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Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
Chapter 17 for blog
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Chapter 17 for blog

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  • 1. Chapter 17The West Transformed 1860-1896
  • 2. Section 1Mining & Railroads
  • 3. 1865 Western Frontier  Stretched from Mississippi River to Pacific Ocean  Native Americans, Mexican settlers, & pioneers migrating to California & Oregon  Value of the frontier was underestimated & was often called the American Desert (prior to Civil War)  Railroad builders & miners were among the 1st to transform the West & help make it a part of the Nation’s economy
  • 4. Boom & Bust Settlement came in a rush  Where gold & silver was found  Towns formed quickly, but did not last long 1849  Gold rush in California excited the nation  Miners spread from California to Nevada, across the Rocky Mts. & to South Dakota
  • 5. Comstock Lode 1859 (Before the Civil War)  Irish prospectors discovered gold, but Henry Comstock claimed the gold was on his land; became known as the Comstock Lode  Comstock Lode contained blue-tinted mud which made mining the gold difficult  Mud was actually loaded with silver, more valuable than the gold  Became richest silver mine in the world  Next 20 years: produced $300 million worth of silver  Nevada became center of mining
  • 6. The Boom spreads Valuable ores found in Montana, Idaho, & Colorado Along with gold strike in South Dakota 1890s gold found in Alaska Strikes caused excitement, but few actually got rich  Gold deep underground & difficult to extract Comstock gave up mining & sold mining right for $11,000 & two mules 1880s mining had become a big business
  • 7. Boomtown Life Tent Cities  Arose near diggings  Hotels, stores, & other wood buildings appeared later  Mining towns grew into boomtowns Merchants  Followed miners with tools, food, & clothing  Items were expensive Women  Had various jobs: opened restaurants, washed clothes, took in boarders, & baked pies
  • 8.  ½ of miners were foreign-born  Irish, Italian, German, Spanish, & Chinese  Often faced hostility  Chinese: not allowed to claim abandoned mines; often driven out of towns by mobs
  • 9. Frontier Justice Law & Order hard to find Vigilantes formed: self-appointed law keepers  Hunted bandits & imposed their own justice Sheriffs, marshals, & judges replaced vigilantes as boomtowns grew 1861  Colorado, Dakota, & Nevada organized into territories 1863  Arizona organized into a territory 1864  Montana organized into a territory
  • 10. The Railroad Boom Race to lay line to boomtowns began Federal Government  Offered subsidies to railroads (grants of land or money)  For every mile of track, gov’t gave the railroad 10 sq. miles of land next to the track  180 million acres altogether  Also received federal funds
  • 11. Spanning the Continent Transcontinental railroad dream  Rail line that would span across the continent 1862  Leland Stanford: Central Pacific Railroad, won right to build line eastward from Sacramento  Union Pacific Railroad would build west from Omaha Thousands of workers hired  Native born whites, Mexican Americans, African Americans, Chinese, & Irish  Work was hazardous & low paying  Daily progress often measured in inches May 10, 1869  Two lines met at Promontory, Utah
  • 12. Effects of the Railroads New towns developed in the West  People & supplies poured in  Gold & silver poured out Population growth lead to addition of new states  Nevada, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, & Wyoming
  • 13. Section 2Native Americans Struggle to Survive
  • 14. People of the Plains 360,000 Native Americans lived in the West after the Civil War Life in Transition:  Hunted, gathered, raised crops, & fished  Europeans arrival changed their lives  Tamed herds of wild horses (could travel faster & farther) & traded with French & British for guns (could kill more game w/ guns)  Some groups became wanderers & lived in tepees  Followed buffalo herds (buffalo was a source of food, shelter, & clothing)
