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    • Chapter 4
      Ancient Egypt & Kush
    • Section 1
      Gift of the Nile
    • Geography of Ancient Egypt
      Nile River has fed Egyptian civilization for over 5,000 years
    • The Longest River
      Nile River
      Longest river
      Has cataracts (waterfalls)
      Branches into a delta (area near a river’s mouth where the water deposits silt)
      Flows north to Mediterranean Sea
      Use to flood every summer causing silt to be deposited along Nile’s shores
      Silt was fertile & good for growing crops
    • Black Land, Red Land
      Egyptians
      Lived in narrow bands of land on each side of the Nile
      Called black land because of fertile soil
      Red land was the desert region beyond the fertile region
      Weather
      Always the same; 8 months sunny & hot, 4 months of winter were sunny but cooler
      Deserts
      Acted out barrier to keep out enemies
      Mediterranean Coast
      Swampy & lacked good harbors
    • Land of Plenty
      Ibises birds
      Flew up from the south
      Egyptians knew when these birds arrived annual flood waters would soon follow
      When waters drained away crops were planted in fertile soil
    • Agricultural Techniques
      Developed ways to control yearly flood
      Irrigation canals
      Dug to divert water to dry areas
      Catch basins
      Areas where water would pool to be used at a later date
      Removed earth was used to make embankments to protect areas from the flood
      Shadoof
      Introduced in 1600 B.C.
      Used to move water between the Nile and a canal, a canal and a catch basin or a catch basin and a field
    • Egyptian Crops
      Variety of crops grown
      Wheat & barley were important
      1st to grind wheat into flour & add yeast to make bread
      Vegetables were also grown
      Also grew materials for their clothes
      1st to weave fibers from flax plants into linen
    • Egyptian Houses
      Used bricks made of mud & straw
      Had narrow windows
      Painted walls white to reflect the sun
      Used sticks & palm branches for roofs
      Woven reed mated covered the dirt floor
      Wealthier people had fancier homes
      Tree-lined courtyards, pools with lotus blossoms & fish
    • Geography Shapes Egyptian Life
      Economy depended on farming
      Also used natural resources for everyday need & developed economic activities
    • Minin
      Mined & quarried different metals & minerals
      Copper: used to make tools & weapons
      Iron: stronger metal choice
      Gold: prized by Egyptians
      White limestone: used to build important religious centers & artistic centers
      Turquoise & emeralds: precious stones used to make jewelry
    • Fishing & Hunting
      Rafts were made to go onto the Nile
      Used nets & harpoons to catch fish
      Hippopotamuses & crocodiles
      Captured quail & nets
      Used boomerangs to knock down flying ducks and deese
    • Transportation & Trade
      Sails & oars were later added to reed boats
      Nile became a highway
      Nile provided a surplus of food
      Began to trade with each other
      There was not money so people bartered
    • Section 2
      Life in Ancient Egypt
    • Work and Family Life
      Surplus leads to economic expansion
      Cities become centers of culture & power
      People learn different jobs
      i.e. scribes
    • Specialized Jobs
      Complex civilizations led to new jobs
      Artisans: created stone or brick houses & temples; other made pottery, mats, furniture, clothing, sandals, or jewelry
      Traders: traded with other Africans; traded Egyptian products (scrolls, linen, gold & jewelry) for exotic woods, animal skins, & live beasts
    • Rulers & Priests
      Growth led to need for organization
      Empire divided into 42 provinces
      Army created for defense
      Jobs:
      Priests: highest jobs; followed rituals & cared for temples; pleased the gods
      Slaves: bottom of society; most captured in war; worked on public building projects; some were domestic servants
    • Women & Children
      Best place to be a woman
      Had equal rights
      Women
      Care for children and home
      Wove clothes
      Worked in fields or workshops
      Children:
      Played w/ toys (dolls, animal figures, board games, etc.)
