Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Blog notes
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Blog notes

352

Published on

Published in: Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
352
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 8<br />Central America & the Caribbean<br />
  • 2.
  • 3. Section 1<br />Physical Geography<br />
  • 4. Physical Features<br />Sandy beaches, volcanic mts., rain forests, & clear blue water<br />
  • 5. Central America<br />Actually the southern part of North America<br />7 countries<br />Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, & Panama<br />Is an isthmus<br />Narrow strip of land that connects two larger land areas<br />Not more than 125 miles from Pacific Ocean to Caribbean Sea<br />Chain of mts. & volcanoes separate Pacific & Caribbean coastal plains<br />Has a few short rivers<br />Rugged land & lack of water routes makes travel difficult<br />
  • 6. Caribbean Islands<br />Comprised of hundreds of islands<br />Make up an archipelago or large group of islands<br />Divide Caribbean Sea from Atlantic Ocean<br />Two main island groups<br />Greater Antilles (4 large islands): Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, & Puerto Rico<br />Lesser Antilles: other smaller islands; stretch from Virgin Islands to Trinidad and Tobago<br />Bahamas: 3rd group of islands; includes 700 islands & thousands of reefs<br />
  • 7. Many islands are the tops of underwater mts. & volcanoes<br />Some began as coral reefs that gradually pushed up<br />Tectonic plates have also created some of the islands<br />Earthquakes & volcanic eruptions occur frequently<br />
  • 8. Climate & Vegetation<br />Both areas are generally sunny & warm<br />Humid tropical & tropical savanna climates are common<br />Along Pacific coast original savanna vegetation has been cleared & replaced w/ plantations & ranches<br />Caribbean coast has areas of tropical rain forest<br />Inland mt. areas contain cool, humid climates<br />Cloud forests: a moist, high elevation tropical forest where low clouds are common<br />Temps generally do not change much from day to night or from summer to winter<br />Change is marked by rainfall<br />winters = dry<br />summers = rains daily<br />summer to fall = hurricane season<br />
  • 9. Resources<br />Land & climate are best resources<br />Tourism<br />Agriculture<br />Profitable where volcanic ash has enriched the soil<br />Coffee, bananas, sugarcane, & cotton<br />Timber exported form rain forests<br />Few mineral resources<br />Energy resources also limited<br />Rely on energy imports<br />Limits devlopment<br />
  • 10. Section 2<br />Central America<br />
  • 11. Early History<br />A.D. 250<br />Maya were building large cities w/ pyramids & temples<br />Abandoned cities around A.D. 900, but ruins remain today<br />People of Maya descent still live in Guatemala & Belize & customs still influence modern life<br />1500s<br />Europeans control<br />Claimed mostly by Spain<br />Est. plantations & grew tobacco & sugarcane<br />Made Indians work on plantations & gold mines<br />Enslaved Africans also brought to region<br />Britain claimed Belize & part of Nicaragua<br />
  • 12. Central America Since Independence<br />1821<br />Colonies declared independence<br />Region remained together as United Provinces of Central America<br />Separated in 1838-1839<br />Panama remained part of Colombia until 1903<br />Belize remained part of Britain 1981<br />Independence brought little change<br />Wealthy landowners continued to run the countries & the economies<br />Bananas & coffee supported economy<br />
  • 13. Mid-1900s<br />U.S. based United Fruit Company developed railroads & port facilities to help its business in Central America<br />This helped w/ transportation & communication in region<br />Many people resented foreign companies for owning so much while others struggled to make a living<br />Led to armed struggles in many countries<br />
  • 14. Culture<br />Influenced by colonial history<br />Reflect Spanish and native practices<br />People and Languages<br />Most people are mestizos (of mixed European and Indian ancestry)<br />Mostly live in places like the Guatemalan Highlands<br />African ancestry<br />Live mostly along Caribbean coast<br />In some countries native Indian languages are still spoken<br />English & Spanish are main languages spoken<br />
  • 15. Religion, Festivals, & Food<br />Many practice a religion brought by Europeans<br />Roman Catholic & Protestant Christians<br />Religion has influenced celebrations in towns<br />Celebrate special saints’ feast days; Easter<br />During festivals people eat traditional foods <br />Corn, tomatoes, hot peppers, and cacao<br />
  • 16. Central America Today<br />Have similar histories and cultures<br />Have own economic & political challenges<br />2005 Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, el Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, & Nicaragua signed Central American Free Trade Agreement with U.S.<br />Goal is to increase trade among countries<br />
  • 17. Guatemala<br />Most populous (12 million people)<br />Although most are mestizos, half are Central American Indians & speak Maya languages<br />Most live in small villages in the highlands<br />1960-1996<br />Fighting between rebels and gov’t forces (200,000 people were killed)<br />Still recovering from conflict<br />Coffee grown in highlands<br />Major producer of cardamom (spice used in Asian foods)<br />
