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Blog notes chapter 20



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  • 1. The United States Looks Overseas 1853-1915
  • 2. Eyes on the Pacific
  • 3. Opening Japan to Trade U.S.  Merchants were eager to trade w/ Japan Japan  Had blocked outside trade & barred foreigners from entering or leaving country for 250 years 1853  U.S. warship commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay  Presented Japanese w/ a Presidential letter calling for trading rights to Americans  Japanese were amazed by U.S. warship & its guns 1854  Perry returned to Japan & signed a treaty opening Japan for trade Japan also recognized their weakness w/ Perry visit  Set out to transform Japan into an industrial nation that could compete in modern world
  • 4. Purchasing Alaska 1867  Alaska purchased from Russia for $7.2 million  Alaska was viewed as a stepping stone for trade w/ Asia & the Pacific  Increased the area of the U.S. by almost 1/5  Purchase was opposed by many Americans  Was a frozen wasteland  Views changed when gold was discovered in 1897
  • 5. The Expansionist Mood Until late 1800s  Americans followed George Washington’s advice to steer clear of permanent alliances  Isolationism policy followed  Avoiding involvement in other countries’ affairs  European nations undertook policy of imperialism during this time  Building empires by imposing political & economic control over peoples around the world Late 1800s  New spirit of expansionism  Arguments for increased involvement in world affairs  Promoting economic growth & spreading American values  New view of history also encouraged expansionism
  • 6. The Turner Thesis 1893  Frederick Jackson Turner  Thesis: western frontier had defined American history, built individualism & democratic values  Conclusion: “And now, four centuries from the discovery of America, at the end of a hundred years of life under the Constitution, the frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history.”  Few historians accept his thesis  Idea of a closing frontier influenced expansionists like Theodore Roosevelt  Overseas expansion was the new frontier  Would help renew nations vitality & strength
  • 7. Promoting Economic Growth U.S.  Powerful industrial economy  Produced more than would be bought in U.S.  Nervous that expanding European empire would close global markets & access to raw materials Alfred T. Mahan  Expansionist support  Naval captain & author  U.S. prosperity depended on trade  Key was a strong navy to control world’s sea lanes, protecting U.S. access to foreign markets
  • 8. Spreading American Values Late 1800s  Americans  Believed “Anglo-Saxon race” was superior  American had divine duty to spread Christian values & western civilization around the world
  • 9. Gaining Footholds in the Pacific Pacific Islands  Essential for expanding trade & U.S. influence Rivalry for Samoa  U.S. Steamships Co. & Navy wanted to set up coaling stations  Britain & Germany also wanted Samoa 1889  Warships from 3 countries were sent to Samoa  Typhoon struck & destroyed most of the warships 1899  U.S. & Germany divided the islands of Samoa  People of Samoa had no say in the matter
  • 10. Interest in Hawaii Location between Asia & U.S.  Could serve as U.S. military outpost 1st people  Came by canoe from other Pacific islands in 600s  1778 Captain James Cook arrived  1820 1st American missionaries arrived  To convert Hawaiians to Christianity  Later other Americans acquired land & set up plantations Sugar industry  As it grew so did power of American planters 1887  American planters forced Hawaiian king Kalakaua to accept a new constitution that gave them great influence 1891  Kalakaua died & was succeeded by his sister Liliuokalani  She was a strong advocate for Hawaiian independence & refused to recognize the 1887 constitution  Wanted to restore power of monarchy & reduce foreign influence
  • 11. Annexing Hawaii 1893  American planters organized an uprising  w/o U.S. gov’t consultation they had 50 U.S. Marines overthrow the queen & set up a pro-American gov’t  Annex proposal was rejected by President Grover Cleveland  Revolt was illegal & not supported by Hawaiian people  William McKinley, Cleveland’s successor supported annexation & a treaty to do so July 7, 1898  Congress voted to make Hawaii a territory of the U.S.