  • 15. Division of Labors Women managed village life  Cared for children & prepared food  Carved tools & made tepees  Sometimes they went to war  Wise women sometimes ruled Men  Hunters & warriors  Led religious lives  Sun Dance: 4 day ceremony that brought together thousands of Native American from many nations; men made pledges to the Great Spirit
  • 16. Broken Treaties U.S. treaties promised to protect Native American lands  Miners & railroad crews as they pushed West broke these treaties Fort Laramie Treaty 1851  10 thousand people from many Plain nations gathered for a “big talk” w/ U.S. officials  Officials wanted: nations to stop following buffalo; would protect their lands “as long as the grass shall grow” if they settled permanently  Settlers soon after began settling on Native Americans land, along with the 1859 gold rush to Pikes Peak in Colorado
  • 17. Sand Creek Massacre 1860s  Native Americans forced from their land around Pikes Peak  Many warriors resisted & attacked supply trains & homes  Colonel John Chivington  Led 700 volunteers to attack Cheyenne at Sand Creek  Cheyenne were friendly & under army protection; they raised a white flag to signal peace  Chivington ordered men to attack; more than 100 men, women, & children died
  • 18. Buffalo Soldiers Sand Creek Massacre ignited an era of war African Americans who fought on the Plains for 20 years  Part of the U.S. army  Fought Native Americans & bandits  Started roads & communication lines still found today
  • 19. End of the Buffalo 1870s  Giant herds of buffalo vital to Native American way of life began to decline  Railroads had hunters kill the animals to feed their crews  Others killed them because the value of the buffalo hides  Hides were removed and rest of animal was left
  • 20. Last Stand for Custer & the Sioux 1860s  New treaties between U.S. & Native Americans Reservations  Kiowas, Comanche, & Arapahos moved to Oklahoma  Life was terrible; poor soil made farming difficult  Sioux & Cheyenne moved to Black Hills  1874 gold rush flooded area with miners  Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse led attacked to keep whites out
  • 21. Little Bighorn June 1876  Colonel George Armstrong Custer ordered to force Native Americans onto a reservation  Attacked a large band of Sioux & Cheyenne at Little Bighorn Valley in Montana Territory  Custer & all his men died at the Battle  Crazy Horse & Sitting Bull victory did not last long
  • 22. Other Efforts at Resistance Nez Perces  Lived in Idaho, Oregon, & Washington  Bred horses & cattle  Many agreed to go to reservations  Chief Joseph fled with a large band in 1877 to Canada  U.S. army pursued them  Nez Perces traveled 1,300 miles in 75 days  Army caught band near Canadas border  Chief Joseph declared as he surrendered, “I shall fight no more forever”
  • 23.  The Navajos  Raised sheep, horses, & cattle in the Southwest  Some bands raided settlers’ farms for livestock  Army called in for protection  1864  Navajos defeated in Arizona after a series of wars  Were taken on a “Long Walk” to the Pecos River where they suffered years of disease & hunger
  • 24.  The Apaches  Fierce resistance  Geronimo refused to go to reservation  From Mexico Geronimo & men attacked settlers in Arizona & New Mexico for 10 years  1886  Geronimo was captured & sent to a reservation in Oklahoma
  • 25. The Ghost Dance 1880s  Native Americans across the Plains began performing a unique dance  Dancers fell into a trance; believed they were talking to ghosts of their ancestors; believed their ancestors & buffalo would return & white people would leave December 1890  Native American police went to a Sioux Village to stop dances  In a struggle to arrest Sitting Bull, police killed him Sioux tried to flee to avoid further violence  Army pursued them to Wounded Knee Creek in SD  Sioux began to give up guns; a shot rang out & army troops opened fire with machine guns and rifles  200 Sioux men, women, & children were killed  30 soldiers died  The Battle of Wounded Knee marked the end of the era of Indian
