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Transcript

  • 1. West-Central Europe
    Chapter 13
  • 2. Physical Geography
    Section 1
  • 3. Physical Features
    Countries
    France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, & Austria
    Benelux countries (Low Countries)
    Belgium, the Netherlands, & Luxembourg
    Alpine countries (lie in the Alps mt. range)
    Switzerland & Austria
  • 4. Lowlands, Uplands, & Mountains
    Landforms arranged like a fan
    Northern European Plain: forms outer edge of fan; falls below sea level in some areas
    Uplands: form middle of fan; begin at the Pyrenees Mts.; Massif Central in France & the Schwarzwald (black forest) in Germany are also important upland landforms
    Mountains: center of fan; the Alps are highest range in Europe
    Large glaciers are present & avalanches occur often
  • 5. Climate & Waterways
    Marine west coast climate
    Mild winters, mild summers; Low annual temperature range; Heavy cloud cover & high humidity; Frequent cyclonic storms, with prolonged rain, drizzle and fog.
    areas farther from North Atlantic are colder (Germany)
    The Alps feed west-central Europe’s navigable rivers
    Deep enough & wide enough to used by ships
    France: the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, & the Rhone Rivers
    Germany: the Rhine, the Danube, the Elbe, the Oder, & the Weser Rivers
    Important for trade & travel
  • 6. Resources
    Forests
    Most cut down centuries ago
    Fields that remain are very productive
    Germany’s plains: rich in loess (fine, wind blown soil deposits)
    Germany & France produce grapes for wines
    Switzerland: pastures support dairy cattle
    Mineral resources
    Iron ore, oil, coal, & natural gas
    Nuclear power & hydroelectric power supply region w/ energy needs
    Resources are unevenly distributed throughout region
  • 7. Section 2
    France
  • 8. History
    Been occupied by many European countries
    Ancient times
    Part of Gaul
    Early History
    600 B.C.
    Greeks set up colonies
    Gaul conquered by the Romans; est. Latin-based lang. that developed into French; rule lasted until A.D. 400
    Franks (Germanic people) conquered Gaul
    Charlemagne was ruler of Franks
  • 9. Dreamed of building Christian empire as great as old Roman Empire
    A.D. 800 crowned Emperor of Romans
    Strengthened gov’t & improved education & arts in Europe
    Empire divided after his death
    Norsemen
    Invaded from northern Europe; settled in western France (Normandy)
  • 10. Middle Ages
    Period from collapse of Roman Empire to 1500
    Kings were not very powerful
    Depended on nobles cooperation
    1066
    Duke of Normandy conquered England
    Kings of England also ruled part of France
    1300s
    King of England tried to claim throne of France
    lead to Hundred Years’ War (1337 to 1453)
    French armies drove English out of France & French kings slowly increased their power over nobles
    Roman Catholic church united Europe during this period
    Cathedrals were built
  • 11. Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris
  • 12. Revolution and Napoleon’s Empire
    1500s to 1700s
    France built global empire
    Est. colonies in America, Asia, & Africa
    People of France lived in poverty &
    had few rights
    1789
    French Revolution began
    King was overthrown & elected gov’t
    est.
    1799
    Napoleon Bonaparte took power
    Great military leader & later took title as emperor
    Conquered most of Europe
    Built new roads in France, reformed education,
    est. metric system
  • 13. 1815
    Alliance of Austria, U.K., Prussia, & Russia defeated Napoleon
    French king regained throne
  • 14. World Wars
    WWI
    German army controlled northern & eastern France
    WWII
    German army controlled northern & western parts of France
    1944
    Allies (U.S., British, & Canada) landed in Normandy & push Germans out
    Two wars in 30 years destroyed France
    Factories, cities, bridges, railroads, & train stations
    1949
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed
    France was founding member
    Alliance was created to protect western Europe from future attacks
  • 15. Government
    1950s & 1960s
    French colonies in Asia & Africa became independent
    Other smaller territories around the world remained
    France Today
    Republic with parliament & elected president
    Founding member of European Union (EU)
    Trying to replace currency
    The franc & EU currency the euro
  • 16. Culture
    85% are Roman Catholic
    5%-10% are Muslim
    Speak French mostly
    Immigrants from Africa, Caribbean, & Southeast Asia influence French food, clothing, music, & art
  • 17. Customs
    Mediterranean foods
    Wheat, olives, cheeses, & garlic
    Wine is produced in many regions
    Many festivals celebrated
    Bastille Day (July 14)
    1789 a mob stormed the Bastille, a royal prison in Paris; recognized as start of French Revolution
  • 18. The Arts & Literature
    Great tradition of poetry, philosophy, music, & visual arts
    Late 1800s & early 1900s
    Center of impressionism (capture the rippling of light rather than an exact, realistic image
  • 19. France Today
    Major agricultural & industrial country
    Resources, labor force, & location help spur economic growth
    Exports
    Wheat, olives, wine, & cheeses
    Factories: cars, airplanes, shoes, clothing, machinery, & chemicals
    Major cities linked by high-speed trains & excellent highways
  • 20.
