Physical Features Stretch along Pacific Ocean from the equator to almost the Arctic Circle All countries have high Andes mountains
Mountains Andes run through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Chile Some rise more than 20,000 feet Earthquakes & volcanoes are constant (two tectonic plates meet in region) Some earthquakes cause glaciers to send ice & mud rushing down mts. Landscapes differ from north to south Rugged peaks to rounded peaks In the north Andes split into two ranges Peru & Bolivia ridges are far apart altiplano: broad, high plateau lies between the ridges
Water & Islands Andean glaciers Source of tributaries of Amazon River Few major rivers Water has no outlet to the sea Forms two large lakes Lake Titicaca: highest lake in the world Strait of Magellan Links Atlantic & Pacific Oceans Tierra del Fuego Large island south of the strait Chile & Ecuador control large islands in Pacific Galapagos Islands have wildlife not found anywhere else in the world
Climate & Vegetation Vary widely Mostly effected by elevation 5 climate zones in the Andes 1st Zone Hot & humid near sea level; sugarcane & bananas Humid tropical: part of Amazon basin; thick rain forests 2nd Zone Cooler air; moist climates w/ mt. forests; coffee; largest cities 3rd Zone Cooler zone w/ forests & grasslands; potatoes & wheat are grown 4th Zone Above the tree line; alpine meadows w/ grasslands & hardy shrubs 5th Zone Highest elevation; very cold; no vegetation; ground almost always covered w/ snow & ice
Deserts Atacama Desert 600 miles long Rain falls less than five time a century Fog & low clouds are common Some rivers bring snowmelt to dry coastal region Sometimes only appear certain times of the year
El Nino An ocean and weather patter that affects the Pacific coast Every 2-7 years Cool Pacific water near the coast warms May cause extreme ocean & weather events that can have global effects Warm water cause fish to leave Affects fishers Heavy rains flooding
Natural Resources Valuable natural resources Forests: provide lumber Coastal waters: rich in fish Valuable oil & minerals Tin, gold, silver, lead, zinc, & copper Do not have much good land for farming Difficult to produce large crops for export
Early Cultures 900 B.C. Peru’s f1st advanced civilization Built stone terraces into mts. to raise crops In coastal areas they created irrigation systems to store water & control flooding Agriculture Supported large populations, towns, & culture Tiahuanaco Made huge stone carvings Nazca Lines Scratched outlines of animals & other shapes into surface of Peruvian desert
The Inca Empire Controlled an area that stretched from northern Ecuador to central Chile Home to 12 million people Empire was highly organized Irrigation projects turned deserts into farmland Stone-paved roads connected empire Rope suspension bridges used to cross steep valleys No wheeled vehicles or horses Relay teams of runners carried messages (up to 150 miles in one day) Did not carry written messages because they had no written language
Spanish Rule Spanish captured new Inca ruler on his way to be crowned king Demanded enough gold & silver to fill a room Killed king instead of setting him free Fighting broke out By 1535 the Spanish had conquered the Inca Empire Spanish rulers Were harsh to South American Indians of Inca Empire Had to work in gold or silver mines or on plantations Spanish viceroy (governor) was appointed by king of Spain to ensure Indians followed Spanish laws & customs
Independence Early 1800s Revolts began against Spanish rule Creoles (American-born descendants of Europeans) were the main leaders of revolts 1825 Chile, Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia became independent
Culture Spanish & native cultures have left their mark Most speak Spanish Many maintain native culture Speak native languages Spanish & Indian heritage also present Bolivia: highest % of South American Indians on any country in South America Follow customs & lifestyles that existed centuries ago Spanish & Indian influence in religion Roman Catholicism Some practice ancient religious customs
Ecuador Today Faced recent instability Widespread poverty (factor that threatens stable gov’t) Government Democracy, but 9 presidents in 10 years 2005 President fired judges of supreme court People were not happy (thought he was trying to gain too much power) Also not happy w/ recent economic reforms to improve housing, medical care, and education had failed People & gov’t forced president from power as a result
Economic Regions 3 economic regions Coastal lowlands: agriculture & industry Andean region: poorer; capital located here; open-air markets & Spanish colonial buildings attract tourists Amazon basin: valuable oil deposits (provides jobs that bring people to region); economy suffers if world oil prices drop; harmful to rain forest
Bolivia Today Poor country & political unrest recently Government Democracy now after years of military rule Gov’t divided between two capital cities 2000s People disagreed with gov’t plans for use of country’s resources & how to fight poverty National protests forces several presidents to resign 2005 Indigenous leader was elected (Evo Morales) Worked to improve lives of the poor
Economy Poorest country in South America Few roads & little investment money in eastern Bolivia Foreign aid has allowed some development Has valuable resources like metals & natural gas
Peru Today Largest & most populous Making progress against political violence & poverty Lima Capital of Peru 1/3 of people live here Has industries, universities, & gov’t jobs Big urban areas where people live in poverty Few slum areas though (poor claim land on outskirts of city) Build their own houses often out of poor building materials Settlements of new self-built houses are called young
Government 1980s & 1990s Terrorist group Shining Path carried out deadly attacks because it opposed the gov’t policies 70,000 people died Economy suffered Group leaders were arrested & gov’t began making progress against political violence & poverty Has an elected president & congress
Resources Key factors in economic progress Mineral deposits near coast Hydroelectric projects provide energy Highland are less developed Indians grow potatoes & corn here
Chile Today Has ended long violent period Stable gov’t & growing economy Government 1970: president w/ communist ideas was elected Overthrown & died in a U.S. backed military coup (a sudden overthrow of a gov’t by a small group of people) Military rulers gained power & crushed political enemies Gov’t was harsh & violent (thousands were imprisoned or killed) 1980s People rejected military rule after 15 years Created democratic gov’t People enjoy many freedoms One of most stable countries in South America
Resources & Economy Economy is strongest in region Poverty rates have decreased Small businesses & factories are growing Many people are finding work & wages are rising 1/3 of people live in central Chile Mild climate allow farmers to grow many crops Grapes & fruits Farming, fishing, forestry, & mining foundation of economy Copper mining is especially important International trade is also key Free trade agreement w/ U.S.
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