  • 26. The Failure of Reform Reformers criticized gov’t for treatment of N.A. Susette La Flesche  Father was Omaha chief  Talked about destruction of Native American culture in lectures & articles Alice Fletcher  Promoted Native American rights  Became agent of U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • 27. The Dawes Act Passed in 1887 Tried to end Native American’s wandering and turn them into farmers  Received 160 acres to farm Schools were also set up to make Native Americans children more like other children Dawes Act failed  Few took to farming  Land sold cheaply to dishonest whites  Federal agents replaced native leaders  Traditional ways given up, like the buffalo hunt  Many grew dependent on the government for food & supplies
  • 28. Section 3The Cattle Kingdom
  • 29. The Rise of the Cattle Industry Wild cattle wandered open range  Called longhorns  Little care needed: prairie grass & watering holes Means & Markets  Stray herds grew from strays lost by Spanish ranchers  American settlers: set up ranches, but didn’t round up stray herds; no means to get them to market  Railroads: provided means to get longhorns to market; demand for beef to feed city dwellers, miners, & soldiers rose
  • 30. The Long Drives 1860s  Cattle began to be rounded up  Cowhand were hired  Skilled riders who knew how to herd cattle  Moved cattle to rail lines in Kansas, Missouri, & Wyoming (about 1,000 miles away) Cattle Drives  Spring was ideal time  Grass was long & rivers flowed full  Multiple horses used  Allowed for fresh horse each day  Drives lasted 2-3 months  Followed worn trails  Chisholm Trail: San Antonio, TX to Abilene, Kansas  Goodnight Loving Trail: led to rail towns in Wyoming
  • 31. Life on the Trail Hard & Dangerous Work Cowhands kept herds together as the cattle moved along the trails  Developed nerves of steel  Stampedes could occur without warning  Swift river currents could carry longhorns away  Fought grass fires, pulled cattle from swamps, & cased off thieves Often spent 18 hours in the saddle Earned less that $1 per day
  • 32. Spanish Roots Cowhands learned herding methods from Spanish & Mexican vaqueros  Riding, roping, & branding  Wore Mexican spurs & leather chaps  Cowboy hat came from Mexican sombrero  Used leather lariat, lasso, to catch cattle and horses  1/3 of western cowhands were Mexican
  • 33. The Wild West Cattle drives ended at towns along railroad lines  Towns were unruly & developed fantasy of Wild West Cow Towns  1867 Joseph McCoy  Cowboys need place for a bath, good meal, bed, & fun  Cattle needed place to be penned  Founded Abilene, Kansas were Chisholm Trail met Kansas Pacific Railroad  1st cow town: settle at end of cattle trail  Rival cow towns soon developed  Wichita & Dodge City  Dance halls, saloons, hotels, & restaurants served cowboys  Gunfights were rare
  • 34. The Myth of the West Myths  Spread due to rough-tumble life in cow towns  Filled w/ violence, adventure, & opportunity William “Buffalo Bill” Cody  Former buffalo hunter  Created traveling Wild West show in 1883  Gun-slinging cowboys & Native Americans performed  Sharp shooting & horseback riding  Depicted frontier events (Custer’s Last Stand)  Annie Oakley broke stereotype of woman
  • 35. Boom and Bust in the CattleKingdom Last from 1860s to 1880s Area of ranches, trails, & cow towns known as cattle kingdom Ranchers profited as herds & markets grew The Cattle Boom:  Buy calf for $5 & sell mature steer for $60  Profits were extremely high, especially with the introduction of new breeds of cattle  Caught fewer diseases & had more meat than longhorns  People from East coast & Europe began investing millions in huge cattle companies
  • 36. The Boom Ends Mid-1880s  7 million cattle roamed the open range  More than land could feed  1886 & 1887  Scorching summers & frigid winters killed millions of cattle  Economic depression put many city dwellers out of work, & demand for beef dropped  Sheep starting competing with cattle for grasses  Farmers fenced open range to keep cattle away from crops  Ranchers had to buy expensive feed Giant cattle ranches gave way to smaller ones that grew their own feed Railroads brought lines closer to ranches, doing away with long cattle drives
  • 37. Section 4Farming in the West
