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Chapter 22 Sections 1-3
 

Chapter 22 Sections 1-3

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    Chapter 22 Sections 1-3 Chapter 22 Sections 1-3 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 22 East Africa
    •  
    • The Land
      • East Africa is a land of high plains & plateaus
        • North: deserts & dry grasslands
        • Southwest: large lakes dot the plateaus
        • East: sandy beaches and coral reefs run along the coast
        • Rifts: most striking feature
          • Long, deep valleys with mountains or plateaus on either side
    • The Rift Valleys
      • Great Rift Valley is caused by the land arching & splitting along the rift valley
        • http://earth.imagico.de/views/eafrica_small.jpg
      • Great rift valley is made up of two rifts
        • Eastern rift: begins at the Red Sea & continues through Eritrea & Ethiopia into southern Tanzania
        • Western rift: extends from Lake Albert to Lake Malawi
      • Rift walls are a series of steep cliffs
        • Drop an average of about 9,000 feet to the valley floor
    • Mountains & Plains
      • East Africa has many volcanic mountains
      • Mount Kilimanjaro at 19,341 feet is the tallest
        • Although close to the equator, snow covers its two volcanic cones
      • Plains along the eastern rift in Tanzania & Kenya are home to famous national parks
    • Rivers & Lakes
      • East Africa has a number of rivers & large lakes
      • The Nile being the largest
      • Water from small streams collects in Lake Victoria, the source of the White Nile
      • Water from Ethiopia’s highlands form the Blue Nile
        • Two rivers meet at Khartoum, Sudan to form the Nile
      • Lake Victoria is Africa’s largest lake, but it is shallow
      • Along the western rift is a chain of great lakes
      • Along the eastern rift lakes are heated from the earth’s interior and make them too hot to swim in
      • Lake Nakuru is too salty for most fish, but algae found here provides food for more than a million flamingos
    •  
    • Climate & Resources
      • Northern Sudan & northeast coast has desert & steppe climates
      • Changes to a tropical climate as you travel south
      • At rift valleys, floors are dry, grasslands with little rain while the plateaus and mountains have a humid highland climate and dense forests, with rainfall
      • Most East Africans are farmers or herders
      • Resources: coal, copper, diamonds, gold, iron ore, & lead
      • http://www.altrec.com/includes/published/crownofafrica/intro.html
    • History & Culture Section 2
    • Christianity & Islam
      • Christian missionaries from Egypt introduced Christianity
        • A.D. 300
      • A.D. 500 Christianity spread into Nubia, now part of Egypt & Sudan
      • Arab armies conquered Egypt & North Africa by A.D. 700
        • Islam brought in with Arabs
    • The Slave Trade
      • Dates back 1,000 years
      • Most slaves went to Islamic countries in Africa & Asia
      • Portuguese began setting up forts & settlements on the East African coast by early 1500s
      • By 1700s the island of Zanzibar became an international slave trading center
        • Plantations were later set up here to grow sugarcane
    • European Influence & Conflict
      • 1800s
        • Slavery ends
      • Focus shifts to trading gold, ivory, & rubber
        • To get goods Europeans needed to dominate the region
        • Est. colonies to expand empires
        • Britain & other European countries divided up most of Africa
          • Drew boundaries that separated ethnic groups
          • Used imperialism in their colonies (a practice that tries to dominate other countries’ gov’t, trade, & culture
            • African deputies were used to control colonies & these chiefs were loyal to their own ethnic people which often caused rivalries
    • Today
      • Gov’t trying to strengthen national id., but ethnic conflicts continue
      • 1960s
        • Time when most East African countries gained independence
        • Ethiopia was never colonized
          • Mountains provided protection and people resisted colonization
    • Culture
      • Greatest diversity of people & ways of life of all of Africa
      • Many different languages & religions
    • Language
      • European influences
        • French & English spoken
      • Swahili is most widely spoken African language
    • Religion
      • Important aspect of culture
      • Religions vary, but same importance placed on honoring ancestors
      • Animists
        • Natural world contains spirits
      • Christianity practiced
      • Islam practiced
    • Section 3 East Africa Today
    • Tanzania & Kenya
          • Economies based on tourism & agriculture
          • among poorest countries in the world
          • Economy & Resources
          • Tourism important
            • Go on safari of numerous national parks
        • Tanzania rich in gold & diamonds
          • Mainly subsistence farmers
            • Poor soil & limited technology restrict productivity
        • Kenya land set aside as national parkland
          • People would like to farm land, but it would affect wildlife & hurt tourism industry
          • Agriculture on slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro
            • Produce coffee & tea
          • Geothermal energy also part of economy
    • Cities
      • Similar to cities in U.S.
        • Businesspeople hurrying to work, outdoor markets, soaring skyscrapers, parks
      • Terrorist attacks have taken place in cities in Kenya & Tanzania
    • Rwanda & Burundi
      • Two ethnic groups
        • Tutsi & Hutu
          • Violence between the groups
            • 1990s genocide (intentional destruction of a people)
      • Densely populated countries
      • Bother former German colonies
      • Lack resources & rely on coffee & tea
    • Sudan & Uganda
      • Sudan
        • Is Largest African country
        • Mainly an agricultural country, but also developing some of its mineral resources
        • Arab Muslims make up 40% of population & have political power
        • Religious conflicts between Muslims & Christians
          • Recently Genocide in Darfur (10 of thousands of black Sudanese are being killed by an Arab militia group, millions more have fled the region)
      • Uganda
        • Recovering from decades of military dictatorship
        • Site of an ancient empire
        • Economic progress has been slow
        • Rely on agriculture
    • The Horn of Africa
      • Ethiopia
        • Never under foreign rule
          • Due to mts.
        • Volcanic mts. have very fertile soil
          • Agriculture main part of economy
          • Many herd sheep & cattle
        • Serious droughts over last 30 years
        • Christians live in highland regions while Muslims live in lowlands
      • Eritrea
        • Once Italian colony & then Ethiopian province
          • 1993 after years of war Eritrea broke away
        • Located on the Red Sea
        • Economy has slowly improved
        • Tourists visit coral reefs of region
        • People are mostly farmers & herders
        • Export mainly cotton
      • Somalia
        • Land of deserts & dry savannas
        • Most are nomadic herders
        • Less diverse
          • Most are members of single ethnic group
        • Most are Muslim
        • Livestock & bananas are main exports
        • Troubled by civil war
        • Often had no central gov’t
          • Clans have fought over grazing rights & control over cities
      • Djibouti
        • Small desert country
        • Lies on the Bab al-Mandab
          • Narrow strait that connects the Red Sea & Indian Ocean
          • Lies along major shipping route, which has helped this countries economy
        • 1860s came under French control
        • 1977 gained independence
          • French still contribute economic & military support
        • Port serves as a major source of income
        • People include the Issa & Afar
          • Issa tied to the people of Somalia
          • Afar are related to the people of Ethiopia
          • Both groups are Muslim
            • 1990s civil broke out between two groups
            • 2001 peace treaty signed