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Chapter 24

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  • 1. The World War II Era
  • 2. Aggression Leads to War
  • 3. The Rise of Dictators 1920s-1930s  Several nations views democratic gov’ts as too weak  Turned to dictators
  • 4. Soviet Communism 1929  Josef Stalin dictator of Soviet Union  Made it a totalitarian state (a nation in which a single party controls the gov’t and every aspect of people’s lives)  Took brutal measures to control & modernize industry & agriculture  Peasant had to live crops, animals, & land to gov’t run farms  Those who resisted were executed or sent to labor camps  4 million other Soviets were killed or imprisoned on false charges of disloyalty
  • 5. Fascism in Italy Economic & social problems after WWI  Led to unrest Benito Mussolini  Promised to restore prosperity & order 1922 Mussolini & followers threatened to overthrow elected gov’t  King appointed Mussolini prime minister  Turned Italy into world’s 1st fascist state (political system based on militarism, extreme nationalism, & blind loyalty to the state & its leaders)  Spoke of restoring Italy to time of Roman Empire when Italy controlled Europe  Ended freedom of the press & banned all political parties, but his  Critics were jailed or murdered  Children in school recited the motto “Mussolini is always right”
  • 6. Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler  Was one of many Germans mad at WWI defeat & reparation payments  1921 Hitler became leader of National Socialist, Nazi, Party  Nazism was a form of fascism Racism was at core of Nazi beliefs  Hitler told Germans they were master race  Cornerstone of racial theories was hatred of Jews  Claimed Jews betrayed Germany in WWI (that is why they lost); Jews & other groups became the scapegoat
  • 7.  1933  Hitler named chancellor of Germany (leader of parliament)  Created a totalitarian state  All other parties outlawed  Secret police enforced strict loyalty Anti-Semitic laws passed  Jews banned from public schools & from certain professions (medicine & law)  Jews communities were attacked 1938  Troops began sending Jews to slave labor camps (the worse was yet to come)
  • 8. Militarism in Japan Great Depression undermined faith in democratic gov’t  Military leaders pressured gov’t to take control of nearby countries  Island nation need more space & raw materials for industries 1936  militarists completely controlled gov’t  Preached racism  Japanese were superior to other Asians & non-Asians
  • 9. Military Aggression Japan attacks China  1931 w/o gov’t approval Japanese army seized Manchuria (in Northern China)  League of Nations (founded to stop aggression) protested, but did nothing  1937 Japanese aggression increased in China  Chinese treated brutally  For 6 weeks Japanese forces pillaged Nanjing  Quarter of a million civilians & prisoners of war were massacred
  • 10. Italy Invades Ethiopia 1935  Mussolini’s armies invade Ethiopia  Ethiopians battled bravely but modern technology prevailed  Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie appealed to League of Nations for aid  Response was week
  • 11. German Aggression Hitler vowed to create empire to unite all German speaking people  Began rebuilding German army (defined Treaty of Versailles)  Moved troops to Rhineland region of western Germany  1938 German armies occupy Austria  European democracies did nothing to stop him France & Britain protest when Hitler threatened to invade Czechoslovakia  Met w/ Hitler in Germany(Munich) to appease him  Munich Pact  Agreed to let Germany invade Sudetenland (portion of Czech. Populated by people who spoke German)  In return Hitler promised not to seek further territory  Neville Chamberlain (British Prime Minister) claimed he had won peace  A few month later Hitler occupied all of Czech.
  • 12. Neutrality Act Passed by Congress in 1935  1st of several laws designed to keep U.S. at peace  Forbade President from selling arms, making loans, or giving assistance to any nation involved in war
  • 13. Good Neighbor Policy U.S. wanted to strengthen ties to Latin America Pres. Herbert Hover rejected Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine  U.S. no longer claimed right to intervene in Latin American affairs  Franklin Roosevelt created Good Neighbor Policy  American troops withdrew from Nicaragua & Haiti  Also cancelled Platt Amendment (had limited independence of Cuba)
  • 14. War Begins in Europe Poland was next target of Hitler  France & Britain realize appeasement failed  Would aid if invaded Invasion of Poland  August 1939  Hitler & Stalin sign nonaggression agreement (were enemies)  Nazi-Soviet Pact  Promised not to attach each other  Secretly agreed to divide up Poland  September 1, 1939  Nazi troops invade Poland  16 days later Soviet troops seize eastern Poland & invaded Finland & later annexed Estonia, Lithuania, & Latvia  Britain & France declared war on Germany  WWII had begun At 1st Germany army was unstoppable 1940 Germany army seized Denmark & Norway & later the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, & moved into France
  • 15. Fall of France Britain sent troops to help France  Overpowered  Retreated to Dunkirk a port on the English Channel  Every British ship available was sent to rescue trapped soldiers Germans marched on to Paris June 22, 1940 Hitler accepted surrender of France
  • 16. Battle of Britain Britain stood alone against Nazi war machine Winston Churchill was confident Britain could win Hitler ordered air assault on Britain  Day after day assaults continued (thousands died, but spirits never broke)  They slept in subway stations at night & cleared wreckage, buried the dead, & tried to carry on during the day British air force fought invading planes overhead  Battle continued for many months  Hitler abandoned plans to invade Britain
  • 17. Invasion of the Soviet Union June 22, 1941  Hitler broke pact w/ Stalin  German forces invade Soviet Union  Soviet Union now joined Britain in fighting Germans  Churchill & Stalin mistrusted each other, but were forced to work together