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  • 1.  Expansion of U.S. led to discovers of deposits of coal, iron, lead, & copper › Along with vast forests that could furnish lumber Land grants given by gov’t to railroads & other businessesses Tariffs were kept on imports › Helped American industry grow by making foreign goods more expensive
  • 2.  Technology spurred industrial growth as well › 1850s: Bessemer process was developed  Method of making steel stronger at lower costs  Steel quickly replaced iron as basic building material  Pittsburgh became nation’s steel making capital  Due to close coal mines & good transportation
  • 3.  1859 › Titusvill, PA  New source of energy found  1st oil strike  Methods to refine crude oil were developed  Made into lubricants for machines & later into gasoline  Oil became known as black gold
  • 4.  Railroads fueled industrial growth › Carried people & goods to the west & raw materials to the east › New services added (sleeping cars) & more tracks were laid down › Big lines soon consolidated & bought up smaller lines  Limited competition & kept prices high  Higher prices angered small farmers who relied on railroads to get their goods to market
  • 5.  Late 1800s › More patents issued than 10 years before Civil War › U.S. became known as a land of invention › Inventions made business & life easier
  • 6.  1876 › Thomas Edison created research lab in Menlo Park, NJ  Here they created the light bulb, the phonograph, the motion picture camera, & other useful devices 1882 › Edison opened 1st electrical power plant in New York City; other soon followed all over the country  Supplied electricity that lit homes, powered streetcars, & replaced steam engines & electric ones in factories
  • 7.  1866 telegraph speed increased › Cyrus Field laid an underwater telegraph cable from Europe › Made communication faster 1876 › Alexander Graham Bell sent the 1st telephone message to his assistant in another room › Patent for the telephone became the most valuable ever issued › By 1885 300,000 phones were sold › He later organized over 100 local companies into the giant American Telephone & Telegraphy Company
  • 8.  1868 › Christopher Sholes invented the type writer › Made writing letters much faster 1888 › George Eastman introduced a lightweight camera › Replaced heavy chemicals & equipment › Sold for a low price, ordinary people could purchase it Jan Matzeliger › African American; invented shoe sewing machine Granville Woods › African American; invented telegraph between moving trains
  • 9.  Late 1800s › European engineers developed automobile  Only 8,000 Americans had one › Era of freer & faster transportation followed Henry Ford › American manufacturer made automobile available to millions › Created a system to mass produce cars & made them available at a lower price › 1913 Ford introduced the assembly line  Production time was cut in half  Lower costs to build = lower prices for consumers  1917 4.5 million owned cars Cars changed the nation’s landscape › Roads spread across country & new cities were developed
  • 10.  1903 › Wilbur & Orville Wright tested a gas powered airplane @ Kitty Hawk, NC › Stayed in the air for 12 seconds & flew 120 feet › 1st flights attracted little interest  No use for a flying machine  Military did not starting using airplane until WWI 1920s › Airplane started to alter the world by making travel quicker & trade easier
  • 11.  Expansion led by entrepreneurs › Someone who sets up new businesses to make a profit › To raise more money, entrepreneurs adopted new ways of organizing business
  • 12.  Corporations › Businesses owned by many investors › Raise money by selling stock or shares › Stockholders get some of the profits & pick who runs the company  Limited risk of investors, only lost money they invested
  • 13.  Huge loans were given to corporations › Helped industry grow quickly › Made huge profits for bankers J. Pierpont Morgan › Became powerful force in American economy › Gained control of key industries (railroads & steel)  Bought stock in troubled corporations  Ran companies by eliminating competition & increasing profits
  • 14.  Congress did little to regulate business practices › Led to growth of “Big Business” › Entrepreneurs formed monopolies or companies that control most or all business in a particular industry
  • 15.  Poor Scottish immigrant that worked his way up in the railroad business Entered the steel industry › Soon controlled every step of making steel (owned iron mines, steel mills, railroads, & shipping lines)  1892 formed Carnegie Steel Company; produced more steel than all mills in England
  • 16.  Carnegie believed the rich had a duty to improve society › Called Gospel of Wealth › Donated millions to build libraries & charities › Set up a foundation that funded worthy causes after his death
  • 17.  Son of a New York peddler At 23 he invested in an oil refinery › Used profits to buy other oil companies › Didn’t hesitate to crush competitors 1882 Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Trust › Trust: group of corporations run by a single board of directors 1900 › Trusts dominated many of nation’s key industries
  • 18.  Big Business good or bad? Critics › Trusts threatened free enterprise (system in which privately owned businesses compete freely) › Business leaders were “robber barons” & used their money to influence politicians Others › Bold “captains of industry” › Built up economy & created jobs › Made goods & services affordable for American consumers
