Chapter 11 blog notes

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  • 1. Pacific South America
  • 2. Physical Geography
  • 3. Physical Features Stretch along Pacific Ocean from the equator to almost the Arctic Circle All countries have high Andes mountains
  • 4. Mountains Andes run through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Chile  Some rise more than 20,000 feet  Earthquakes & volcanoes are constant (two tectonic plates meet in region)  Some earthquakes cause glaciers to send ice & mud rushing down mts. Landscapes differ from north to south  Rugged peaks to rounded peaks In the north Andes split into two ranges Peru & Bolivia ridges are far apart  altiplano: broad, high plateau lies between the ridges
  • 5. Water & Islands Andean glaciers  Source of tributaries of Amazon River Few major rivers Water has no outlet to the sea  Forms two large lakes  Lake Titicaca: highest lake in the world Strait of Magellan  Links Atlantic & Pacific Oceans Tierra del Fuego  Large island south of the strait Chile & Ecuador control large islands in Pacific  Galapagos Islands have wildlife not found anywhere else in the world
  • 6. Climate & Vegetation Vary widely  Mostly effected by elevation 5 climate zones in the Andes  1st Zone  Hot & humid near sea level; sugarcane & bananas  Humid tropical: part of Amazon basin; thick rain forests  2nd Zone  Cooler air; moist climates w/ mt. forests; coffee; largest cities  3rd Zone  Cooler zone w/ forests & grasslands; potatoes & wheat are grown  4th Zone  Above the tree line; alpine meadows w/ grasslands & hardy shrubs  5th Zone  Highest elevation; very cold; no vegetation; ground almost always covered w/ snow & ice
  • 7.  Deserts  Atacama Desert  600 miles long  Rain falls less than five time a century  Fog & low clouds are common  Some rivers bring snowmelt to dry coastal region  Sometimes only appear certain times of the year
  • 8. El Nino An ocean and weather patter that affects the Pacific coast Every 2-7 years Cool Pacific water near the coast warms  May cause extreme ocean & weather events that can have global effects Warm water cause fish to leave  Affects fishers Heavy rains  flooding
  • 9. Natural Resources Valuable natural resources  Forests: provide lumber  Coastal waters: rich in fish  Valuable oil & minerals  Tin, gold, silver, lead, zinc, & copper Do not have much good land for farming  Difficult to produce large crops for export
  • 10. Section 2
  • 11. Early Cultures 900 B.C.  Peru’s f1st advanced civilization  Built stone terraces into mts. to raise crops  In coastal areas they created irrigation systems to store water & control flooding Agriculture  Supported large populations, towns, & culture Tiahuanaco  Made huge stone carvings Nazca Lines  Scratched outlines of animals & other shapes into surface of Peruvian desert
  • 12. The Inca Empire Controlled an area that stretched from northern Ecuador to central Chile Home to 12 million people Empire was highly organized  Irrigation projects turned deserts into farmland  Stone-paved roads connected empire  Rope suspension bridges used to cross steep valleys  No wheeled vehicles or horses  Relay teams of runners carried messages (up to 150 miles in one day)  Did not carry written messages because they had no written language
  • 13. Spanish Rule Spanish captured new Inca ruler on his way to be crowned king  Demanded enough gold & silver to fill a room  Killed king instead of setting him free  Fighting broke out  By 1535 the Spanish had conquered the Inca Empire Spanish rulers  Were harsh to South American Indians of Inca Empire  Had to work in gold or silver mines or on plantations  Spanish viceroy (governor) was appointed by king of Spain to ensure Indians followed Spanish laws & customs
  • 14. Independence Early 1800s  Revolts began against Spanish rule  Creoles (American-born descendants of Europeans) were the main leaders of revolts 1825  Chile, Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia became independent
  • 15. Culture Spanish & native cultures have left their mark Most speak Spanish Many maintain native culture  Speak native languages Spanish & Indian heritage also present  Bolivia: highest % of South American Indians on any country in South America  Follow customs & lifestyles that existed centuries ago Spanish & Indian influence in religion  Roman Catholicism  Some practice ancient religious customs
  • 16. Pacific South America Today
  • 17. Ecuador Today Faced recent instability  Widespread poverty (factor that threatens stable gov’t) Government  Democracy, but 9 presidents in 10 years  2005 President fired judges of supreme court  People were not happy (thought he was trying to gain too much power)  Also not happy w/ recent economic reforms to improve housing, medical care, and education had failed  People & gov’t forced president from power as a result
  • 18. Economic Regions 3 economic regions  Coastal lowlands: agriculture & industry  Andean region: poorer; capital located here; open-air markets & Spanish colonial buildings attract tourists  Amazon basin: valuable oil deposits (provides jobs that bring people to region); economy suffers if world oil prices drop; harmful to rain forest
  • 19. Bolivia Today Poor country & political unrest recently Government  Democracy now after years of military rule  Gov’t divided between two capital cities  2000s  People disagreed with gov’t plans for use of country’s resources & how to fight poverty  National protests forces several presidents to resign  2005  Indigenous leader was elected (Evo Morales)  Worked to improve lives of the poor
  • 20. Economy Poorest country in South America Few roads & little investment money in eastern Bolivia Foreign aid has allowed some development Has valuable resources like metals & natural gas
  • 21. Peru Today Largest & most populous Making progress against political violence & poverty Lima  Capital of Peru  1/3 of people live here  Has industries, universities, & gov’t jobs  Big urban areas where people live in poverty  Few slum areas though (poor claim land on outskirts of city)  Build their own houses often out of poor building materials  Settlements of new self-built houses are called young
  • 22. Government 1980s & 1990s  Terrorist group Shining Path carried out deadly attacks because it opposed the gov’t policies  70,000 people died  Economy suffered Group leaders were arrested & gov’t began making progress against political violence & poverty Has an elected president & congress
  • 23. Resources Key factors in economic progress Mineral deposits near coast Hydroelectric projects provide energy Highland are less developed  Indians grow potatoes & corn here
  • 24. Chile Today Has ended long violent period Stable gov’t & growing economy Government  1970: president w/ communist ideas was elected  Overthrown & died in a U.S. backed military coup (a sudden overthrow of a gov’t by a small group of people)  Military rulers gained power & crushed political enemies  Gov’t was harsh & violent (thousands were imprisoned or killed)  1980s  People rejected military rule after 15 years  Created democratic gov’t People enjoy many freedoms One of most stable countries in South America
  • 25. Resources & Economy Economy is strongest in region Poverty rates have decreased Small businesses & factories are growing  Many people are finding work & wages are rising 1/3 of people live in central Chile Mild climate allow farmers to grow many crops  Grapes & fruits Farming, fishing, forestry, & mining foundation of economy  Copper mining is especially important International trade is also key  Free trade agreement w/ U.S.