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  1. 1. Chapter 10<br />Section 1 Physical Geography<br />
  2. 2. Physical Features<br />4 Countries<br />Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, & Paraguay<br />Region covers 2/3 of South America<br />Most of the physical features found in South America are found in these four countries<br />
  3. 3. Major River Systems<br />World’s largest river system<br />Amazon: 4,000 miles long; extends from Andes Mts. to Atlantic Ocean; hundreds of tributaries; carries more water than any other river; freshwater flowing into Atlantic Ocean lowers the salt level of Atlantic waters for more than 100 miles out<br />Parana River system: drains much of the central part of the region; 3,030 miles long; forms Paraguay’s border with Brazil & Argentina; flows into Paraguay River & continues to Rio de la Plata (an estuary)<br />Estuary: is a partially enclosed body of water where freshwater mixes w/ salty seawater<br />
  4. 4. Plains & Plateaus<br />Plains & Plateaus<br />Amazon River basin: giant, flat flood plain in northern Brazil<br />Brazilian Highlands: region of old, eroded mts. in southeast Brazil<br />Gran Chaco: area of flat, low plains covered with low trees, shrubs, & savannas<br />Pampas: wide, grassy plains in central Argentina<br />Patagonia: desert region of dry plains & plateaus in southern Argentina<br />All southern plains rise in the west to form the high Andes Mts.<br />
  5. 5. Climate & Vegetation<br />Many climates<br />The North: coastal region covered with tropical rain forests & savannas<br />Highlands: humid subtropical climate like the southeastern U.S.; major agricultural areas<br />Gran Chaco: humid tropical climate; water drains slowly & turns areas into marshlands; armadillos, pumas, red wolves, & 60 snake species<br />Pampas: temperate grasslands; stretches for 400 miles; rich soils & humid subtropical climate make area a major farming region<br />Patagonia desert: cool, desert climate<br />Andes: block the Pacific Ocean’s rain-bearing storms<br />Tropical, moist climates in northern & coastal areas; cooler climates in southern & highland areas<br />Rain Forest: Amazon River basin supports world’s largest tropical rain forest; rain falls every day; world’s greatest variety of plant and animal life; piranhas, jaguars, anacondas, sloth, anteaters are some of the animals found here<br />
  6. 6. Natural Resources<br />Greatest Resource: Amazon Rain Forest<br />Food, wood, rubber, natural plants, medical plants, & other products<br />Forests cleared for mining, ranching, & farming<br />Commercial agricultural<br />Soil exhaustion is a problem (soil has lost nutrients)<br />Minerals: gold, silver, copper, & iron<br />Oil deposits<br />Hydroelectric power from rivers<br />
  7. 7. Section 2<br />Brazil<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. History<br /><ul><li>Descended from 3 Groups
  10. 10. Colonial Brazil
  11. 11. First people were American Indians
  12. 12. Arrived 1,000’s years ago
  13. 13. Life based on hunting, fishing, & small-scale farming
  14. 14. 1500
  15. 15. Portuguese settlers came
  16. 16. Climate & soil made Brazil a large sugar growing colony
  17. 17. Slaves were brought in & worked alongside Brazilian Indians on plantations
  18. 18. Plantation replaced forests on the Atlantic coast</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cattle Ranches
  19. 19. Set up further inland by Portuguese
  20. 20. 1600s & early 1700s
  21. 21. Gold & precious gems were discovered in southeast
  22. 22. 1800s
  23. 23. Southeastern Brazil became major coffee producer</li></li></ul><li>Brazil Since Independence<br /><ul><li>1822
  24. 24. Independence gained from Portugal w/o a fight
  25. 25. Economy did not change much w/ Independence
  26. 26. Last country in Americas to end slavery
  27. 27. Dictators & elected gov’t have ruled country since
  28. 28. Today has elected president & legislature
  29. 29. Citizens can vote & do other political activities</li></li></ul><li>People & Culture<br />People who came to Brazil over the years brought their own traditions<br />Traditions blended to create unique culture<br />40% of people are mixed African and European descent<br />½ of Brazilians are ethnic European<br />Descendants of Portuguese, Spaniards, Germans, Italians, & Poles<br />Portuguese is official language<br />Also speak Spanish, English, French, Japanese, & Indian languages<br />
  30. 30. Religion<br />World’s largest Roman Catholic population<br />75%<br />Protestantism is growing popular among the urban poor<br />Some practice Macumba<br />African, Indian, & Catholic religious ideas and practices<br />
  31. 31. Festivals & Food<br />Celebrated before Lent<br />Mixture of traditions from Africa, Brazil, & Europe<br />Samba is danced during this time<br />
  32. 32. Food<br />Immigrant influences<br />Eastern Brazil<br />Vatapa is popular: mixes seafood, sauces, and red peppers<br />Feijoada: stew of black beans and meat<br />
  33. 33. Brazil Today<br />Large size creates opportunities & challenges<br />Region’s largest economy<br />Many are poor<br />Does have modern & prosperous areas<br />Divided into 4 areas based on their people, economies, & landscape<br />The Southeast:<br />Most people live here; Sao Paulo = city of 17 million (megacity) & Ro De Janeiro = city of 11 million; richest region (natural resources & most of countries industries and productive farmland); also has poverty w/ huge slums called favelas<br />
