfort for travelers Policies were noble, but they failed to hold the empire together afterhis death
  34. 34. Changes to Hinduism Hindu deities were not worshiped by as many peopleanymore People turned to Buddhism instead Shift back to Hinduism began Poets wrote hymns of praise to deities Vishnu & Shiva Wrote in languages of common people (instead of Sanskrit) Renewed love for Hindu deities followed
  35. 35. The Golden Age of the Guptas Gupta family took control five centuries after Asokadied The Gupta Empire Began as leaders in Magadha Chandra Gupta I became king in A.D. 320 Fun expanded empire by fighting wars His grandson Chandra Gupta II was greatest ruler of family Gupta II During reign India experienced a golden age or a time ofgreat accomplishment
  36. 36. Art & Literature Flourished under Gupta II Gracefully designed temples Murals & statues were created Plays were written Poetry flourished
  37. 37. Mathematics & Science Math: number system still used today; developeddecimal system & symbol for zero; figured out lengthof a year, estimated value of pi Astronomy increased; proved earth was round Doctors promoted health through diet and exercise
  38. 38. Metal Working Advanced methods of metallurgy Large iron pillars were erected
  39. 39. Trade Spreads Indian Culture Gupta royal court was a place of excitement & growth More territory was added to empire Expansion & profits from foreign trade was a result Merchants bought Chinese silk & resold them to traderstraveling west Traders & Missionaries spread Indian culture & beliefs Hinduism spread to Southeast Asia, Buddhism spread
  40. 40. The Legacy of India
  41. 41. Hinduism & Buddhism Today 4 out of 5 people in India are Hindus Also found in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, & many othercountries 1 million in the U.S. Buddhism didn’t remain strong in India Not even 1% of people are Buddhists Religion is popular in Asia, Western Europe, & the U.S.
  42. 42. Hindu & Buddhist Influences Mid 1900s Mohandas Gandhi used ahimsa (nonviolence) tofighting against British rule Martin Luther King Jr. was inspired by Gandhi Today many influences present like religiousmeditation & yoga
  43. 43. India’s Artistic Legacy Literature Kalidasa: great writer of India; possibly the court poet for ChandraGupta II; created many skillfully written & emotionally stirringplays Drama Popular in ancient India Traveling actors put on performances across the region Combined drama & dance (many are basis of techniques used today) Art & Sculpture Has influenced art in other cultures Differences in Buddhist & Hindu art Related to subject matter Buddhist: often portrayed the Buddha Hindu: portrayed Hindu deities Artistic styles not influenced by Hindu or Buddhist beliefs
  44. 44. Architecture Influenced by Hindu traditions Many began in Gupta times Buildings with stone rather than wood, erecting a highpyramid roof instead of a flat one, & sculpting elaboratedecorations on the roof
  45. 45. The Legacy of IndianMathematics Numeral we use originated in India Used numerals 1 to 9 for more than 2,000 years Decimal system originated in India Would not work without a symbol for zero This goes back 1,400 years in India