  • 21. Section 3
    Germany
  • 22. History
    Germans
    Descendants of tribe from northern Europe
    Conquered by Romans
    Land named Germania
  • 23. Growth of a Nation
    Small cities states developed region
    Ruled by princes& with help of Roman Catholic Church became part of Holy Roman Empire
    Prussia
    1871- United German city states into one nation
    Developed into industrial and military world power
  • 24. War and Division
    1914-1918
    Fought and lost WWI
    War damages and depression hurt economy
    1920s
    Adolf Hitler led Nazis in Germany
    1933 Nazis took power & invaded Austria, Czechoslovakia, & Poland and started WWII
    1942 Germany & Italy had conquered most of Europe
  • 25. Concentration camps
    Were people were forced to from occupied countries
    Were enslaved or killed
    6 million Jews & millions of other people were murdered in a mass killing called the Holocaust
  • 26.
  • 27. Allies of Britain, Soviet Union, U.S., & others eventually defeated Germany in 1945
    Germany was divided into occupation zones by allies
    Britain, France, & U.S. later combined zones to form West Germany
    Soviet Union set up communist country of East Germany w/ an unlimited totalitarian government
    1961 Berlin Wall was built to stop East Germans from escaping to the West
  • 28. Reunification & Modern Government
    West Germany
    Roads, cities, railroads, & industries rebuilt after the war w/ U.S. financial aid
    Free enterprise economy
    East Germany
    Rebuilt but was less prosperous
    Gov’t allowed little freedom
    Command economy was less productive
    1980s
    East Germans demanded for democratic reform
    1989
    Berlin Wall was torn down
    1990
    East & West Germany reunited
    Today
    Democratic rights
    Parliament elects president & prime minister (chancellor)
    Member of EU & NATO
  • 29. Culture
    34% are Roman Catholic
    38% Protestant
    Diversity
    90% are ethnic Germans
    Turks, Poles, & Italians live & work in Germany
    “guest workers” do not have citizenship
    Thousands of refugees from Easter Europe in last 50 years
  • 30. Customs
    Food emphasizes products of the forests, farms, & seasons
    Sausage, cheese, wine, & beer
    Celebrations
    Oktoberfest, Sangerfast, & Fastnacht
    Christmas is major festival
  • 31. The Arts & Literature
    Johannes Gutenberg
    1st European to print books using movable metal type
    1700s & 1800s
    Germany led Europe in development of classical music
    Ludwig van Beethoven
    Richard Wager operas of folktales of ancient Germany
  • 32. Germany Today
    Federal Republic
    Parliament chooses chancellor (prime minister)
    Also elects president (ceremonial duties)
    Belongs to EU and NATO
    Europe’s largest economy
    1/5 of all good and services in EU
    Based on industry (chemicals, engineering, and steel)
    Major crops
    Grain, potatoes, and grapes
  • 33. The Alpine Countries
  • 34. Names after Alps
    Draw tourists
    Both landlocked
    Influenced by German culture
    General Background Info.