  • 19.  Supported trend toward trusts Survival of the fittest applied to human affairs Business leaders used to justify efforts to limit competition & harsh working conditions
  • 20.  Close relationships between owners & workers ended as industries grew Most new workers were immigrants, others were African Americans who left southern farms
  • 21.  Outnumbered men in most industries Many work in sweatshops (workshops with long hours & poor working conditions with low pay) Children had hazardous jobs as well Most children did not go to school & could not improve their lives
  • 22.  Lung diseases by textile workers & miners › From breathing fibers & dusts Burns & death by steelworkers Employers were not required to pay compensation for injuries › Social Darwinists: harsh conditions necessary to cut costs, increase production, & ensure survival of business
  • 23.  Triangle Shirtwaist Factory › Fire broke out › Within 15 minutes, upper stories were ablaze › Workers raced to exits to find them locked  Doors locked to keep workers at their jobs › Fire truck ladders were too short to reach the fire  Workers leaped to their deaths  150 people, mostly young women, died New York & other states approved safety
  • 24.  Factory workers made attempts to organize in early days of Industrial Revolution › Security guards were hired by companies to attack strikers or union organizers › Laws made it illegal to strike › Workers formed unions in secret  Sought safer working conditions, higher wages, & shorter hours
  • 25.  Philadelphia clothing workers › 1st was small & secret 1879 › Terence Powderly elected president of KOL  Held public rallies  Women, African Americans, immigrants, & unskilled workers were admitted  Became biggest union in the country
  • 26.  Violent labor disputes soon took place May 4th, 1886 › Strike took place in Haymarket Square in Chicago › Bomb exploded killing seven policemen › Police opened fire on the crowd › KOL lost their influence as a result of protest
  • 27.  1886 › Samuel Gompers formed new union in Columbus, OH  American Federation of Labor  Replaced KOL as leading union in the country AFL only admitted skilled workers › Costly & more difficult to train replacements › Believed in collective bargaining (unions negotiate with management for workers as a group) › Used strikes only when all else failed 1904 › AFL had more than a million members › Only included a fraction of American workers
  • 28.  Played leading roles in building unions Mary Harris Jones › Traveled the country campaigning for unions › Called attention to hard lives of children  Called Mother Jones by many people
  • 29.  1893 › Severe economic depression › Owners cut production, fired workers, & slashed wages  Violent strikes swept the country George Pullman › Cut workers pay by 25% & did not lower rent on company housing › Workers walked off their jobs › By July rail lines were shut down from coast to coast › President Grover Cleveland sent federal troops to Chicago to end the strike  Shots were fired into the crowd, killing 2 Public generally sided with owners in violent labor disputes › Striking unions were seen as radical or violent › By 1900 only 3% of American workers belonged to a union
  • 30.  Urbanization › Rapid growth of city populations 1890 › 1 in 3 Americans lived in a city › U.S. had cities the sizes of London & Paris Reasons for urbanization › Cities attracted industry & industry attracted people  Moved in search of jobs & excitement  Many were near waterways, provided easier transport of goods
  • 31.  Technology › Aided in growth of cities  Elevated trains, electric streetcar, & electric subway Public Transportation › Help create suburbs  Didn’t have to live in the cities to work there › Steel bridges also allowed suburbs to grow
  • 32.  Cities expanded upward › 1885 1st 10 story building constructed › 1900 skyscrapers reached 30 stories  Electric elevators allowed people to move up & down the building Cities grew outward from old downtown sections › Poor families crowded into these areas
  • 33.  Fire › Constant threat to tightly packed neighborhoods › 1871  Chicago fire leveled 3 square miles of downtown killing 300 people & leaving 18,000 homeless
  • 34.  Downtown slums › Poor living conditions › Tenements: buildings divided into many tiny apartments  No windows (usually), heat, or indoor plumbing  10 people lived in a single room & several families shared a single bathroom › Streets were littered w/ garbage › Diseases were common › Babies ran the greatest risk of death  In one Chicago slum, half of all babies died by one
  • 35.  1880s › Streetlights, fire stations, police departments, & sanitation stations were set up › Public health officials waged war on disease › Religious groups served the poor  Hospitals & clinics were set up for those who could not afford a doctor › Salvation Army was founded & gave food, clothing & shelter to the homeless
  • 36.  Jane Addams › 1889 opened Hull House (settlement house) in Chicago  A center offering help to the urban poor At settlement houses › Taught English to immigrants, sponsored music & sports for young people, & provided nurseries for children of working women Addams & other house leaders fought to outlaw child labor
  • 37.  Attractions available in the city › Electric lights, elevated railroads, & tall buildings Department stores › Developed to meet the needs of shoppers  Could buy everything they needed in one store (use to buy shirts in one, shoes in one, pants in one)  Goods were separated on different floors