      Rough games: balls mad of leather or reeds
      Some went to school
      Most learned parents jobs
      Most married in their early teens
    • Pets
      Dogs
      Used on hunting trips
      Lapdogs
      Cats
      Favored pet
      Even cat goddess, Bastet
    • Expanding Knowledge
      Came from priests studying the world to find ways to please the gods
      Because of practical discoveries
    • Writing
      Hieroglyphs developed
      Over time included more than 6,000 symbols
      Papyrus developed
      Easy to carry
    • Math & Science
      Developed 1st geometry
      Surveyors used it to restore property lines
      Used to design royal temples & monuments
      Study of the sky allowed them to develop the 1st calendar
    • Medicine
      Prepared bodies for burial
      Knowledge of the body helped w/ surgeries
      Penicillin
      Antibiotic that changed modern medicine
      Willow bark
      Similar to aspirin
    • Life After Death
      Positive view of life
      Not just pharaoh or nobles could look forward to life after death
      Afterlife: life believed to follow death
      Views of what made for a happy afterlife varied
    • Many Gods
      Polytheists
      Worshiped gods that were related to the afterlife & to parts of nature
      Many gods were worshipped in certain areas only
    • Making Mummies
      Bodies embalmed before they were placed in tombs
      All organs removed except the heart
      Organs kept & treated
      Body was washed & purified
      Body packed and covered w/ natron
      Body transformed into a mummy
      Linen was wrapped around the mummy
      Whole process took about 70 days
    • Egyptian Tombs
      Tombs held everyday objects any person might want or need
      Food, drink, clothing, & furniture
      Living relatives were suppose to bring fresh food & drink daily, as well as prayers for persons soul
    • Section 3
      The Pyramid Builders
    • The Old Kingdom
      King Narmer
      Legend says he united Upper & Lower Egypt
      Occurred in about 3100 B.C.
      History divided into Old, Middle, & New Kingdom
      Pyramids built during Old Kingdom
    • The First Dynasties
      Began when Egypt was unified
      First three before Old Kingdom
      Dynasty: a line of ruler from the same family
      When king died one of his children took place as ruler
      Succession: order in which members of a royal family inherit a throne
      More than 30 dynasties ruled Egypt
    • Pharaohs Rule
      Pharaoh
      King of Egypt
      Ruled from capital city of Memphis
      Though to be child of the gods & a god himself
      Happy lives = pharaoh pleased gods
      Suffering = pharaoh angered gods; new pharaoh usually took over
      Religion & Government were not separate
      Priests had a lot of power in government
    • Kufu’s Great Pyramid
      1st rulers
      Buried in an underground tomb topped by mud bricks
      Soon mud bricks replaced w/ small pyramids
      King Djoser
      Built step pyramid
    • The Great Pyramid
      King Kufu
      Had great pyramid built
      760 feet long 7 core was built from 2.3 million blocks of stone
      Hard work to build pyramid
      Blocks of stone cut using copper saws & chisels
      Stones pulled up ramps & put in place
      Farmers did heavy labor
      Hauled stone during flood season
      Took 20 years to build
      20,000 Egyptians worked on it
      City of Giza was built for pyramid workers & for the people who fed, clothed, & housed them
    • Grave Robbers
      Pyramids stopped being built
      Pyramids drew attention to tombs; grave robbers broke into tombs to steal treasure buried there
      Robbed Tomb
      Believed if tomb was robbed the person buried there could not have a happy afterlife
      New Kingdom
      During this period pharaohs built secret tombs in the Valley of the Kings
      Treasures, however, were stolen from almost every tomb
      Only one not was that of Tutankhamen
      Discovered in 1922
    • Middle Kingdom
      2160 B.C.
      Central power of pharaohs began to break down
      Disunity, civil war, & invasion plagued Egypt for 100 years
      Mentuhotep II
      2055 B.C. brought stability back to Egypt
      Period known as Middle Kingdom
    • Connect to Tradition
      Amenemhet I
      Founded 12th Dynasty in 1985 B.C.
      Not a member of the royal line
      Claimed ancient prophecy supported his claim to the throne
      Prophecy of Neferti dated from the time of Snefru (4th Dynasty pharaoh)
      Fortold of the coming of a king, Ameni, who would save Egypt from chaos
      The Truth
      Amenemhet had this story written to connect him to Snefru & show his kingship was meant to be
