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Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
Chapter 21 blog notes
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Chapter 21 blog notes

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  • 1. West Africa Chapter 21
  • 2. Physical Geography Section 1
  • 3. Landforms & Climate • Variety of climates, but not a variety of landforms • Plains & Highlands • Plains cover much of W. Africa • Coastal plain: home to cities • Interior plains: where few crops & animals are raised • Plains are vast w/ a few highland areas • SW has plateaus & cliffs • Tibesti Mt. in NE
  • 4. The Niger River • Most important in West Africa • Starts 150 miles from Atlantic Ocean & flows east & southward for 2,600 miles • Brings life-giving water to West Africa • People farm along its banks or fish in its waters • Important transportation route • Divides into network of channels, swamps, & lakes in areas (inland delta)
  • 5. Climate & Vegetation • Region’s climates are zonal • 4 Zones • The Sahara: largest desert; northernmost parts of region; few to no people • Steppe Climate: the Sahel (strip of land that divides the desert from wetter areas) an area of dry grasslands; rain fall varies; overgrazing by animals, cutting of trees for firewood, & winds blowing away fertile soil causing death to many people & animals • The Savanna: good soil, thick grass, & scattered tall trees; dangerous tsetse fly lives here, caused sleeping sickness & death • The Coast & Forest: many of largest cities are here, wet, humid climate; plentiful rain supports rain forests; trees have been cut to back way for expanding populations; environmental damage is a serious problem
  • 6. Resources • Variety of resources • Agricultural products, oil, and minerals • Agriculture • Climate of region helps with growing crops • Mineral riches: diamonds, gold, iron ore, & manganese, & bauxite • Nigeria is a major exporter of oil • 95% of exports
  • 7. Section 2 History & Culture
  • 8. West Africa’s History • Much of early history based on archaeology & oral history (spoken information passed down from person to person through generations
  • 9. Great Kingdoms • Artifacts suggest earliest trading towns developed into great kingdoms • Earliest kingdom of Ghana became rich and powerful by about A.D. 800 • Empire of Mali replace Ghana • Mansa Musa famous king • Used wealth from trade to support artists and scholars • Songhai kingdom replaced the Mali kingdom • Timbuktu became a cultural center • Universities, mosques, & schools • W. African trade cities faded when Sahara trade decreased • Europeans began sailing along the west coast of Africa
  • 10. The Slave Trade • 1440s Portuguese explorers began sailing along the west coast of Africa • Europeans & Africans profited from trade with each other for awhile • 1600s the demand for labor in Europe’s American colonies changed everything • Enslaved Africans were sold to colonists • It was very profitable for traders • Slave trade devastated West African communities • Families were broken up • Many died on the voyage to America • Most who survived were sent to the West Indies or Brazil • Ended in 1800s; millions of African had been forced from their homes
  • 11. Colonial Era & Independence • 1800s many European countries competed for colonies in West Africa • France claimed most the northwest, Britain, Germany, & Portugal seized the rest • Only tiny Liberia remained independent • Founded in 1820s by Americans as a home for free slaves; Sierra Leone (British colony) also became a home for freed slaves • Some Europeans moved to West Africa to run the colonies • They built roads, bridges, & railroads • Teachers & missionaries set up Christian churches and schools • After WWII Africans worked for independence • Most gained it during the 1950s & 1960s • Portugal gave up their colonies in 1974
  • 12. Culture • Culture reflects traditional African cultures, European culture, & Islam • People & Languages • 100s of different ethnic groups • Some still live in traditional villages • Others mix in region’s cities • Colonial political borders separated ethnic groups • More loyal to ethnic group than country • French, English, or Portuguese are universal languages
  • 13. Religion • Many forms exist • Traditional Africans • Animism: belief that bodies of water, animals, trees, & other natural objects have spirits • Most common • Islam & Christianity
  • 14. Clothing, Families, & Homes • Clothing: • Mix of traditional & modern • Western-style; traditional robes, skirts, blouses • Homes: • Small and simple • In Sahel they are circular straw or mud huts • Families • Extended families live close together
  • 15. Challenges • Borders of West Africa ignored human geography • People had stronger ties to their ethnic group than to their new country • Few people were trained to run new governments • Dictators took control in many countries • Still trouble region today • Birthrates are high in West Africa • More and more people most make a living from the small amount of fertile land • Many are moving to already crowded cities, even though jobs are few • Countries also must find ways to educate more of their people, but many families can not afford to send their children to school
  • 16. Section 3 West Africa Today
  • 17. Nigeria • 2nd largest country in W. Africa • Africa’s largest population • On e of the strongest economies • People & Gov’t • Many ethnic groups • Conflict has occurred (In 1960s Igbo tried to secede & bloody civil war followed) • Capital was chosen in low population density area to help avoid conflicts • Democratic gov’t today
  • 18. Nigeria • Economy • Rich natural resources • Oil accounts for 95% of export earnings • Good roads railroads have been built • Rich in resources but most people are poor • Causes: • High birthrate (can not produce enough food for population) • History of bad gov’t (corrupt official have enriched themselves)
  • 19. Senegal & Gambia • Odd borders of countries created by French & British • Gambia • Larger & richer • Similarities: • Peanuts are major crops • Tourism is important • Speak Wolof • Griots (story tellers) are important
  • 20. Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, and Cape Verde • Guinea & Guinea-Bissau are poor countries • Guinea natural resource: Bauxite • G-B: undeveloped mineral resources • Cape Verde • Volcanic islands in Atlantic • Has most stable democratic gov’t • Tourism forms main part of economy
  • 21. Liberia & Sierra Leone • Liberia • Oldest republic • Home to freed slaves in 1820s • Freed slaves clashed w/ Africans already living there; led to civil war which ended in 2003 • Sierra Leone • Civil war from 1991-2002 • Wrecked economy, killed thousands, & forced millions from their homes • Today • Trying to rebuild • Natural resources could help build up economies • Rubber, iron ore, & diamonds
  • 22. Ghana & Cote d’lvoire • Ghana: • Named after African kingdom • Cote d’lvoire: • Former French colony, name mean “Ivory coast” • Largest Christian church building in Africa • Rich natural resources • Gold, timber, cacao, & coffee • Economy hurt by civil war
  • 23. Togo & Benin • Unstable gov’t • Periods of military rule • Fragile economies & violent politics • Poor countries • People depend on farming & herding • Palm products, cacao, & coffee are main crops
  • 24. Mauritania, Niger, & Chad • Mauritania • Once nomadic herders • Expand desert has moved herders into cities • Very poor people • Farming & fishing are important • Corrupt gov’t & ethnic tensions between blacks & Arabs add to troubles • Niger • 3% of land good for farming • Farmers grow staple food crops (millet & sorghum) • Crops destroyed by locusts & drought in 2000s • Caused widespread famine; international groups supplied aid • Chad • Land for farming • Lake Chad once had healthy fishing industry & supplied water • Drought has caused evaporation • Faced civil wars in 1990s
  • 25. Mali & Burkina Faso • Mali • 40% covered by Sahara • Among world’s poorest countries • Some farmland along Niger River • People fish or farm • Cotton & gold are main exports • Fairly stable democratic gov’t has begun economic reform • Tourism is important • Burkina Faso • Poor country • Thin soil & few minerals • Few trees remain • Jobs in cities are scarce • Men often try to find work in other countries

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