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  • Chapter 29
    The Pacific World
  • Section 1
    Australia & New Zealand
  • Physical Geography
    Truly Unique Places
    Physical features, variety of climates, unusual wildlife, & plentiful resources
  • Physical Features
    Differ Widely
    Australia
    Wide, flat stretches of dry land
    Surrounded by water
    3 million square miles (considered a continent, not just an island)
    Huge plateau covers western half
    Home to Uluru or Ayers Rock
    Low mts., valleys, & a major river system cover eastern half
    Fertile plains along the coast
    Great Barrier Reef off NE coast
  • New Zealand
    Green hills & tall mountains
    1,000 miles SE of Australia
    2 main islands
    North Island:
    covered by hills & coastal plains
    Volcanoes, geysers, & hot springs
    South Island
    Large mt. range (Southern Alps
    Thick forests, deep lakes, & glaciers
    Fertile hills & rich plains
    Fjord
  • Climate
    Australia
    Desert & steppe climates
    Temps are warm & rain limited
    More temperate along the coasts
    New Zealand
    Marine climate
    Plentiful rainfall & mild temps
  • Wildlife & Resources
    Home to unique animals
    Kangaroo, koala, & kiwi
    Australia’s Resources
    World’s top producer of bauxite, lead, diamonds, & opals
    Energy resources: coal, natural gas, & oil
    Poor soil, but grow/raise: wheat, cotton, & sheep
    New Zealand
    Fertile land & few mineral resources
    Main resources: wool, timber, & gold
  • History
    Similar history
    Both settled by settler from the Pacific
    Early Settlers
    Aborigines
    1st humans in Australia
    Came from Southeast Asia 40,000 years ago
    Hunted animals & gathered food from wild plants
    Had many different languages, traditions, & customs
    Maori
    Came 1,200 years ago to New Zealand
    Were fishers & hunters
    Also used farming to survive
  • The Arrival of Europeans
    European explorers 1st sighted countries in 1600s
    British
    1769 James Cook explored New Zealand & the following year Australia
    British settled in Australia 20 years later
    1st were prisoners
    Other settlers came and built farms & ranches & took over Aborigines’ lands
    Many died of disease
    British arrived in New Zealand in 1800s.
    Signed a treaty with Maori in 1840
    Became part of British Empire
    Tensions led to a series of wars over the land
  • Independence
    Early 1900s independence granted to Australia & New Zealand
    Today both are members of the British Commonwealth of Nations
    Also close allies of the U.K.
    Helped British & allies during WWI & WWII
  • Australia & New Zealand Today
    Both are rich and well-developed despite their isolation
    Government
    British style gov’t influence
    British monarch is head of state in both countries
    Both have parliamentary democracies
    Citizens elect members to represent them in parliament
    Both have prime minister
    Prime minister & Parliament runs the gov’t
    Both have similar features of U.S. gov’t
    Federal system (central power shares power w/ states)
    Parliament consists of two houses (House of Reps & Senate)
    Bill of Rights protects individual rights of New Zealand’s citizens
  • Economy
    Rich, economically developed country
    Agriculture is very important
    Leading producer of wool
    Both export meat & Dairy products
    Mining is also important
    Bauxite, gold, & uranium in the Outback
    Industries
    steel, heavy machines, & computers
    Banking, insurance, & tourism
  • People
    Diverse populations
    Most are of British ancestry
    Many groups from around the world have migrated to both countries in recent years
    Native groups make up small % of populations
    Challenge
    Improving economic & political status of Aborigines & Maori
    Most live in urban areas
    90% of Australians live in large cities along the coasts
    10 % in the Outback
    In New Zealand most people live on North Island
  • Section 2
    The Pacific Islands
  • Pacific Islands
    3 Regions:
    Melanesia
    Micronesia
    Polynesia
    Regions have high & low islands
  • High islands
    2 types:
    Oceanic = formed by volcanoes rising from the sea floor
    Tahiti & Hawaii
    Continental = formed from continental rock; lie on Australia’s continental shelf
    New Guinea: world’s second largest island; Mt. range stretches across the central part (highest peak reaches 16,535 feet); western part is called Irian Jaya & is part of Indonesia; Papua New Guinea occupies eastern half of island
    Low Islands
    Most made of coral
    Barely rise above sea level
    Many are atolls
  • Climate & Resources
    All but 2 island countries lie in the tropics
    Most have humid tropical climate
    Temps are warm & rainfall is common all year
    Some islands have tropical savanna climate (rain falls mostly in summer)
    Cool highland climate also found
    Mts. of New Guinea
    Resources vary widely
    Low Islands have few resources
    Little freshwater & thin soil limit farming
