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  1. 1. Chapter 4<br />Ancient Egypt & Kush<br />
  2. 2. Section 1<br />Gift of the Nile<br />
  3. 3. Geography of Ancient Egypt<br />Nile River has fed Egyptian civilization for over 5,000 years<br />
  4. 4. The Longest River<br />Nile River<br />Longest river<br />Has cataracts (waterfalls)<br />Branches into a delta (area near a river’s mouth where the water deposits silt)<br />Flows north to Mediterranean Sea<br />Use to flood every summer causing silt to be deposited along Nile’s shores<br />Silt was fertile & good for growing crops<br />
  5. 5. Black Land, Red Land<br />Egyptians<br />Lived in narrow bands of land on each side of the Nile<br />Called black land because of fertile soil<br />Red land was the desert region beyond the fertile region<br />Weather<br />Always the same; 8 months sunny & hot, 4 months of winter were sunny but cooler<br />Deserts<br />Acted out barrier to keep out enemies<br />Mediterranean Coast<br />Swampy & lacked good harbors<br />
  6. 6. Land of Plenty<br />Ibises birds<br />Flew up from the south<br />Egyptians knew when these birds arrived annual flood waters would soon follow<br />When waters drained away crops were planted in fertile soil<br />
  7. 7. Agricultural Techniques<br />Developed ways to control yearly flood<br />Irrigation canals<br />Dug to divert water to dry areas<br />Catch basins<br />Areas where water would pool to be used at a later date<br />Removed earth was used to make embankments to protect areas from the flood<br />Shadoof<br />Introduced in 1600 B.C.<br />Used to move water between the Nile and a canal, a canal and a catch basin or a catch basin and a field<br />
  8. 8. Egyptian Crops<br />Variety of crops grown<br />Wheat & barley were important<br />1st to grind wheat into flour & add yeast to make bread<br />Vegetables were also grown<br />Also grew materials for their clothes<br />1st to weave fibers from flax plants into linen<br />
  9. 9. Egyptian Houses<br />Used bricks made of mud & straw<br />Had narrow windows<br />Painted walls white to reflect the sun<br />Used sticks & palm branches for roofs<br />Woven reed mated covered the dirt floor<br />Wealthier people had fancier homes<br />Tree-lined courtyards, pools with lotus blossoms & fish<br />
  10. 10. Geography Shapes Egyptian Life<br />Economy depended on farming<br />Also used natural resources for everyday need & developed economic activities<br />
  11. 11. Minin<br />Mined & quarried different metals & minerals<br />Copper: used to make tools & weapons<br />Iron: stronger metal choice<br />Gold: prized by Egyptians<br />White limestone: used to build important religious centers & artistic centers<br />Turquoise & emeralds: precious stones used to make jewelry<br />
  12. 12. Fishing & Hunting<br />Rafts were made to go onto the Nile<br />Used nets & harpoons to catch fish<br />Hippopotamuses & crocodiles<br />Captured quail & nets<br />Used boomerangs to knock down flying ducks and deese<br />
  13. 13. Transportation & Trade<br />Sails & oars were later added to reed boats<br />Nile became a highway<br />Nile provided a surplus of food<br />Began to trade with each other<br />There was not money so people bartered<br />
  14. 14. Section 2<br />Life in Ancient Egypt<br />
  15. 15. Work and Family Life<br />Surplus leads to economic expansion<br />Cities become centers of culture & power<br />People learn different jobs<br />i.e. scribes<br />
  16. 16. Specialized Jobs<br />Complex civilizations led to new jobs<br />Artisans: created stone or brick houses & temples; other made pottery, mats, furniture, clothing, sandals, or jewelry<br />Traders: traded with other Africans; traded Egyptian products (scrolls, linen, gold & jewelry) for exotic woods, animal skins, & live beasts<br />
  17. 17. Rulers & Priests<br />Growth led to need for organization<br />Empire divided into 42 provinces<br />Army created for defense<br />Jobs:<br />Priests: highest jobs; followed rituals & cared for temples; pleased the gods<br />Slaves: bottom of society; most captured in war; worked on public building projects; some were domestic servants<br />
  18. 18. Women & Children<br />Best place to be a woman<br />Had equal rights<br />Women<br />Care for children and home<br />Wove clothes<br />Worked in fields or workshops<br />Children:<br />Played w/ toys (dolls, animal figures, board games, etc.)<br />Rough games: balls mad of leather or reeds<br />Some went to school<br />Most learned parents jobs<br />Most married in their early teens<br />
  19. 19. Pets<br />Dogs<br />Used on hunting trips<br />Lapdogs<br />Cats<br />Favored pet<br />Even cat goddess, Bastet<br />
  20. 20. Expanding Knowledge<br />Came from priests studying the world to find ways to please the gods<br />Because of practical discoveries<br />
