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  • 1. Chapter 11
    Pacific South America
  • 2. Section 1
    Physical Geography
  • 3. Physical Features
    Stretch along Pacific Ocean from the equator to almost the Arctic Circle
    All countries have high Andes mountains
  • 4. Mountains
    Andes run through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Chile
    Some rise more than 20,000 feet
    Earthquakes & volcanoes are constant (two tectonic plates meet in region)
    Some earthquakes cause glaciers to send ice & mud rushing down mts.
    Landscapes differ from north to south
    Rugged peaks to rounded peaks
    In the north Andes split into two ranges
    Peru & Bolivia ridges are far apart
    altiplano: broad, high plateau lies between the ridges
  • 5. Water & Islands
    Andean glaciers
    Source of tributaries of Amazon River
    Few major rivers
    Water has no outlet to the sea
    Forms two large lakes
    Lake Titicaca: highest lake in the world
    Strait of Magellan
    Links Atlantic & Pacific Oceans
    Tierra del Fuego
    Large island south of the strait
    Chile & Ecuador control large islands in Pacific
    Galapagos Islands have wildlife not found anywhere else in the world
  • 6. Climate & Vegetation
    Vary widely
    Mostly effected by elevation
    5 climate zones in the Andes
    1st Zone
    Hot & humid near sea level; sugarcane & bananas
    Humid tropical: part of Amazon basin; thick rain forests
    2nd Zone
    Cooler air; moist climates w/ mt. forests; coffee; largest cities
    3rd Zone
    Cooler zone w/ forests & grasslands; potatoes & wheat are grown
    4th Zone
    Above the tree line; alpine meadows w/ grasslands & hardy shrubs
    5th Zone
    Highest elevation; very cold; no vegetation; ground almost always covered w/ snow & ice
  • 7. Deserts
    Atacama Desert
    600 miles long
    Rain falls less than five time a century
    Fog & low clouds are common
    Some rivers bring snowmelt to dry coastal region
    Sometimes only appear certain times of the year
  • 8. El Nino
    An ocean and weather patter that affects the Pacific coast
    Every 2-7 years
    Cool Pacific water near the coast warms
    May cause extreme ocean & weather events that can have global effects
    Warm water cause fish to leave
    Affects fishers
    Heavy rains
  • 9. Natural Resources
    Valuable natural resources
    Forests: provide lumber
    Coastal waters: rich in fish
    Valuable oil & minerals
    Tin, gold, silver, lead, zinc, & copper
    Do not have much good land for farming
    Difficult to produce large crops for export
  • 10. History & Culture
    Section 2
  • 11. Early Cultures
    900 B.C.
    Peru’s f1st advanced civilization
    Built stone terraces into mts. to raise crops
    In coastal areas they created irrigation systems to store water & control flooding
    Supported large populations, towns, & culture
    Made huge stone carvings
    Nazca Lines
    Scratched outlines of animals & other shapes into surface of Peruvian desert
  • 12. The Inca Empire
    Controlled an area that stretched from northern Ecuador to central Chile
    Home to 12 million people
    Empire was highly organized
    Irrigation projects turned deserts into farmland
    Stone-paved roads connected empire
    Rope suspension bridges used to cross steep valleys
    No wheeled vehicles or horses
    Relay teams of runners carried messages (up to 150 miles in one day)
    Did not carry written messages because they had no written language
  • 13. Spanish Rule
    Spanish captured new Inca ruler on his way to be crowned king
    Demanded enough gold & silver to fill a room
    Killed king instead of setting him free
    Fighting broke out
    By 1535 the Spanish had conquered the Inca Empire
    Spanish rulers
    Were harsh to South American Indians of Inca Empire
    Had to work in gold or silver mines or on plantations
    Spanish viceroy (governor) was appointed by king of Spain to ensure Indians followed Spanish laws & customs
  • 14. Independence
    Early 1800s
    Revolts began against Spanish rule
    Creoles (American-born descendants of Europeans) were the main leaders of revolts
    Chile, Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia became independent
  • 15. Culture
    Spanish & native cultures have left their mark
    Most speak Spanish
    Many maintain native culture
    Speak native languages
    Spanish & Indian heritage also present
    Bolivia: highest % of South American Indians on any country in South America
    Follow customs & lifestyles that existed centuries ago
    Spanish & Indian influence in religion
    Roman Catholicism
    Some practice ancient religious customs
  • 16. Section 3
    Pacific South America Today
  • 17. Ecuador Today
    Faced recent instability
    Widespread poverty (factor that threatens stable gov’t)
    Democracy, but 9 presidents in 10 years
    2005 President fired judges of supreme court
    People were not happy (thought he was trying to gain too much power)
    Also not happy w/ recent economic reforms to improve housing, medical care, and education had failed
    People & gov’t forced president from power as a result
  • 18. Economic Regions
    3 economic regions
    Coastal lowlands: agriculture & industry
    Andean region: poorer; capital located here; open-air markets & Spanish colonial buildings attract tourists
    Amazon basin: valuable oil deposits (provides jobs that bring people to region); economy suffers if world oil prices drop; harmful to rain forest
  • 19. Bolivia Today
    Poor country & political unrest recently
    Democracy now after years of military rule
    Gov’t divided between two capital cities
    People disagreed with gov’t plans for use of country’s resources & how to fight poverty
    National protests forces several presidents to resign
    Indigenous leader was elected (Evo Morales)
    Worked to improve lives of the poor
  • 20. Economy
    Poorest country in South America
    Few roads & little investment money in eastern Bolivia
    Foreign aid has allowed some development
    Has valuable resources like metals & natural gas
  • 21. Peru Today
    Largest & most populous
    Making progress against political violence & poverty
    Capital of Peru
    1/3 of people live here
    Has industries, universities, & gov’t jobs
    Big urban areas where people live in poverty
    Few slum areas though (poor claim land on outskirts of city)
    Build their own houses often out of poor building materials
    Settlements of new self-built houses are called young towns
    Over time houses are improved & areas develops into new suburb
  • 22. Government
    1980s & 1990s
    Terrorist group Shining Path carried out deadly attacks because it opposed the gov’t policies
    70,000 people died
    Economy suffered
    Group leaders were arrested & gov’t began making progress against political violence & poverty
    Has an elected president & congress
  • 23. Resources
    Key factors in economic progress
    Mineral deposits near coast
    Hydroelectric projects provide energy
    Highland are less developed
    Indians grow potatoes & corn here
  • 24. Chile Today
    Has ended long violent period
    Stable gov’t & growing economy
    1970: president w/ communist ideas was elected
    Overthrown & died in a U.S. backed military coup (a sudden overthrow of a gov’t by a small group of people)
    Military rulers gained power & crushed political enemies
    Gov’t was harsh & violent (thousands were imprisoned or killed)
    People rejected military rule after 15 years
    Created democratic gov’t
    People enjoy many freedoms
    One of most stable countries in South America
  • 25. Resources & Economy
    Economy is strongest in region
    Poverty rates have decreased
    Small businesses & factories are growing
    Many people are finding work & wages are rising
    1/3 of people live in central Chile
    Mild climate allow farmers to grow many crops
    Grapes & fruits
    Farming, fishing, forestry, & mining foundation of economy
    Copper mining is especially important
    International trade is also key
    Free trade agreement w/ U.S.