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  1. 1. Chapter 20<br />North Africa<br />
  2. 2. Physical Features<br />Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt<br />Stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea; Mediterranean Sea is off the northern coast; Sahara desert is to the south<br />
  3. 3. The Nile<br />World’s longest river<br />Flows northward through the eastern Sahara<br />Empties into the Mediterranean Sea<br />Blue Nile and White Nile merge to form the Nile<br />Water from Nile irrigates farmlands and forms a large river delta where it empties into the Mediterranean Sea<br />Flooding of the Nile has left silt (finely ground soil good for growing crops) in surrounding fields<br />Aswan High Dam was built to control flooding<br />Trapped water formed Lake Nasser in southern Egypt<br />Dam traps silt and now farmers must use fertilizers to enrich their fields<br />
  4. 4. The Sinai Peninsula and Suez Canal<br />Sinai Peninsula<br />East of the Nile<br />Barren, rocky mountains, and desert cover the peninsula<br />Suez Canal was built by the French in 1860s<br />It is a strategic waterway that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea<br />
  5. 5. The Sahara<br />Covers most of North Africa <br />Largest desert in the world<br />Few people live here<br />Some settlements near oasis<br />Windswept gravel plains and sand dunes cover much of desert<br />
  6. 6. Mountains<br />Some sand dunes reach 1,000 feet<br />Mountains<br />Ahagger Mountains located in central Sahara<br />Highest peak is 9,842 feet<br />Atlas Mountains located on northwestern side of Sahara<br />Rise to 13,671 feet<br />
  7. 7. Climate& Resources<br />3 climate types:<br />Desert Climate covers most of region; temperatures from mild to very hot (136 degrees F); low humidity causes temperatures to drop rapidly after sunset<br />Mediterranean Climate (A climate characterized by moist, mild winters and hot, dry summers):<br />Northern coast west of Egypt<br />Steppe Climate (found in the middle of continents and in the lee of high mountains. The mountains block moist air from oceans or tropical climates from reaching the steppe)<br />Between the Mediterranean climate and the Sahara<br />Resources:<br />Oil and gas most important<br />Iron ore and minerals to make fertilizers<br />coal<br />
  8. 8. Section 2<br />History & Culture<br />
  9. 9. history<br />Nile River home to world’s oldest civilizations<br />3200 B.C. Egyptian kingdom was formed along northern Nile<br />They also built pyramids, other monuments, and writing system<br />Later invaded by Greeks and Arabs<br />
  10. 10. The Ancient Egyptians<br />Built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs<br />Workers cut large blocks of stone far away and rolled them on logs to the Nile, moved on barges, and carved at building site<br />
  11. 11. Egyptian Writing<br />Developed hieroglyphics<br />Pictures and symbols stood for ideas or words<br />Carved into temples and monuments<br />Record words and achievements of pharaohs<br />
  12. 12. Greek and Arab Civilizations<br />Open to invaders due to long Mediterranean coastline<br />Greeks and Romans<br />Alexander the Great: founded city of Alexandria, Egypt<br />Became important seaport and trading center<br />Arab armies<br />Invaded; brought Arabic language & Islam<br />Cities became centers of learning, trade, and craft making<br />
  13. 13. European Control<br />1800s European countries began taking over region<br />1912 controlled all of North Africa<br />1922 Egypt gained limited independence<br />British kept military bases & control of the Suez Canal until 1956<br />Region a major battle ground during WWII<br />1950s Libya, Morocco, & Tunisia each gained independence; Algeria in 1962 after bitter war with France<br />Modern North Africa<br />After gaining independence, countries have tried to build stronger ties with Arab countries<br />
  14. 14. CultureLanguage & Religion<br />Common aspects of culture<br />Language, religion, foods, holidays, customs, & art and literature<br />People and Language<br />Egyptians, Berbers, & Bedouins (nomadic herders who travel throughout deserts of Egypt and Southwest Asia) make up nearly all of Egypt’s population<br />Arab & Berber ancestry<br />Berbers: an ethnic group who are native to North Africa and speak Berber language<br />French, Italian, & English still spoken in some areas<br />Religion<br />Most are Muslims<br />Pray 5 times a day<br />6% of Egyptians are Christians<br />
  15. 15. Food & Festivals<br />Grains, vegetables, fruits, & nuts are common<br />Couscous: made from wheat and looks like small pellets of pasta; steamed over boiling water or soup; served with vegetables or meat, butter, & olive oil<br />Fuul is a popular dish in Egypt<br />Made from fava beans mashed with olive oil, salt, pepper, garlic, & lemons<br />
  16. 16. Holidays<br />Birthday of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad<br />Marked with lights, parades, and special sweets of honey, nuts, & sugar<br />During holy month of Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and drink during the day<br />
  17. 17. Art & Literature<br />North Africa is know for its architecture, wood carving, & other crafts<br />Women weave textiles (carpets with geometric designs and bright colors)<br />Important writers and artists in this region<br />Egyptian poetry and other writings date back thousands of years<br />Naguib Mahfouz: 1st Arab writer to win Noble Prize in literature<br />Also has growing movie industry<br />Popular music based on singing and poetry is enjoyed by North Africans<br />
  18. 18. Section 3<br />North Africa Today<br />
  19. 19. Egypt<br />Most populous of North Africa’s countries<br />Gov’t face challenges<br />Most Egyptians are poor farmers<br />Limited resources & few jobs<br />Gov’t and Society<br />Republic gov’t<br />Influenced by Islamic law<br />Constitution; elected officials; power shared between president & prime minister<br />Debate over role of Islam in country<br />Some believe laws should be based on Islam law, some fear this would cause fewer personal freedoms; some violence has resulted<br />Little clean water and disease are common in larger cities<br />
  20. 20. Resources & Economy<br />Few resources<br />Farmland limited to Nile River valley & delta<br />Fertilizer must be used in soil (expensive)<br />Over watering has brought salt to the surface of the soil, which is bad for growing crops<br />Have caused increase in importing of foods<br />Had to import much of its food recently<br />Suez Canal is another sources of income; ships pay a toll to pass through it<br />Economy dependent on:<br />Agriculture, petroleum exports, and tourism<br />
  21. 21. Other Countries of North Africa<br />Western Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, & Morocco called Maghreb<br />Arabic for west<br />Mostly covered by Sahara<br />Cities & farmland along the coast<br />
  22. 22. Government & Economy<br />Conflict over role of Islam in society<br />Oil, mining, and tourism<br />Oil most important<br />Money from oil pays for schools, health care, other social programs, & military equipment<br />Large deposits of natural gas, iron ore, & lead as well<br />Agriculture is important<br />Wheat, other grains, olives, fruits, & nuts<br />Desert climate & poor soil limit farming<br />Food is generally imported<br />
  23. 23. The Countries Today<br />Share similar challenges<br />Violence: under dictator ships<br />Trying to strengthen trading relationships w/ U.S. & Europe<br />
  24. 24. Algeria<br />Violence between gov’t & Islamic groups killed thousands in1990s<br />Today<br />Trying to recover from violence & strengthen economy w/ exports<br />
  25. 25. Tunisia<br />More rights granted to women recently<br />Close economic relationships w/ Europe<br />
  26. 26. Morocco<br />Only North African country w/ little oil<br />Important producer and exporter of fertilizer<br />