Chapter 22 Sections 1-3


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Chapter 22 Sections 1-3

  1. 1. Chapter 22 East Africa
  2. 3. The Land <ul><li>East Africa is a land of high plains & plateaus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North: deserts & dry grasslands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southwest: large lakes dot the plateaus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East: sandy beaches and coral reefs run along the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rifts: most striking feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long, deep valleys with mountains or plateaus on either side </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. The Rift Valleys <ul><li>Great Rift Valley is caused by the land arching & splitting along the rift valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great rift valley is made up of two rifts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern rift: begins at the Red Sea & continues through Eritrea & Ethiopia into southern Tanzania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western rift: extends from Lake Albert to Lake Malawi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rift walls are a series of steep cliffs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop an average of about 9,000 feet to the valley floor </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Mountains & Plains <ul><li>East Africa has many volcanic mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Kilimanjaro at 19,341 feet is the tallest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although close to the equator, snow covers its two volcanic cones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plains along the eastern rift in Tanzania & Kenya are home to famous national parks </li></ul>
  5. 6. Rivers & Lakes <ul><li>East Africa has a number of rivers & large lakes </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile being the largest </li></ul><ul><li>Water from small streams collects in Lake Victoria, the source of the White Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Water from Ethiopia’s highlands form the Blue Nile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two rivers meet at Khartoum, Sudan to form the Nile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lake Victoria is Africa’s largest lake, but it is shallow </li></ul><ul><li>Along the western rift is a chain of great lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Along the eastern rift lakes are heated from the earth’s interior and make them too hot to swim in </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Nakuru is too salty for most fish, but algae found here provides food for more than a million flamingos </li></ul>
  6. 8. Climate & Resources <ul><li>Northern Sudan & northeast coast has desert & steppe climates </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to a tropical climate as you travel south </li></ul><ul><li>At rift valleys, floors are dry, grasslands with little rain while the plateaus and mountains have a humid highland climate and dense forests, with rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Most East Africans are farmers or herders </li></ul><ul><li>Resources: coal, copper, diamonds, gold, iron ore, & lead </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 10. History & Culture Section 2
  9. 11. Christianity & Islam <ul><li>Christian missionaries from Egypt introduced Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.D. 300 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A.D. 500 Christianity spread into Nubia, now part of Egypt & Sudan </li></ul><ul><li>Arab armies conquered Egypt & North Africa by A.D. 700 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam brought in with Arabs </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. The Slave Trade <ul><li>Dates back 1,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Most slaves went to Islamic countries in Africa & Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese began setting up forts & settlements on the East African coast by early 1500s </li></ul><ul><li>By 1700s the island of Zanzibar became an international slave trading center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantations were later set up here to grow sugarcane </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. European Influence & Conflict <ul><li>1800s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery ends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus shifts to trading gold, ivory, & rubber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get goods Europeans needed to dominate the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Est. colonies to expand empires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain & other European countries divided up most of Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drew boundaries that separated ethnic groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used imperialism in their colonies (a practice that tries to dominate other countries’ gov’t, trade, & culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African deputies were used to control colonies & these chiefs were loyal to their own ethnic people which often caused rivalries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Today <ul><li>Gov’t trying to strengthen national id., but ethnic conflicts continue </li></ul><ul><li>1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time when most East African countries gained independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethiopia was never colonized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains provided protection and people resisted colonization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Culture <ul><li>Greatest diversity of people & ways of life of all of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Many different languages & religions </li></ul>
  14. 16. Language <ul><li>European influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French & English spoken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swahili is most widely spoken African language </li></ul>
  15. 17. Religion <ul><li>Important aspect of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Religions vary, but same importance placed on honoring ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Animists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural world contains spirits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christianity practiced </li></ul><ul><li>Islam practiced </li></ul>
  16. 18. Section 3 East Africa Today
  17. 19. Tanzania & Kenya <ul><ul><ul><li>Economies based on tourism & agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>among poorest countries in the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economy & Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Go on safari of numerous national parks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanzania rich in gold & diamonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly subsistence farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor soil & limited technology restrict productivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya land set aside as national parkland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People would like to farm land, but it would affect wildlife & hurt tourism industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture on slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce coffee & tea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal energy also part of economy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Cities <ul><li>Similar to cities in U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesspeople hurrying to work, outdoor markets, soaring skyscrapers, parks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terrorist attacks have taken place in cities in Kenya & Tanzania </li></ul>
  19. 21. Rwanda & Burundi <ul><li>Two ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutsi & Hutu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violence between the groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1990s genocide (intentional destruction of a people) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Densely populated countries </li></ul><ul><li>Bother former German colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Lack resources & rely on coffee & tea </li></ul>
  20. 22. Sudan & Uganda <ul><li>Sudan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is Largest African country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly an agricultural country, but also developing some of its mineral resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab Muslims make up 40% of population & have political power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious conflicts between Muslims & Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recently Genocide in Darfur (10 of thousands of black Sudanese are being killed by an Arab militia group, millions more have fled the region) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uganda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovering from decades of military dictatorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of an ancient empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic progress has been slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. The Horn of Africa <ul><li>Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never under foreign rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to mts. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic mts. have very fertile soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture main part of economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many herd sheep & cattle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious droughts over last 30 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians live in highland regions while Muslims live in lowlands </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Eritrea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once Italian colony & then Ethiopian province </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1993 after years of war Eritrea broke away </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located on the Red Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy has slowly improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourists visit coral reefs of region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are mostly farmers & herders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export mainly cotton </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Somalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land of deserts & dry savannas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are nomadic herders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less diverse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are members of single ethnic group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock & bananas are main exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubled by civil war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often had no central gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clans have fought over grazing rights & control over cities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>Djibouti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small desert country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies on the Bab al-Mandab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow strait that connects the Red Sea & Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lies along major shipping route, which has helped this countries economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1860s came under French control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1977 gained independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French still contribute economic & military support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Port serves as a major source of income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People include the Issa & Afar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issa tied to the people of Somalia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afar are related to the people of Ethiopia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both groups are Muslim </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1990s civil broke out between two groups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2001 peace treaty signed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>