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    • Chapter 14
      The Nation Divided
    • Section 1
      Growing Tensions Over Slavery
    • Slavery & the Mexican-American War
      1820-1848
      4 Slaveholding & 4 free states were admitted to the Union
      Maintained balance of 15 each, but territory gained in M-A war could ruin balance
    • The Wilmot Proviso
      1846
      Rep. David Wilmot of PA proposed ban on slavery in all territory that might become part of U.S. as a result of M-A War (Wilmot Proviso)
      Proposal passed in House of Reps., but failed in the Senate
      Did not become law, but raised concerns in the South
      Viewed as an attack on slavery by the North
    • An Antislavery Party
      Democrats & Whigs did not take firm stand on slavery issue
      Senator Lewis Cass
      Democratic candidate for President 1848
      Suggested popular sovereignty: people in the territory or state would vote directly on issues, rather than having their elected reps. decide
      1848
      Antislavery Whigs & Democrats formed Free-Soil Party
      Territory gained in M-A War was “free soil”, where slavery should be banned
      Chose Democrat Martin Van Buren as their candidate
      Did poorly in election, but took enough votes away from Cass
      General Zachery Taylor was elected president
    • A Bitter Debate
      California
      Gold discovered
      Enough people to become state
      Free vs. Slave State
      Would upset the balance
      Northerners
      Free state because most of territory lay north of the Missouri Compromise line
      Southerners
      Feared North would gain control of Senate, would not be able to block antislavery attacks
      Began to threaten to secede (withdraw) from the Union
    • Other Issues
      Northerners wanted slave trade abolished in Washington, D.C.
      Southerners wanted northerners to catch people who had escaped from slavery
      Wanted laws to force the return of fugitive slaves
      1850
      Senator Henry Clay
      Made proposals to resolve the issues dividing the North & South
      John C. Calhoun
      Against Clay’s compromise
      Very ill at the time, his speech was read
      Admission of California as free state would expose the South to continued attacks on slavery; only two ways to preserve South’s way of life
      Constitutional amendment to protect states’ rights
      Sucession
    • Section2
      Compromises Fail
    • The Compromise of 1850
      September 1850
      Congress passed 5 bills based on Clay’s proposals
      Series of laws known as Compromise of 1850
      Opposed by President Taylor, but he died in 1850 & new president Millard Fillmore supported Compromise & signed it into law
    • To Please the North
      California admitted as a free state
      Compromise banned slave trade in nation’s capital
      Congress declared no power to regulate slave trade between slave states
    • To Please the South
      Popular sovereignty used to decide question of slavery in rest of Mexican Cession
      People in territory would vote to be free or slave
      Given new fugitive slave law
      Allowed gov’t officials to arrest any person accused of being a runaway slave
      No right to trial to prove they were falsely accused
      Slave owner or white witness only had to swear that the suspect was a slave
      Northern citizens were required by law to help capture runaway slaves
    • Outrage in the North
      Fugitive Slave Law
      Very controversial
      Many Northerners swore to resist the law
      Hated seeing people deprived of their freedom
      Thousands of African Americans fled to Canada
      Many who were never slaves
      Northern cities began to ban together to resist slave law
      People threatened slave catchers with their lives
      John C. Calhoun hope slave law would open the eyes of northerners to the rights of southerners to their property, but instead it convinced more northerners that slavery was evil
    • Uncle Tom’s Cabin
      Harriet Beecher Stowe
      Daughter of an abolitionist minister
      Wrote “something that will make this whole nation feel what an accursed thing slavery is”
      1852
      Published Uncle Tom’s Cabin
      about an enslaved man, Uncle Tom, who is abused by cruel Simon Legree
      Was a best seller in the North
      Shocked many people & people began to see slavery not just as a political conflict, but as a human one.