  • 35. Austria
    Home to Habsburgs (powerful family of German nobles)
    At their height of power they ruled Spain, Netherlands, areas of Germany, eastern Europe, & Italy
    On losing side of WWI
    Became republic after war
    Today modern industrialized nation
    Member of EU
    Speak German
    Prosperous economy
    Little unemployment
  • 36. Switzerland
    Independent since 1600s
    Swiss Cantons (26 districts)
    each controls own affairs; national gov’t handles defense & international relations
    Location in high Alps has allowed it to remain neutral in European wars
    Not a member of EU or NATO
    2002 joined UN (United Nations)
    Language
    German, French, Italian, and Romansh
    World’s highest standards of living
    Famous for banks, watches, chocolate and cheese
  • 37. Culture
    Switzerland
    46% is Roman Catholic
    40% Protestant
    Austria
    Mainly Roman Catholic
    5% Protestant
    17% follow Islam
  • 38. Languages & Diversity
    Switzerland
    64% speak German
    18% speak French
    10% speak Italian
    Southeast speak Romansh
    Other European languages
    Austria
    German speaking
    Small minorities of Slovenes & Croatians
  • 39. Customs
    Christmas is a major festival
    Rural Switzerland
    Take cattle up to high mts. in late spring & return in the fall
    Big celebration when they return
    Alpine region
    Well known for its music
    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • 40. The Alpine Countries Today
    Both produce dairy products
    Switzerland
    Manufactures watches, optical instruments, & other machinery
    Chemists discovered how to make chocolate bars
    Major producer, but has to import cocoa beans
    Alpine countries linked by highways, trains, & airports
    Tourists are attracted by mountain scenery, lakes, & ski slopes
  • 41. Section 4
    The Benelux Countries
  • 42. Once inhabited by Celtic & Germanic tribes
    Were conquered by the Romans
    Charlemagne ruled area after fall of Roman Empire
    Region was ruled by various French rulers & by the Holy Roman emperor after Charlemagne
    1555
    King Philip II of Spain was given Low Countries
    1570s Protestants in the Netherlands won freedom from Spanish rule
    Netherlands became a great naval & colonial power
    1830
    Belgium became an independent kingdom
    History
  • 43. Scarred region
    Many WWI battles took place in Belgium
    WWII
    Germany occupied Low Countries
    1949
    Belgium, Netherlands, & Luxembourg were founding members of NATO
    Later joined EU
    Today
    Ruled by parliament & monarch
    Monarch duties are mostly ceremonial
    Netherlands controls several Caribbean islands
    World Wars
  • 44. Religion
    Roman Catholic, Protestant, & those w/ no religious ties
    Language
    Dutch is spoken in the Netherlands
    Flemish is spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium
    French is spoken in other parts of Belgium
    Benelux countries are also home to immigrants from Asia & Africa
    Culture
  • 45. Diary products, fish, & sausage
    Spices from Southeast Asia are used in many Dutch dishes
    Belgians claim to have invented French fries, which they eat w/ mayonnaise
    Food
  • 46. Netherlands & Belgium are world leaders in fine arts
    Vincent van Gogh, Rembrandt & Jan Vermeer
    Arts
  • 47.
  • 48. Netherlands
    Famous for flowers
    Export: cheeses, Chocolate, & cocoa
    imports/refines: oil
    Belgium
    Known for diamond-cutting centers
    Brussels is headquarters of EU & Nato
    Luxembourg
    Important banking services
    Produces: steel, chemicals, and machines
    International businesses & governments
    The Benelux Countries Today
  • 49.
  • 50. Section 5
    The Alpine Countries
  • 51. History
    Austria & Switzerland
    Celtic Occupation
    Roman & Germanic invasion
    Ruled by Holy Roman Empire
  • 52. Switzerland
    Swiss Cantons (districts)
    Broke away from Holy Roman Empire
    1600s became Independent
    Today
    26 cantons; each controls own affairs; national gov’t handles defense & international relations
    Location in high Alps has allowed it to remain neutral in European wars
    Not a member of EU or NATO
    2002 joined UN (United Nations)
  • 53. Austria
    Home to Habsburgs (powerful family of German nobles)
    1400s on Holy Roman emperor was always a Habsburg
    At their height of power they ruled Spain, Netherlands, areas of Germany, eastern Europe, & Italy
    Empire was ethnically diverse & united only by allegiance to emperor & Roman Catholic religion
    Austria Empire replaced Holy Roman Empire, also under Habsburg control
    Nationalism (demand for self-rule)developed within empire
    1867
    Austrians & Hungarians agreed to share political power
    Became Austro-Hungarian Empire, but dissolved after WWI
    Germany occupied Austria during WWII
    Allies occupied Austria after WWII
    Today
    Independent member of EU
  • 54. Culture
    Switzerland
    46% is Roman Catholic
    40% Protestant
    Austria
    Mainly Roman Catholic
    5% Protestant
    17% follow Islam
  • 55. Languages & Diversity
    Switzerland
    64% speak German
    18% speak French
    10% speak Italian
    Southeast speak Romansh
    Other European languages
    Austria
    German speaking
    Small minorities of Slovenes & Croatians
  • 56. Customs
    Christmas is a major festival
    Rural Switzerland
    Take cattle up to high mts. in late spring & return in the fall
    Big celebration when they return
    Alpine region
    Well known for its music
    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • 57. The Alpine Countries Today
    Both produce dairy products
    Switzerland
    Manufactures watches, optical instruments, & other machinery
    Chemists discovered how to make chocolate bars
    Major producer, but has to import cocoa beans
    Alpine countries linked by highways, trains, & airports
    Tourists are attracted by mountain scenery, lakes, & ski slopes

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