  • 38. Homesteading 1900  ½ million farmers settled the Great Plains Homestead Act  Passed in 1862  Offered 160 acre plot to anyone who resided on land for 5 years  Chance for poor to own farms  Few had money to move west & start a farm  Land companies took over large areas illegally  160 acres not enough to grow crop for profit  1 in 3 homesteaders lasted 5 years
  • 39. Railroads Promote Farming Railroads gave away some of 180 million acres they got from the government  Recruited people from eastern U.S., Ireland, Germany, & Scandinavia to settle Great Plains  More farms = more shipping
  • 40. A Hard Life on the Plains Not an easy life  Scare water supply & crops difficult to grow  Farmers struggled to make ends meat Busting Sod  Early settlers cut sod into bricks to build walls for their homes  Kept homes cool in the summer & warm in the winter
  • 41. New Farming Methods Plows made of wood or iron were not strong enough to break through tough sod 1877  John Deere of Illinois invented a sodbusting plow made of steel Plain farmers, or sodbusters, used drills to plant crops  Buried seeds into the ground where there was moisture Reapers were used to harvest crops & threshers to beat off the hard coverings of the grains
  • 42.  Windmills used to pump water from hundreds of feet below ground Fences were used to keep cattle away from crops Barb wire was used  1874 Joseph Glidden invented it
  • 43. Farm Families Whole families worked farms  Men labored from dawn to dusk  Children tended animals & helped with chores  Women kept the house, planted & harvested crops, educated children, nursed the sick, sewed clothing, preserved food, & made basics like candles & soap
  • 44. Exodusters African Americans streamed onto the plains Became known as exodusters because they believed they were like the Jews fleeing slavery in Egypt Some took up farming, others moved to towns Men often worked as hired hands & women as laundresses
  • 45. The Spanish Southwest Spanish speaking farmers & sheepherders resided along the border with Mexico, some before the Mexican American War Many of the new railroad lines were built with the help of Mexican immigrants Ricos, Hispanic large landowners  Fought to keep their lands deeded under Spanish or Mexican law
  • 46. A Last Rush for Land 1880s  Few areas of unsettled land on the Plains remained  Federal Government agreed to open Oklahoma to homesteaders Boomers & Sooners  April 1889  100,000 people gathered near a line in Oklahoma City  “Boomers”: people who had come to claim some of the 2 million acres of free homesteads  “Sooners”: people who had already sneaked onto the land  The Frontier Closes  1890  National census reported U.S. had no more land available for fomesteading
  • 47. Farmers Organize Wheat & Grain from plains fed growing cities A few big farmers prospered Small farmers faced an economic crisis & organized to end it
  • 48. Crisis on the Farm More grain hauled to market = lower grain prices  Surplus of crops  Smaller farmers hit the hardest  Many borrowed money to buy land & machinery  Could not repay their loans
  • 49. Cooperative & Political Parties Farmers lived in poverty & isolation Granges were formed in some communities  Groups of farmers who met for lectures, sewing bees, & other events  1867: local granges formed National Grange 1870s & 1880s Granges began demanding low rates from railroads & warehouses that were given to big farmers  Elected state officials who passed laws limiting rates Farmers Alliance  Set up farm cooperatives: groups of farmers who pool their money to make large purchases of tools, seed, & other supplies at a discount 1892  Populist Party Formed  Unhappy farmers joined w/ labor unions  Pushed for social reform  Demanded public ownership of railroads & warehouses to control rates, a tax on income to replace property taxes, an 8 hour workday, & other reforms
  • 50. The Election of 1896 Populists supported Democrat William Jennings Bryan  Won votes of farmers from the South & West because he supported using silver to raise prices Bankers & business owners claimed raising prices would hurt the economy  They backed Republican William McKinley  McKinley won; Republicans took both the White House & Congress  Populists faded

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