  34. 34. The Northeast:<br />Area of many immigrants; poorest region; many unable to read & health care is poor; region suffers from droughts making farming & ranching difficult; difficult to attract industry; tourism is important<br />The Interior:<br />Frontier land; could be important agricultural site someday; capital of Brasilia located here<br />The Amazon:<br />People rely on river for transportation & communication; isolated Indian villages; logging, mining & new roads are bringing more people to region (provides needed income, but destroys large areas of rain forest, & creates tensions among Indians, new settlers, miners, & gov’t)<br />
  35. 35. Section 3<br />Argentina, Uruguay, & Paraguay<br />
  36. 36. History<br />Originally home to groups of Indians<br />Groups living in the Pampas hunted wild game & other Indians further north farmed & built irrigation systems<br />Spanish conquerors<br />Looking for riches<br />Spanish monarch gave land to colonists & granted the right to force Indians living there to work the land<br />Pampas became an important agricultural region<br />Gauchos (cowboys) herded cattle & horses on open grasslands<br />1800s<br /> independence from Spain<br />Period of instability & violence followed<br />Many Indians were killed<br />
  37. 37. Modern Argentina<br />New immigrants came<br />Italians, Germans, & Spaniards<br />British built railroads across the country<br />Exports of meat & other farm products help make country richer<br />1900s <br />Struggled under dictators & military governments<br />Abused human rights<br />Economy & people suffered<br />1980s<br />last military government gave up power to an elected government<br />
  38. 38. People & Culture<br />European ties affect culture<br />Descended from Spanish, Italian, or other European settlers<br />Argentine Indians & mestizos make up 3% of population<br />Most are Roman Catholic<br />Beef is important agricultural product & big part of diet<br />
  39. 39. Argentina Today<br />Industry located in & around capital city of Buenos Aires<br />2nd largest urban area in South America<br />Home to 1/3 of all Argentines<br />Pampas: most developed agricultural region<br />11% of labor force works in agriculture<br />Large ranches & farms produce beef, wheat, & corn for export<br />1990<br />Joined Mercosur (an organization that promotes trade and economic cooperation among the southern & eastern countries of South America)<br />Late 1990s & 2000s<br />Debt & heavy gov’t spending caused economic crisis<br />Also caused a political crisis<br />Gov’t changed hands 4 times in 2001<br />2003<br />Economy stabilized, but people lives changed<br />Some people w/ professional careers lost jobs & joined informal economy<br />A part of the economy based on odd jobs that people perform w/o gov’t regulation through taxes<br />
  40. 40. Uruguay<br />Along Rio de la Plata<br />Been influenced by larger neighbors<br />History<br />Claimed by Portugal during colonial era<br />1770s was taken over by Spain<br />Few Indians remained<br />independent in 1825<br />Military gov’t have ruled off and on<br />Has strong tradition of respect for political freedom<br />Today it is a democracy<br />
  41. 41. The People<br />88% European descent<br />12% are mestizo, African, or Indian<br />Roman Catholicism is main religion<br />Spanish is official language, but many speak Portuguese<br />90% live in urban areas<br />High literacy rate<br />Many have good jobs & can afford a wide range of consumer goods<br />
  42. 42. Economy<br />Tied to economies of Brazil & Argentina<br />½ of foreign trade<br />Many vacation on beach resorts in Uruguay<br />Climate & soil make agriculture important<br />Beef is an important export<br />Few mineral resources<br />Hydroelectric power is important<br />Big Challenge<br />Developing the poor rural areas of the interior<br />
  43. 43. Paraguay<br />Landlocked country<br />Shares borders with Bolivia, Brazil, & Argentina<br />Paraguay River divides the country into two regions<br />East of River: most productive agricultural land<br />West of River: part of the Gran Chaco; low trees & thorny shrubs; livestock grazes here<br />Claimed by Spain in 1500s<br />Independent from Spain in 1811<br />Ruled by dictators off and on until 1989<br />Today has elected government<br />
  44. 44. The People<br />95% are mestizos<br />European descendants & Paraguayan Indians make up rest<br />Spanish is official language<br />Most also speak an Indian language Guarani<br />Most are Roman Catholic<br />
  45. 45. Economy<br />Wealth controlled by a few rich families & companies<br />Influence the government as well<br />Agriculture is important<br />2 types of economy<br />Traditional<br />Many subsistence farmers<br />½ of workers in Paraguay are farmers<br />Grow corn, cotton, soybeans, & sugarcane for profit<br />Market<br />Thousands of small businesses but not much industry<br />Future may be bright<br />Learn how to use its resources effectively<br />Hydroelectric dams & sell surplus electricity to Brazil & Argentina<br />