  • 12. Carving up China Later 1800s  China just finished an unsuccessful war  European powers & Japan seeing China’s weakness forced Chinese empire to grant them land & trading rights  Divided China into spheres of influence  Areas where another nation has economic & political control
  • 13. Open Door Policy U.S. excluded from initial dividing of China  Feared to be excluded from the China trade 1899  U.S. Secretary of Sate John Hay issued to other powers  Called for open door in China  Wanted the guarantee for all nations to be able to trade w/ China on an equal basis  Response was quick, mostly saying neither yes or no  Hay publicly announced the Open Door Policy had been accepted
  • 14. Boxer Rebellion Many Chinese resented foreign influences  Secret society, Righteous and Harmonious Fists, was formed  Called Boxers by Europeans 1900  Boxers rebelled to expel foreigners  Back by Chinese gov’t they attacked & killed westerners & Chinese Christians  Churches were burned & homes of foreigners  Outside powers, including U.S., sent 18,000 troops w/ modern weapons in  Freed trapped foreigners, crushed the rebellion, looted the capital, & killed thousands of Chinese
  • 15. The Open Door Again Secretary Hay feared Boxer rebellion would cause powers to seize more Chinese territory Issued 2nd Open Door note  Repeated principle of open trade & made stronger statement about American intentions to preserve trade  China should remain one country & not be broken up
  • 16. The Spanish-American War
  • 17. War Clouds Loom Cuba  Under Spanish rule since 1492  Discontent w/ Spanish harsh rule  1868 Cuban uprising began, but put down 10 years later
  • 18. Rebellion in Cuba 1895  Cuban uprising  Spanish began reconcentration policy  Forced movement of large numbers of people into detention camps for military or political reasons  Food was scarce & sanitation poor  200,000 died Cuban exiles in U.S.  Led by Jose Marti  Urged U.S. to help rebels
  • 19. Americans React Americans were sympathetic to Cuban rebels  Urged U.S. gov’t to help oust Spain  Others for economic reasons  Safeguard U.S. investments in Cuba ($50 million invested in Cuban sugar & rice plantations, railroads, & iron mines) President Cleveland  Ignored calls for intervention William McKinley  Became President in 1897  Also ignored calls for intervention New York press  Loudest supporters of intervention  William Randolph Hearst  Rival of Joseph Pulitzer  Worked for New York Journal  Used sensational stories & headlines  Both Pulitzer & Hearst focused their attention on Cuba in their writings
  • 20. “Remember the Maine” 1898  Fighting broke out in Havana, Cuba  McKinley ordered battleship Maine to Havana harbor to protect American lives & pr0perty February 15 @ 9:40 p.m.  Great explosion sank the Maine & killed 260 men  Cause unknown to this day  Press & public blamed Spain; demanded revenge
  • 21. The U.S. Goes to War McKinley  Favored peace @ 1st  War would disrupt U.S. economy  Gave in to public pressure  April 11, 1898  Asked Congress to declare war on Spain  9 days later they did
  • 22. Surprise in the Philippines 1st great battle not fought in Cuba Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt  Eager to expand U.S. naval power  After Maine sunk, ordered Commodore George Dewey (head of Pacific fleet) to move ships to Philippines May 1  Dewey & small fleet of American warships sunk entire Spanish squadron at Manila Bay  No American ship or life was lost
  • 23. Fall of Manila Filipinos  Also revolting against Spain Emilio Aguinaldo  Rebel leader  Enlisted by Dewey to seize Manila U.S. quickly gained control of Philippines  Aguinaldo was major help  Overlooked that he was fighting for Philippine independence  Soon he would be fighting the U.S.
  • 24. War in the Caribbean Santiago & Sea  Main place fighting took place  American ground forces arrived in June  Poorly trained & equipped, eager to fight though Rough Riders  Led by Theodore Roosevelt  Best known unit  July 1st led his men on a successful charge up San Juan Hill  Most celebrated event of war Americans black & white fought in Santiago U.S. ships trapped Spanish fleet in Santiago  Tried to escape & was destroyed by U.S.; 24,000 surrendered two weeks later U.S. troops invaded Puerto Rico next  Quickly brought under U.S. control
  • 25. An American Empire December 1898  Spain & U.S. signed peace treaty  Spain: accepted Cuban independence  U.S. : acquired Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam, & Wake  Paid Spain $20 million
  • 26. Debating the Treaty Angry debate followed treaty signing  Taking colonies violated principle of the Declaration of Independence  Also brought risk of future wars  Expansionists: gave U.S. important bases & provided new business opportunities  Duty to spread the ideas of democratic government Treaty ratified on February 6, 1899  U.S. now had overseas empire