      Southerners were outraged
      Considered propaganda: false or misleading information that is spread to further a cause
      Did not give an accurate picture of the lives of slaves
    • The Kansas-Nebraska Act
      Senator Stephen Douglas
      Wanted to develop lands west of Illinois
      Wanted a railroad from Illinois through Nebraska Territory to the Pacific Coast
      1853
      Douglas want 2 new territories formed: Nebraska & Kansas
      Southerners objected because territories lay in area closed to slavery
      Douglas proposed slavery be decided by popular sovereignty
      This undid the Missouri Compromise
      Southerners: satisfied hoping slave owners in Missouri would move to Kansas, allowing Kansas to enter Union as a slave state
      Northerners: outraged; Douglas betrayed them by reopening issue of slavery
      Southern support allowed act to pass both houses of Congress
      President Franklin Pierce signed bill into law
      Douglas predicted issue of slavery was now forever banished from the halls of Congress
    • Bleeding Kansas
      Citizens left to decide free or slave in Nebraska & Kansas
      Pro & anti slavery settlers flooded into Kansas
      Each wanted to hold the majority
      March 1855
      Thousands of Missourians illegally voted
      Kansas: only 3,000 voters but 8,000 votes were cast
      39 legislators elected (all but 3 supported slavery)
      Antislavery settlers refused results & held 2nd election
    • Growing violence
      2 gov’t in Kansas now
      Each wanted to impose their gov’t on territory
      Violence soon broke out
      Proslavery sheriff shot in Lawrence, Kansas while trying to arrest antislavery settlers
      Returned one month later with 800 men & attacked the town
      John Brown (antislavery settler) 3 days later led 7 men to the proslavery settlement of Pottawatomie Creek
      Murdered 5 proslavery men & boys
      Incidences set of widespread fighting across Kansas
      Proslavery & antislavery fighters roamed the countryside killing those that did not support their views
    • Bloodshed in the Senate
      Senate
      C harles Sumner of Massachusetts
      Abolitionist senator
      Denounced proslavery legislature in Kansas
      Singled out Andrew Butler of South Carolina who was not present at the time
      Few days later Butler’s nephew Congressman Preston Brooks marched into the Senate chamber and beat Sumner with a heavy cane until he fell to the floor
      Sumner never recovered from his injuries
      Southerners felt Sumner got what he deserved
      Hundreds sent canes to Sumner to show their support
      Northerners: viewed act as another sign of brutality & inhumanity of slavery
    • Section 3
      The Crisis Deepens
    • A New Antislavery Party
      1854
      Whig party split apart
      Northern Whigs joined the newly formed Republican Party
      Goal: to stop the spread of slavery into western territories
      Northern Democrats & Free Soil Party members attracted to Republican Party
      Republican Party became powerful quickly
      1854 elections: 105 of 245 U.S. House of Reps. were Republicans
      Republican gained control of all but 2 northern state legislatures
      1856
      John C. Fremont (Republican) ran for president
      Strong antislavery campaign
      Lost election to Democrat James Buchanan, but won in 11 of nation’s 16 free states
    • The Dred Scott decision
      March 1857
      U.S. Supreme Court delivered a shattering blow to antislavery forces in Dred Scott v. Sandford
      Dred Scott an enslaved person who had once been owned by a U.S. Army doctor
      Lived in Illinois were slavery was illegal, but after leaving the army settled in Missouri
      Scott sued for his freedom; argued he was free because he had lived where slavery was illegal
      The Court Decides
      Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
      Scott was not a free man for 2 reasons
      Scott had no right to sue in federal court because African Americans were not citizens
      Living in free territory did not make an enslaved person free; slaves were property & property rights are protected by the Constitution
      Taney also declared Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory
    • reaction
      Slavery supporters: rejoiced; slavery was legal in all territories
      Northerners: stunned; condemned the ruling; slavery could spread throughout the West
      Abraham Lincoln spoke against decision
      Illinois lawyer
      The idea that African Americans could not be citizens was based on a false view of American history
      He became a central figure in the fight against slavery
    • The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
      Lincoln
      Brief career in politics
      Elected to Congress as a Whig
      Voted for Wilmot Proviso
      After one term returned to Illinois to practice law
      Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act (brought him back into politics)
      Embraced the Republican cause
      Rival of Stephen Douglas (author of K-N Act)
      Both political & personal (both men courted Mary Todd, who Lincoln married)
    • A House Divided
      1858
      Lincoln chose by Republicans to run for Senate against Douglas
      Did not state he wanted to ban slavery
      Southerners were convinced he was an abolitionist
      Debating Slavery
      Lincoln challenged Douglas in a series of public debates
      Douglas: defended popular sovereignty; painted Lincoln as a dangerous abolitionist
      Lincoln: stood against slavery; slavery would die on its own; obligation of Americans to keep it out of western territories; believed African Americans were not to be entitled to all the rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence (life, liberty, & pursuit of happiness
      Douglas won Senate election
      Lincoln became known throughout the country
      2 years later both men would face off for the presidency
    • John Brown’s Raid
      John Brown
      Driven out of Kansas after the Pottawatomie Massacre
      Developed a plot to raise an army & free people in the South who were enslaved
      1859
      Brown & supporters attacked Harpers Ferry, Virginia
      Wanted to seize guns stored by the U.S. army
      Believed African Americans would support him & he would supply them with weapons & lead a revolt
      Brown gained control of arms, but Colonel Robert E. Lee led troops that surrounds Brown’s forces
      10 were killed; Brown was wounded & captured
      Brown was found guilty of murder and treason
      Stated Bible instructed him to care for the poor and enslaved in his defense
      However, he was sentenced to death
      December 2, 1859
      Brown was hung in Virginia
      Church bells across the North tolled to mourn the man who many considered a hero
      Southerners were shocked that the North was praising a man who had tried to lead a revolt; convinced the North was out to destroy their way to life
    • Section 4
      The Coming of the Civil War
    • The Nation Divides
      Election of 1860
      Republicans: chose Abraham Lincoln as candidate
      Criticisms of slavery made him popular in the North
      Democrats: wanted slavery to be supported in territories; northern democrats refused, party became split; Northern Democrats chose Stephen Douglas & Southern Democrats chose Vice President John Breckinridge
      Some southerners hoping to heal the split created the Constitutional Union Party & nominated John Bell
      Bell promised to protect slavery & keep the nation together
    • Douglas was sure Lincoln would win the election
      Believed Democrats must try to save the Union
      Pleaded with southern voters to stay with Union no matter who was elected
      When he campaigned in the South hostile southerners often threw eggs & rotten fruit at him
      Election of 1860 showed how fragmented the nation had become
      Lincoln won every free state
      Breckinridge won all slave holding states except four
      Bell won Kentucky, Tennessee, & Virginia
      Douglas won Missouri
      Lincoln received on 40% of the popular votes, but received enough electoral votes to win the election
    • Southern States Secede
      Shock waves across South after Lincoln election
      South no longer had voice in national gov’t
      President & Congress set against slavery
      South Carolina
      1st state to secede from the Union
      Dec. 20, 1860 special convention of S. Carolina’s legislature
      Declared no longer part of Union
    • Confederate States of America
      6 more states followed S. Carolina
      Texas & Tennessee still supported the Union
      Feb. 1860
      Leaders from 7 seceding states met in Montgomery, Alabama
      Formed new nation: Confederate States of America
      Written a constitution & named a president (Jefferson Davis) by the time Lincoln took office in March
    • The Civil War Begins
      March 4, 1861
      Lincoln became president
      Assured seceded states he mean them no war
      Did warn them about continuing on the course they had chosen
      Friendship gesture rejected
      Post offices, forts, & other federal property within southern seceding states were taken over
    • Fort Sumter
      Fort Sumter
      Commander of troops within the fort refused to leave
      S. Carolina’s authorities decided to starve the fort
      Cut from supplies since December
      Lincoln did not want to give up the fort, but did not want other states to secede by sending troops in
      Declared he would send ships with food to the fort, no troops
      Confederate troops attacked the fort of April 12 & within 34 hours the U.S. troops surrendered
    • Was War Avoidable?
      Fort Sumter attack marked beginning of Civil War
      Debate continues today over if civil war could be avoided