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  • 1. Chapter 20
    North Africa
  • 2. Physical Features
    Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt
    Stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea; Mediterranean Sea is off the northern coast; Sahara desert is to the south
  • 3. The Nile
    World’s longest river
    Flows northward through the eastern Sahara
    Empties into the Mediterranean Sea
    Blue Nile and White Nile merge to form the Nile
    Water from Nile irrigates farmlands and forms a large river delta where it empties into the Mediterranean Sea
    Flooding of the Nile has left silt (finely ground soil good for growing crops) in surrounding fields
    Aswan High Dam was built to control flooding
    Trapped water formed Lake Nasser in southern Egypt
    Dam traps silt and now farmers must use fertilizers to enrich their fields
  • 4. The Sinai Peninsula and Suez Canal
    Sinai Peninsula
    East of the Nile
    Barren, rocky mountains, and desert cover the peninsula
    Suez Canal was built by the French in 1860s
    It is a strategic waterway that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea
  • 5. The Sahara
    Covers most of North Africa
    Largest desert in the world
    Few people live here
    Some settlements near oasis
    Windswept gravel plains and sand dunes cover much of desert
  • 6. Mountains
    Some sand dunes reach 1,000 feet
    Ahagger Mountains located in central Sahara
    Highest peak is 9,842 feet
    Atlas Mountains located on northwestern side of Sahara
    Rise to 13,671 feet
  • 7. Climate& Resources
    3 climate types:
    Desert Climate covers most of region; temperatures from mild to very hot (136 degrees F); low humidity causes temperatures to drop rapidly after sunset
    Mediterranean Climate (A climate characterized by moist, mild winters and hot, dry summers):
    Northern coast west of Egypt
    Steppe Climate (found in the middle of continents and in the lee of high mountains. The mountains block moist air from oceans or tropical climates from reaching the steppe)
    Between the Mediterranean climate and the Sahara
    Oil and gas most important
    Iron ore and minerals to make fertilizers
  • 8. Section 2
    History & Culture
  • 9. history
    Nile River home to world’s oldest civilizations
    3200 B.C. Egyptian kingdom was formed along northern Nile
    They also built pyramids, other monuments, and writing system
    Later invaded by Greeks and Arabs
  • 10. The Ancient Egyptians
    Built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs
    Workers cut large blocks of stone far away and rolled them on logs to the Nile, moved on barges, and carved at building site
  • 11. Egyptian Writing
    Developed hieroglyphics
    Pictures and symbols stood for ideas or words
    Carved into temples and monuments
    Record words and achievements of pharaohs
  • 12. Greek and Arab Civilizations
    Open to invaders due to long Mediterranean coastline
    Greeks and Romans
    Alexander the Great: founded city of Alexandria, Egypt
    Became important seaport and trading center
    Arab armies
    Invaded; brought Arabic language & Islam
    Cities became centers of learning, trade, and craft making
  • 13. European Control
    1800s European countries began taking over region
    1912 controlled all of North Africa
    1922 Egypt gained limited independence
    British kept military bases & control of the Suez Canal until 1956
    Region a major battle ground during WWII
    1950s Libya, Morocco, & Tunisia each gained independence; Algeria in 1962 after bitter war with France
    Modern North Africa
    After gaining independence, countries have tried to build stronger ties with Arab countries
  • 14. CultureLanguage & Religion
    Common aspects of culture
    Language, religion, foods, holidays, customs, & art and literature
    People and Language
    Egyptians, Berbers, & Bedouins (nomadic herders who travel throughout deserts of Egypt and Southwest Asia) make up nearly all of Egypt’s population
    Arab & Berber ancestry
    Berbers: an ethnic group who are native to North Africa and speak Berber language
    French, Italian, & English still spoken in some areas
    Most are Muslims
    Pray 5 times a day
    6% of Egyptians are Christians
  • 15. Food & Festivals
    Grains, vegetables, fruits, & nuts are common
    Couscous: made from wheat and looks like small pellets of pasta; steamed over boiling water or soup; served with vegetables or meat, butter, & olive oil
    Fuul is a popular dish in Egypt
    Made from fava beans mashed with olive oil, salt, pepper, garlic, & lemons
  • 16. Holidays
    Birthday of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad
    Marked with lights, parades, and special sweets of honey, nuts, & sugar
    During holy month of Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and drink during the day
  • 17. Art & Literature
    North Africa is know for its architecture, wood carving, & other crafts
    Women weave textiles (carpets with geometric designs and bright colors)
    Important writers and artists in this region
    Egyptian poetry and other writings date back thousands of years
    Naguib Mahfouz: 1st Arab writer to win Noble Prize in literature
    Also has growing movie industry
    Popular music based on singing and poetry is enjoyed by North Africans
  • 18. Section 3
    North Africa Today
  • 19. Egypt
    Most populous of North Africa’s countries
    Gov’t face challenges
    Most Egyptians are poor farmers
    Limited resources & few jobs
    Gov’t and Society
    Republic gov’t
    Influenced by Islamic law
    Constitution; elected officials; power shared between president & prime minister
    Debate over role of Islam in country
    Some believe laws should be based on Islam law, some fear this would cause fewer personal freedoms; some violence has resulted
    Little clean water and disease are common in larger cities
  • 20. Resources & Economy
    Few resources
    Farmland limited to Nile River valley & delta
    Fertilizer must be used in soil (expensive)
    Over watering has brought salt to the surface of the soil, which is bad for growing crops
    Have caused increase in importing of foods
    Had to import much of its food recently
    Suez Canal is another sources of income; ships pay a toll to pass through it
    Economy dependent on:
    Agriculture, petroleum exports, and tourism
  • 21. Other Countries of North Africa
    Western Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, & Morocco called Maghreb
    Arabic for west
    Mostly covered by Sahara
    Cities & farmland along the coast
  • 22. Government & Economy
    Conflict over role of Islam in society
    Oil, mining, and tourism
    Oil most important
    Money from oil pays for schools, health care, other social programs, & military equipment
    Large deposits of natural gas, iron ore, & lead as well
    Agriculture is important
    Wheat, other grains, olives, fruits, & nuts
    Desert climate & poor soil limit farming
    Food is generally imported
  • 23. The Countries Today
    Share similar challenges
    Violence: under dictator ships
    Trying to strengthen trading relationships w/ U.S. & Europe
  • 24. Algeria
    Violence between gov’t & Islamic groups killed thousands in1990s
    Trying to recover from violence & strengthen economy w/ exports
  • 25. Tunisia
    More rights granted to women recently
    Close economic relationships w/ Europe
  • 26. Morocco
    Only North African country w/ little oil
    Important producer and exporter of fertilizer