    • Strength & Prosperity
      Egypt extended boundaries with military during 12th Dynasty
      Wanted to control Numbia’s resources
      1800 B.C.
      Reached 2nd cataract of the Nile
      Built fortresses to control new territory
      Agriculture
      Boosted during Middle Kingdom
      Vast swamps were drained in area known as Faiyum
      150,000 acres created
      Increased food production
      The arts flourished, trade expanded, & pharaohs were stable & orderly during the thriving 12th Dynasty
    • Decline & Overthrow
      13th Dynasty
      Weaker rule
      Asiatics (people from Sinai Peninsula) immigrated to eastern Nile Delta
      Hyksos invaded from Palestine & Syria
      Conquered Lower Egypt w/ the help of better weapons & horse-drawn chariots
      Eventually drove out after 100 years in Egypt
    • Section 4
      The New Kingdom & Kush
    • A Woman Pharaoh
      Period of most powerful rulers of Egypt
      New capital city of Thebes created
      Empire expanded
      Queen Hatshepsut
      1st woman pharaoh
      Wife of pharaoh who died shortly after taking power
      Ruled with stepson Thutmose III
      Eventually declared herself only ruler
      Wore a false beard reserved for pharaohs alone
    • Trade Grows
      Empire expanded through war
      Hatshepsut
      Used war as well as trade to expand empire
      Sent traders to the Red Sea; ships brought back rare spices, scented wood, live monkeys, and potted trees to make incense
    • Hatshepsut’s Legacy
      Erected the obelisk
      Four-sided shaft with a pyramid shaped top
      Carved from blocks of red granite
      Hieroglyphs recorded her great deeds
      After ruling for 15 years Hatshepsut disappeared
      Died peacefully or killed by Thutmose III ?
      Thutmose III became pharaoh after her death
      Tried to destroy all records of her reign
      Damaged temple & tomb restored by archaelogists
    • A Reforming Pharaoh
      A New Belief
      Akhenaton became pharaoh
      Worshiped sun god Aton
      Closed temples of other gods & promoted worship of one god (1st time in Egyptian history)
      Priests who served other gods lost power; feared actions angered the old gods
      New way of thinking affected art
      Small steps towards realism began to appear
    • Reform Ends
      New religion did not last long
      3 years after Akhenaton death relative Tutankhamen became pharaoh
      Tut relied on advisors to help him rule
      Convinced him to reject new religion & worship old gods
    • A Powerful Pharaoh
      Ramses II took throne in 1279 B.C.
      Reigned for 66 years
      Empire Builder
      Ramses the Great wanted to make Egypt powerful through war
      Territory extended into African kingdom of Nubia & to eastern rim of Mediterranean Sea where empire bordered the empire of the Hittites
      Egyptian & Hittites were enemies
      Ramses led army into battle against Hittites
      No one won but Ramses claimed victory
      Negotiated 1st known peace treaty
      Ramses built city of Pi-Ramses
      At Abu Simbel he built 4 66 foot statues of himself to guard his temple
      Wanted statues to appear god like in statues
      Ramses was over 90 years old at end of his reign
      66 years of rule made Egypt’s gov’t stable & brought peace
    • Egypt’s Decline
      Egypt never the same after Ramses died
      Gov’t became weak
      Foreign rulers took over
      Persians conquered Egypt in 525 B.C.
      Alexander the Great took over in 332 B.C.
      Began 300 years of Greek rule
    • Nubia & the Kush Civilization
      When central power broke down at end of New Kingdom separate ruling groups came to dominate Lower & Upper Egypt
      Where not able to exert control in Nubia
      A Nubian kingdom called Kush came to power
    • Cultural Relations Between Egypt & Kush
      Cultural exchanges took place during the times when Egypt controlled Nubia
      Art influenced by Egyptian rule
      Young Kushite nobles learned Egyptian language in Egypt
      Adopted customs & clothing styles
      Brought back royal rituals & hieroglyphic writing system
      Egyptian pyramids also copied in Kush
    • Kush Rises to Power
      Kushite worshiped Amun
      Power struggle took place in western delta & threatened Upper Egypt
      Rules of Thebes, center of Amun worship, invited Kushite king Piye to defend them
      Piye sailed up the Nile to Thebes where he was declared pharaoh
      Continued into Lower Egypt defeating enemies along the way
      After long war he ruled all of Egypt
    • Political and Commercial Relations with Egypt
      Piye united Egypt & Kush
      Nubia est. own dynasty
      Piye rule marked beginning of 25th Dynasty
      Did not live in Egypt, lived in Kush capital city of Napata
      Napata
      Located at head of a road to move goods by one of Nile’s cataracts
      Led to trade along the Nile
      Became for the spread of Egyptian goods and culture & other Kush trading partners
    • The Decline of Kush
      704 B.C.
      KushiteEgyptain forces battled Assyrians in Palestine
      Supported ruler there who resisted Assyrian rule
      Assyrians iron weapons better than Kush copper weapons
      Assyrians won
      Sides fought off and on for years
      671 B.C.
      Assyrians invaded & conquered Egypt
      Ended Kushite rule in Egypt