    Smaller populations
    Coconut palms & the sea are important sources of food
    High Islands have freshwater, good soils, & forest resources
    Farms produce crops such as coffee, cocoa, bananas, & sugarcane
    New Guinea has copper, gold, silver, & oil
    Mining difficult due to rugged highlands & dense tropical forests
  • History & Culture
    One of last places settle by humans
    Because of isolation they have unique history & culture
  • Early History
    People began to settle Pacific Islands 35,000 years ago
    Melanesia was first to be settled
    1500s
    Europeans encountered Pacific Islands
    James Cook explored all the main Pacific Island regions
    1800s
    Spain, U.K., & France controlled most of the Pacific Islands
  • Modern History
    1900s
    Other countries entered the Pacific Islands
    U.S. defeated Spain in Spanish-American War & Guam became a U.S. territory (an area that is under the authority of another gov’t)
    Japan expanded empire into Pacific Ocean
    During WWII Pacific Islands were place of battles between Allied & Japanese forces
    U.N. placed some islands under its control at the end of WWII
    Many islands became independent in the late 1900s
    U.S., France, & New Zealand still have territories in Pacific Islands
  • Culture
    Variety of cultures exist
    Some traits are common throughout the Pacific Islands
    Fishing
    People
    9 million live in Pacific Islands today
    Most are descendents of original settlers
    Also includes large #’s of Asians (Indians & Chinese) & Europeans
    Asians were brought to work on colonial plantations
  • Before Europeans Pacific Island people practiced hundreds of different religions
    Today most are Christians
    Traditions
    Many continue to practice traditional customs
    Construct homes of bamboo & palm leaves
    Live in ancient villages, practice ancient art styles, & hold ceremonies w/ traditional costumes & dances
  • The Pacific Islands Today
    Healthy tourism industry
    Sunny beaches
    Important challenges
    Developing economies
    Fishing, tourism, & agriculture are key
    Some export minerals & timber
    Regions’ isolation hinders ability to trade
    Environment
    Islands were used for nuclear testing from 1940s to 1990s
    People fear health problems for people of region
    Global warming concerns islanders
    Rising temps may cause ocean levels to rise
  • Section 3
    Antarctica
  • The Land
    Ice covers 98% of Antarctica’s 5.4 million square miles
    90% of world’s ice; sheets are more than 1 mile thick
    Ice sheets flow slowly off the continent & form an ice shelf when they reach the coast; icebergs often break away and drift into the ocean
    Ross Ice Shelf is the size of France
    One recent iceberg the size of Luxembourg
    Antarctic Peninsula
    Temps often warmer than other parts of the continent
  • Climate & Resources
    Mostly freezing ice-cap climate
    Temp below -120 degrees F w/ little precipitation
    Polar desert: high latitude region that receives little precipitation
    Less precipitation than Sahara Desert
    Planet’s coldest, driest, highest, & windiest continent
    remains totally dark in winter
    In summer the sun never sets
    Temps can drop as low as -120 degrees F
    Tundra plant life survives in ice free areas
    A few insects are the land’s only land animals
    Penguins, seals, & whales live in the icy waters
  • Resources
    Iron ore, gold, copper, & coal
    Debate over whether resources should be mined
    Mining would harm continent’s environment
    Worthwhile for businesses
  • Early Explorers
    1775 James Cook sighted icebergs around Antarctica
    1800s explorers investigated Antarctica
    Motive was to discover South Pole
    Norwegian explorers were 1st human expedition to reach South Pole in 1911
    Parts of Antarctica have been claimed by countries
    U.S., Australia, & China
    Antarctic Treaty of 1959
    agreement reached to preserve Antarctica for science & peace
    Prevented claims to the continent & banned military activity & made whole continent a research area
  • Antarctica Today
    Only continent without permanent human population
    Researchers only people who live in Antarctica
    Live in bases or stations
    Research covers wide range of topics
    Plant and animal life of Antarctica, weather conditions, Earth’s ozone layer
  • Air Pollution
    Studies show that carbon dioxide levels in the air have risen over time
    Discovered by studying gases trapped in old Antarctic ice & compared them to gases in the Earth’s atmosphere today
    Some believe this is causing global warming
    Some scientists are looking for evidence that air pollution is damaging Earth’s ozone layer
  • Environmental Threats
    Tourists & researchers have left behind trash & oil spills have occurred
    Oil spills have damaged surrounding seas
    In 1991 an international agreement was reached forbidding most activities in Antarctica that do not have a scientific purpose
    Bans mining & drilling & limits tourism