Chapter 21

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Chapter 21

  1. 1. World War I
  2. 2. The Road to War
  3. 3. Origins of World War I  Causes of WWI  Imperialism: European competition for trade & territory in Africa, Asia, & Pacific  Fed militarism (glorification of the military)  Nations built up forces (protection & glory)  Military leaders gained influence in governments  Nationalism: (pride in one’s nation or ethnic group)  Boosted tensions  National groups sought freedom from Austria-Hungary  Serbians & Balkan nationalists (powder keg of Europe)  Alliance System: formed as tensions mounted  Germany & Austria-Hungary  France, Britain, & Russia  Conflict between 2, would soon involve others  War Begins  June 28, 1914  Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary throne  A-H accused Serbia of supporting terrorism; declared war on July 29  20 countries became involved  Allies: led by France, Britain, & Russia  Central Powers: led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, & the Ottoman Empire
  4. 4. The Deadliest War  Quick victory sought by both sides  September  Germany: 30 miles from Paris, France  1st Battle of Marne  French & British halted German advance  Area became known as Western Front  Fighting settled into a long stalemate w/ trench warfare  Charges on the enemy resulted in mass casualties as both sides fought back & forth over the same piece of land
  5. 5. Technological Advances  Made war more lethal  Airplanes: scouting & ground support  Armored tanks  Machine Guns  Heavy artillery  Poison gas: most feared  1st used by Germans  Caused choking, blinding, severe skin blisters  Banned by 140 nations after the war
  6. 6. American Neutrality  President Woodrow Wilson  Issued proclamation of strict & impartial neutrality  Ethnic Loyalties  Americans supported ethnic group  German Americans: central powers  Irish: central powers; hated England  British propaganda  Used to win American support  Spread of information designed to win support for a cause  Focused on Germany’s brutal treatment of Belgians
  7. 7. Supplying the Allies  American firms  Could sell to both sides  Most traded w/ Allies  Banks also lent to Allies  British blockade  Stopped supplies from reaching Germany  Wilson agreed w/ blockade only if British bought more American cotton to make up lost sales w/ Germany
  8. 8. The Lusitania  Germany’s navy  Few surface vessels to impose blockade  Large supply of U-boats  1905  Germany announces use of U-boats to blockade Britain  May 7, 1915  Lusitania sunk by German U-Boat  1,200 people died  128 Americans  President Wilson & American public were outraged  Germany said Lusitania was carrying ammunition to England  Germany announced U-boats would no longer target passenger liners fearing U.S. entering the war
  9. 9. Entering the War  November 1916  Wilson reelected under slogan “he kept us out of war”  Tried to make peace with warring powers  Attempt failed  Germany continued unrestricted U-boat attacks in February 1916  Wanted to cut off British supplies from U.S.  Break stalemate on Western Front  U.S. cut diplomatic ties w/ Germany
  10. 10. Zimmermann Telegram  February 24  British intercepted German telegraph  Wilson was shown telegraph  Germany proposed Mexico to join the war on Germany’s side  Germany would help Mexico re-conquer New Mexico, Texas, & Arizona  Released to press on March 1  Americans were outraged  Ready for war after U-boats sank 3 American merchant ships
  11. 11. Russian Revolution  March 1917  Military defeats & food shortages led to an uprising  Russian tsar overthrown  New gov’t vowed to keep Russia out of War  U.S. could now enter the war  Joined Allied powers  Did not side w/ a tyrant  Sided w/ other democracies to fight tyranny
  12. 12. Declaring War  April 2  Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Central Powers  Goal:  To fight “…for the rights of nations great and small and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their way of life and of obedience. The world must be made safe for democracy.”

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