  21. 21. Writing<br />Hieroglyphs developed<br />Over time included more than 6,000 symbols<br />Papyrus developed<br />Easy to carry<br />
  22. 22. Math & Science<br />Developed 1st geometry<br />Surveyors used it to restore property lines<br />Used to design royal temples & monuments<br />Study of the sky allowed them to develop the 1st calendar<br />
  23. 23. Medicine<br />Prepared bodies for burial<br />Knowledge of the body helped w/ surgeries<br />Penicillin<br />Antibiotic that changed modern medicine<br />Willow bark<br />Similar to aspirin<br />
  24. 24. Life After Death<br />Positive view of life<br />Not just pharaoh or nobles could look forward to life after death<br />Afterlife: life believed to follow death<br />Views of what made for a happy afterlife varied<br />
  25. 25. Many Gods<br />Polytheists<br />Worshiped gods that were related to the afterlife & to parts of nature<br />Many gods were worshipped in certain areas only<br />
  26. 26. Making Mummies<br />Bodies embalmed before they were placed in tombs<br />All organs removed except the heart<br />Organs kept & treated<br />Body was washed & purified<br />Body packed and covered w/ natron<br />Body transformed into a mummy<br />Linen was wrapped around the mummy<br />Whole process took about 70 days<br />
  27. 27. Egyptian Tombs<br />Tombs held everyday objects any person might want or need<br />Food, drink, clothing, & furniture<br />Living relatives were suppose to bring fresh food & drink daily, as well as prayers for persons soul<br />
  28. 28. Section 3<br />The Pyramid Builders<br />
  29. 29. The Old Kingdom<br />King Narmer<br />Legend says he united Upper & Lower Egypt<br />Occurred in about 3100 B.C.<br />History divided into Old, Middle, & New Kingdom<br />Pyramids built during Old Kingdom<br />
  30. 30. The First Dynasties<br />Began when Egypt was unified<br />First three before Old Kingdom<br />Dynasty: a line of ruler from the same family<br />When king died one of his children took place as ruler<br />Succession: order in which members of a royal family inherit a throne<br />More than 30 dynasties ruled Egypt<br />
  31. 31. Pharaohs Rule<br />Pharaoh<br />King of Egypt<br />Ruled from capital city of Memphis<br />Though to be child of the gods & a god himself<br />Happy lives = pharaoh pleased gods<br />Suffering = pharaoh angered gods; new pharaoh usually took over<br />Religion & Government were not separate<br />Priests had a lot of power in government<br />
  32. 32. Kufu’s Great Pyramid<br />1st rulers<br />Buried in an underground tomb topped by mud bricks<br />Soon mud bricks replaced w/ small pyramids<br />King Djoser<br />Built step pyramid<br />
  33. 33. The Great Pyramid<br />King Kufu<br />Had great pyramid built<br />760 feet long 7 core was built from 2.3 million blocks of stone<br />Hard work to build pyramid<br />Blocks of stone cut using copper saws & chisels<br />Stones pulled up ramps & put in place<br />Farmers did heavy labor<br />Hauled stone during flood season<br />Took 20 years to build<br />20,000 Egyptians worked on it<br />City of Giza was built for pyramid workers & for the people who fed, clothed, & housed them<br />
  34. 34. Grave Robbers<br />Pyramids stopped being built<br />Pyramids drew attention to tombs; grave robbers broke into tombs to steal treasure buried there<br />Robbed Tomb<br />Believed if tomb was robbed the person buried there could not have a happy afterlife<br />New Kingdom<br />During this period pharaohs built secret tombs in the Valley of the Kings<br />Treasures, however, were stolen from almost every tomb<br />Only one not was that of Tutankhamen<br />Discovered in 1922<br />
  35. 35. Middle Kingdom<br />2160 B.C.<br />Central power of pharaohs began to break down<br />Disunity, civil war, & invasion plagued Egypt for 100 years<br />Mentuhotep II<br />2055 B.C. brought stability back to Egypt<br />Period known as Middle Kingdom<br />
  36. 36. Connect to Tradition<br />Amenemhet I<br />Founded 12th Dynasty in 1985 B.C.<br />Not a member of the royal line<br />Claimed ancient prophecy supported his claim to the throne<br />Prophecy of Neferti dated from the time of Snefru (4th Dynasty pharaoh)<br />Fortold of the coming of a king, Ameni, who would save Egypt from chaos<br />The Truth<br />Amenemhet had this story written to connect him to Snefru & show his kingship was meant to be<br />
  37. 37. Strength & Prosperity<br />Egypt extended boundaries with military during 12th Dynasty<br />Wanted to control Numbia’s resources<br />1800 B.C.<br />Reached 2nd cataract of the Nile<br />Built fortresses to control new territory<br />Agriculture<br />Boosted during Middle Kingdom<br />Vast swamps were drained in area known as Faiyum<br />150,000 acres created<br />Increased food production<br />The arts flourished, trade expanded, & pharaohs were stable & orderly during the thriving 12th Dynasty<br />