  • 27. Governing Cuba & Puerto Rico U.S. new Caribbean power  Cuba did not gain independence sought  Forced to sign Platt Amendment in 1902  Limited Cuba’s power to make treaties or borrow money & gave U.S. right to intervene in Cuban affairs  U.S. could also have naval base @ Guantanamo Bay  Cuba was made a protectorate of the U.S.  An independent country whose policies are controlled by an outside power Foraker Act of 1900  Set up gov’t in Puerto Rico w/ U.S. appointed governor  Limited self-rule  U.S. developed Puerto Rico’s economy & educational system  1917 were made citizens of the U.S.  Many still wanted to be free from outside control
  • 28. Revolt in the Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo  Renewed Filipinos fight for independence  3 year war followed  4,000 American & 20,000 Filipinos were killed  1901 Aguinaldo was captured & fighting came to an end  1946 Philippines gained independence
  • 29. The U.S. & Latin America
  • 30. Linking the Oceans During Spanish-American war  Took naval ships too long to sail around South America  Faster Way?  Canal across Central America  President Theodore Roosevelt was determined to build that canal  Would improve global shipping  Easier for navy to defend the nation’s new overseas empire
  • 31. Choosing a Site Isthmus of Panama  50 miles wide  Perfect place for canal 1902  Panama was province of Colombia  Roosevelt offered Columbia $10 million in cash & $250,000 yearly in rent to allow U.S. to build canal  Some opposed  Give U.S. permanent control over stretch of land & land was worth more money  Gov’t held out for more money; Roosevelt was impatient & did not want to lose time in bargaining
  • 32. Revolt in Panama Roosevelt Plan  Knew Panamanians disliked Colombia  Secretly let them know U.S. would help them claim independence  Panamanians would reap rewards of canal November 3, 1903  U.S. gunboats waited in harbor to provide support  U.S. marines landed to prevent Colombian troops from reaching Panama City  Americans criticized Roosevelt’s “gunboat diplomacy”
  • 33.  U.S. recognized independent Republic of Panama 3 days later a Frenchman acting for Panama signed a treaty  Gave U.S. Permanent use & control of 10 mile wide zone  U.S. paid $10 million plus $250,000 yearly rent
  • 34. The Panama Canal 1904  U.S. began building canal Fighting Disease  1st obstacle was malaria & yellow fever  Worked could not start until these were controlled William C. Gorgas  U.S. expert on tropical diseases  Took challenge of fighting diseases Carlos Juan Finlay  Cuban doctor  Discovered a certain type of mosquito transmitted diseases Ronald Ross  English doctor  Found another type of mosquito that transmitted diseases William Gorgas ordered workers to clear brush & drain swamps were mosquitoes lived 1906  Gorgas wiped out yellow fever & reduced malaria
  • 35. The “Big Ditch” 3 Construction Tasks  Cut through a mountain  Dam a river  Erect the canal’s giant locks Big Challenge  Digging Gaillard Cut  9 mile ditch through the mountains  Thousands worked under extreme temps & rainstorms & constant mudslides Engineers & supervisors were from U.S.  Laborers were West Indians of African descent  6,000 lost their lives during construction  Work on canal finished 6 months early August 15, 1914  Panama Canal opened
  • 36. Wielding a “Big Stick” in LatinAmerica Roosevelt wanted the world to know that if diplomacy failed U.S. would not hesitate to use military force to protect its interests  “Big Stick Policy”
  • 37. Roosevelt CorollaryBig Stick Policy  Applied in Latin America  U.S. was leader in Western Hemisphere  Wanted to prevent European nations from becoming too powerful in the region 1904  European nations  Considered using force to collect overdue debts from Dominican Republic  Roosevelt announced new policy  Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine  Corollary: logical extension of a doctrine or proposition Theory  When U.S. neighbors got in disputes  U.S. had right to “exercise…an international police power” to restore order Marines sent in to Dominican Republic & took over country’s finances
  • 38. Dollar Diplomacy William Howard Taft  Dollar Diplomacy: policy based on the idea that economic tie were the best way to expand American influence  Want U.S. bankers & businesses to invest in Asia & Latin America  Led to more military interventions  Nicaragua, Haiti, & Honduras  Latin Americans resents U.S. involvement
  • 39. Relations With Mexico Woodrow Wilson  Became President in 1913  Own foreign relation ideas  Aim to support & nurture democracy  1st test of policy was w/ Mexico Mexico  Overthrew dictator Porfirio Diaz  Violent revolution followed until 1917  Wilson followed watchful waiting policy 1914  U.S. sailors who went ashore were arrested in Mexico  Later released w/ apology  Wilson sent navy to occupy port of Veracruz  100 Mexicans died ; U.S. & Mexico close to war; peace talks cooled tempers
  • 40.  Francisco “Pancho” Villa  Mexican rebel general  1916 rebels crossed into New Mexico  Raided & burned town of Columbus, killing 18 Americans Mexican president allowed U.S. pursue Villa into Mexico General John J. Pershing led thousands of soldiers across the border  11 months later they withdrew w/o capturing Villa