  • 18. Belize<br />Smallest population<br />Not much land for agriculture<br />Ecotourism has become popular<br />Practice of using an area’s natural environment to attract tourists<br />Come to see coral reefs, Maya ruins, & coastal resorts<br />
  • 19. Honduras<br />Mountainous country<br />Most people live in mt. valleys & along northern coast<br />Rugged land makes transportation difficult<br />Little land to grow crops<br />Bananas & citrus fruits are important exports<br />
  • 20. El Salvador<br />A few rich families own much of the best land while most people live in poverty<br />1980s<br />Civil war resulted from land disputes<br />Many people were killed & economy suffered<br />People are working to rebuild their country since end of civil war in 1992<br />Country has fertile soil<br />Grow & export coffee and sugarcane<br />
  • 21. Nicaragua<br />Rebuilding after civil war<br />1979<br />A group called the Sandinistas overthrew a dictator<br />Many supported this group, but rebel forces (aided by U.S.) fought Sandinistas for power<br />1990<br />Civil war ended w/ elections<br />Now a democracy<br />
  • 22. Costa Rica<br />Has a history of peace<br />Has stable, democratic gov’t<br />Does not have an army<br />Progress made in reducing poverty<br />Coffee & bananas are important to economy<br />Tourism also important<br />
  • 23. Panama<br />Most people live near Panama Canal<br />Canal fees & local industries make area most prosperous in country<br />1914<br />Panama Canal was built by U.S. as a link from Pacific Ocean to Caribbean Sea<br />U.S. controlled canal until 1999<br />
  • 24. Section 3<br />The Caribbean Islands<br />
  • 25. Early History<br />1492<br />Columbus sailed for Spain & was 1st to sail into Caribbean Sea<br />Thought he had reached the Indies<br />Called islands the West Indies & people Indians<br />Spain had little interest in smaller islands<br />English, French, Dutch, & Danish did<br />Est. colonies & built huge sugarcane plantations<br />Most Caribbean Indians had died from disease so African slaves were brought in to work plantations<br />Soon Africans & people of African descent outnumbered Europeans on many islands<br />
  • 26. Independence<br />Toussaint-L’Ouverture<br />Led a slave revolt<br />Helped Haiti win independence from France in 1804<br />Idea of independence spread<br />Mid-1800s<br />Dominican Republic gained independence<br />U.S. won Cuba from Spain<br />Cuba gained independence in 1902<br />Other countries had to wait about 40 years for independence<br />After WWII; Europeans transferred political power peacefully<br />Some are still not independent<br />Some are provinces or territories of other countries<br />
  • 27. Culture<br />Signs of past colonialism & slavery<br />People, Languages, & Religion<br />Most people are descended from Europeans or from African slaves<br />Or a mixture<br />Spanish, French, English, or European and African languages<br />Creole: spoken by Haitians; a dialect or a regional variety of a language<br />Catholic, blend of Catholicism and traditional African religions<br />
  • 28. Festivals and Food<br />Variety of holidays celebrated<br />Carnival: time of feasts & celebration before Lent <br />Often include great music<br />Food & cooking also reflects past<br />Food from Africa like yams & okra<br />Curry<br />
  • 29. The Caribbean Islands Today<br />Have similar history & culture<br />Economies differ as well as gov’t & cultural landscapes<br />
  • 30. Puerto Rico<br />Was a Spanish colony<br />Today U.S. commonwealth<br />self-governing territory associated w/ another country<br />Are U.S. citizens, but no voting representation in Congress<br />Debate to remain commonwealth or U.S. state or independent country<br />U.S. aid & investment have helped develop economy<br />Wages are lower & unemployment is higher than in U.S.<br />
  • 31. Haiti<br />Mountainous western third of island of Hispaniola<br />Has limited industry<br />Agricultural products like coffee and sugarcane are main exports<br />Most farm small plots of land<br />Is the poorest country in the Americas<br />Has had corrupt gov’t<br />Violence, political unrest, & poverty have created many political refugees<br />Someone who flees to another country, usually for political or economic resasons<br />
  • 32. Dominican Republic<br />Occupies eastern half of Hispaniola<br />Capital of Santo Domingo was the 1st permanent European settlement in the Western Hemisphere<br />Not a rich country<br />Economy, health care, & housing are more developed than Haiti<br />Agriculture is basis of economy<br />Tourism is growing<br />
  • 33. Cuba<br />Largest & most populous in Caribbean<br />92 miles from Florida<br />Run by Communist since 1959 when Fidel Castro came to power<br />Took over banks, plantations, & other businesses (many owned by U.S. companies)<br />U.S. banned trade with Cuba & restricted travel there by U.S. citizens<br />Today<br />Gov’t still controls economy<br />Farms are organizes as cooperatives or gov’t owned plantations<br />Cooperative: an organization owned by its members and operated for their mutual benefit<br />Gov’t also controls all newspapers, television, and radio stations<br />Some support gov’t policies & other have become refugees in the U.S.<br />
  • 34. Other Islands<br />Jamaica<br />Largest remaining Caribbean country<br />Saint Kitts and Nevis<br />Smallest country<br />Many are not countries but territories<br />U.S. & British Virgin Islands<br />Netherlands and France also have territories<br />Some islands have enough land to grow coffee, sugarcane, or spices<br />Most economies are based on tourism<br />Good for economy, but sometimes harms environment<br />

×