  38. 38. Decline & Overthrow<br />13th Dynasty<br />Weaker rule<br />Asiatics (people from Sinai Peninsula) immigrated to eastern Nile Delta<br />Hyksos invaded from Palestine & Syria<br />Conquered Lower Egypt w/ the help of better weapons & horse-drawn chariots<br />Eventually drove out after 100 years in Egypt<br />
  39. 39. Section 4<br />The New Kingdom & Kush<br />
  40. 40. A Woman Pharaoh<br />Period of most powerful rulers of Egypt<br />New capital city of Thebes created<br />Empire expanded<br />Queen Hatshepsut<br />1st woman pharaoh<br />Wife of pharaoh who died shortly after taking power<br />Ruled with stepson Thutmose III<br />Eventually declared herself only ruler<br />Wore a false beard reserved for pharaohs alone<br />
  41. 41. Trade Grows<br />Empire expanded through war<br />Hatshepsut<br />Used war as well as trade to expand empire<br />Sent traders to the Red Sea; ships brought back rare spices, scented wood, live monkeys, and potted trees to make incense<br />
  42. 42. Hatshepsut’s Legacy<br />Erected the obelisk<br />Four-sided shaft with a pyramid shaped top<br />Carved from blocks of red granite<br />Hieroglyphs recorded her great deeds<br />After ruling for 15 years Hatshepsut disappeared<br />Died peacefully or killed by Thutmose III ?<br />Thutmose III became pharaoh after her death<br />Tried to destroy all records of her reign<br />Damaged temple & tomb restored by archaelogists<br />
  43. 43. A Reforming Pharaoh<br />A New Belief<br />Akhenaton became pharaoh<br />Worshiped sun god Aton<br />Closed temples of other gods & promoted worship of one god (1st time in Egyptian history)<br />Priests who served other gods lost power; feared actions angered the old gods<br />New way of thinking affected art<br />Small steps towards realism began to appear<br />
  44. 44. Reform Ends<br />New religion did not last long<br />3 years after Akhenaton death relative Tutankhamen became pharaoh<br />Tut relied on advisors to help him rule<br />Convinced him to reject new religion & worship old gods<br />
  45. 45. A Powerful Pharaoh<br />Ramses II took throne in 1279 B.C.<br />Reigned for 66 years<br />Empire Builder<br />Ramses the Great wanted to make Egypt powerful through war<br />Territory extended into African kingdom of Nubia & to eastern rim of Mediterranean Sea where empire bordered the empire of the Hittites<br />Egyptian & Hittites were enemies<br />Ramses led army into battle against Hittites<br />No one won but Ramses claimed victory<br />Negotiated 1st known peace treaty<br />Ramses built city of Pi-Ramses<br />At Abu Simbel he built 4 66 foot statues of himself to guard his temple<br />Wanted statues to appear god like in statues<br />Ramses was over 90 years old at end of his reign<br />66 years of rule made Egypt’s gov’t stable & brought peace<br />
  46. 46. Egypt’s Decline<br />Egypt never the same after Ramses died<br />Gov’t became weak<br />Foreign rulers took over<br />Persians conquered Egypt in 525 B.C.<br />Alexander the Great took over in 332 B.C.<br />Began 300 years of Greek rule<br />
  47. 47. Nubia & the Kush Civilization<br />When central power broke down at end of New Kingdom separate ruling groups came to dominate Lower & Upper Egypt<br />Where not able to exert control in Nubia<br />A Nubian kingdom called Kush came to power<br />
  48. 48. Cultural Relations Between Egypt & Kush<br />Cultural exchanges took place during the times when Egypt controlled Nubia<br />Art influenced by Egyptian rule<br />Young Kushite nobles learned Egyptian language in Egypt<br />Adopted customs & clothing styles<br />Brought back royal rituals & hieroglyphic writing system<br />Egyptian pyramids also copied in Kush<br />
  49. 49. Kush Rises to Power<br />Kushite worshiped Amun<br />Power struggle took place in western delta & threatened Upper Egypt<br />Rules of Thebes, center of Amun worship, invited Kushite king Piye to defend them<br />Piye sailed up the Nile to Thebes where he was declared pharaoh<br />Continued into Lower Egypt defeating enemies along the way<br />After long war he ruled all of Egypt<br />
  50. 50. Political and Commercial Relations with Egypt<br />Piye united Egypt & Kush<br />Nubia est. own dynasty<br />Piye rule marked beginning of 25th Dynasty<br />Did not live in Egypt, lived in Kush capital city of Napata<br />Napata<br />Located at head of a road to move goods by one of Nile’s cataracts<br />Led to trade along the Nile<br />Became for the spread of Egyptian goods and culture & other Kush trading partners<br />
  51. 51. The Decline of Kush<br />704 B.C.<br />KushiteEgyptain forces battled Assyrians in Palestine<br />Supported ruler there who resisted Assyrian rule<br />Assyrians iron weapons better than Kush copper weapons<br />Assyrians won<br />Sides fought off and on for years<br />671 B.C.<br />Assyrians invaded & conquered Egypt<br />Ended Kushite rule in Egypt<br />