  • 38.  Entertainment provided to people in cities › Museums, orchestras, art galleries, & theaters › Circuses drew large audiences 1850s › Frederick Law Olmsted planned Central Park in NY  Others cities built parks, zoos, & gardens Sports › Pro teams developed in cities after the Civil War › Baseball was the most popular  Cincinnati Red Stockings 1st pro team in 1869  7 years later 8 cities had teams & formed the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs w/ crowds of 5,000 people
  • 39.  1891 › James Naismith nailed two peach baskets to the walls of a gym in Springfield, MA › Basketball was the new game he created  Used a soccer ball Football also became popular › Very dangerous, no equipment › 1 season 44 college players died of injuries
  • 40.  1865-1915 › 25 million immigrants entered U.S. Reasons for Migration › Farmland in Europe was shrinking w/ increasing population & machines were replacing farmhands › Religious freedom › Political unrest › Job opportunities  Steamships & railroads (profited from immigration) sent agents to Asia & Europe advertising cheap land & plentiful jobs › Promise of freedom drew people from lands w/o democracy & liberty
  • 41.  Came from southern & eastern Europe (Italy, Poland, Russia, & Greece), Asia, & the Pacific Most were Catholic or Jewish Few understood English or experience living in a democracy or a city
  • 42.  Difficult decision to emigrate › Leave home, family, & friends to start a strange new life Coming to America › Miserable journey › Crammed below decks in steerage (large compartments that usually held cattle) › Diseases & rough seas sickened travelers
  • 43.  Most settled into cities after being admitted to U.S. › Near people from the same country  Helped people feel less isolated  Celebrated familiar holidays & cooked foods from homeland  Social groups were started (Sons of Italy)  Storefronts became places of worship
  • 44.  Immigrant Aid Societies › Helped cloth, house, & teach immigrants Assimilation › Immigrants kept traditional modes of worship, family life, & community › Worked hard to also assimilate (process of becoming part of another culture)  Children assimilated faster than parents; learned English faster, played baseball & dressed like native-born Americans  Pained parents to see children change, but dreamed
  • 45.  Labor of immigrants was essential to new American economy › Took whatever job they could find (steel mills, meatpacking plants, mines, garment sweatshops, built subways, skyscrapers, & bridges) › Chinese, Irish, & Mexican workers laid hundreds of miles of railroad track Hard work & saving allowed many to advance economically › Sometimes opened small businesses to serve their community
  • 46.  Individual Immigrants who contributed › Andrew Carnegie, Alexander Graham Bell, Samuel Goldwyn & Louis Mayer (started motion picture industry), Arturo Toscanini (famous orchestra conductor), Leo Baekeland (invented 1st plastic)
  • 47.  1840s › Increased immigration led to nativism  Nativists sought to preserve U.S. for native born Americans  Immigrants wouldn’t assimilate because their languages, religions, & customs were too different  Took away jobs from Americans  Immigrants were associated w/ violence, crime, & anarchy › West Coast  Chinese were drove from mining camps & cities & sometimes killed by angry mobs 1882 › Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act to exclude Chinese laborers from U.S.  1st law limiting immigration based on race; repealed in 1943
  • 48.  Before 1870 › ½ American children attended school › All age levels w/ one teacher Industry Growth › Nation needed educated workforce › States improved public schools @ all levels
  • 49.  1852 › Compulsory education law passed  Requirement that children attend school up to a certain point › Most states passed minimum of 10th grade › Schools for whites & black were built in the South  More reluctant to pass compulsory education laws 1918 › Every state required children to attend school Higher education also expanded › Colleges for men & women opened › Universities offering free or low-cost education opened
  • 50.  Elementary School › 8:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m. › Learned reading, writing, & arithmetic › Moral values & the Christian religion Education for Adults › Libraries were built  Offered not only books & magazines, but also speakers on important topics › 1874  Methodist minister opened summer bible school along Lake Chautauqua  Camp later opened to the public  Chautauqua Society later began & traveling lectures were sent out
  • 51.  Americans began to read more › Bestsellers were dime novels › Told rags-to-riches stories Realism › Writers who try to show life as it is › Emphasized the harsh side › Stephen Crane, Jack London, Kate Chopin, & Paul Laurence Dunbar
  • 52.  Mark Twain › Pen name of Samuel Clemens › Made stories realistic by capturing the speech patterns of southerners who lived & worked along the Mississippi River  Huckleberry Finn
  • 53.  Late 1800s › Newspapers grew dramatically 1900 › Half the newspapers in the world were printed in the U.S. Causes of newspaper boom › Spread of education  More could read, more newspapers & magazines were bought › Urbanization  News was shared face to face  People needed newspapers to stay informed
  • 54.  Joseph Pulitzer › Created 1st modern mass circulation newspaper › 1883  Bought New York World  Cut the price so more people could afford it  Added crowd pleasing features  Color comics (the Yellow Kid a sweet slum boy), crime & scandalous headlines  Critics called it yellow journalism

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