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Chapter 19 section 1
 

Chapter 19 section 1

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    Chapter 19 section 1 Chapter 19 section 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 19
      Political Reform & the Progressive Era
    • Section 1
      The Gilded Age & Progressive Reform
    • Reform in the Gilded Age
      Gilded Age
      Period after Civil War
      Lasted from 1870s through 1890s
      Age of serious problems hiding under shiny surface
      Political Concerns
      Americans feared industrialists & wealthy men were enriching themselves at expense of public
      Corruption/Dishonesty in government
      Bribery & voter fraud appeared widespread
    • Taming the Spoils System
      Source of corruption was Spoils System
      Practice of rewarding political supporters w/ gov’t jobs
      W/ election of new President, people swarmed to Washington looking for jobs in rewards for their political support
      1881
      James Garfield elected President
      4 months later was shot by disappointed office seeker
      Sparked efforts to end spoils system
      Vice President Chester A. Arthur became President
      Owed his rise to spoils system
      1883
      Pendleton Act signed
      Created Civil Service Commission
      A system that includes most gov’t jobs, except elected positions, the judiciary, & the military
      Aim was to fill jobs on basis of merit
      Jobs went to those who scored highest on civil services examinations
    • Controlling Big Business
      Late 1800s
      Big business influenced politics, often w/ bribery
      Americans demanded limiting power of railroads & monopolies
      Congress
      Under Constitution has power to regulate interstate commerce
      1887
      President Grover Cleveland signed Interstate Commerce Act
      Forbade practices such as rebates & set up Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee railroads
    • 1890
      President Benjamin Harrison signed Sherman Antitrust Act
      Prohibited businesses from trying to limit or destroy competition
      Difficult to enforce
      Judges often ruled in favor of trusts & the Sherman Act was used to limit the power of labor unions (strikers blocked free trade & threatened competition)
    • Corruption in the Cities
      Expansion of cities led to expansion of sewers, garbage collection, & roads
      City politicians often excepted money to award jobs to friends
      Powerful politicians (bosses) controlled work done locally & wanted payoffs from businesses
      Popular w/ poor
      Gave turkeys & coal
      Poor voted for them in return
    • William “Boss” Tweed
      1860s & 1870s he cheated NY City out of $100 million
      His crimes were exposed by journalists, before being arrested he fled to Spain
      He was arrested in Spain & died in jail in 1878
    • Progressives & Political Reform
      Progressive Movement
      Corruption led to rise
      Progressives: diverse group of reformers united by a belief in the public interest
      Not sacrificed to greed of huge trusts & city bosses
      Wisconsin idea
      1st to adopt Progressive reforms
      Governor Robert La Follette “Battling Bob”
      Opposed political bosses
      Appointed commissions of experts to solve problems
      Railroad commission recommended lowering railroad rates; as rates decreased, rail traffic increased
      1903 Wisconsin was 1st state to adopt a primary run by state gov’t officials
      1917 all but 4 states joined
    • More Power to Voters
      Recall
      A process by which people may vote to remove an elected official from office
      Easier to remove corrupt officials
      Initiative
      Process that allows voters to put a bill before a state legislature
      Voters must collect a certain # of signatures on a petition
      Referendum: way for people to vote directly on a proposed new law
    • Two Constitutional Amendments
      Progressive Reformers
      Backed graduated income tax (method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income)
      Wealthy pay higher taxes than poor
      Supreme Court ruled this was unconstitutional
      16th Amendment (gives Congress the power to pass an income tax) was ratified in 1913
      1789
      U.S. senators were elected by state legislatures
      Bribery was a problem
      Progressives wanted people to vote for senators
      1913
      17th Amendment was ratified to require the direct election of senators
    • The Muckrakers
      Press play important role in exposing corruption
      President Theodore Roosevelt
      Compared these reporters to men who raked up dirt/muck in stables
      Muckraker became a term for a crusading journalist
      Ida Tarbell
      Targeted big business
      Work led to demands for more controls on trusts
      Accused oil baron John D. Rockefeller of unfair business methods
      Other reporters described how corruption had led to inadequate fire, police, & sanitation services
      Jacob Riis
    • Jacob Riis Photographs
    • 1906
      Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle
      Grisly details about the meatpacking industry
      Described how packers used meat from sick animals & how rats often got group up in the meat