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  • 1. Chapter 4Ancient Egypt & Kush
  • 2. Section 1Gift of the Nile
  • 3. Geography of Ancient Egypt• Nile River has fed Egyptian civilization for over 5,000 years
  • 4. The Longest River• Nile River ▫ Longest river ▫ Has cataracts (waterfalls) ▫ Branches into a delta (area near a river’s mouth where the water deposits silt) ▫ Flows north to Mediterranean Sea ▫ Use to flood every summer causing silt to be deposited along Nile’s shores  Silt was fertile & good for growing crops
  • 5. Black Land, Red Land• Egyptians ▫ Lived in narrow bands of land on each side of the Nile  Called black land because of fertile soil  Red land was the desert region beyond the fertile region• Weather ▫ Always the same; 8 months sunny & hot, 4 months of winter were sunny but cooler• Deserts ▫ Acted out barrier to keep out enemies• Mediterranean Coast ▫ Swampy & lacked good harbors
  • 6. Land of Plenty• Ibises birds ▫ Flew up from the south ▫ Egyptians knew when these birds arrived annual flood waters would soon follow  When waters drained away crops were planted in fertile soil
  • 7. Agricultural Techniques• Developed ways to control yearly flood• Irrigation canals ▫ Dug to divert water to dry areas• Catch basins ▫ Areas where water would pool to be used at a later date• Removed earth was used to make embankments to protect areas from the flood• Shadoof ▫ Introduced in 1600 B.C. ▫ Used to move water between the Nile and a canal, a canal and a catch basin or a catch basin and a field
  • 8. Egyptian Crops• Variety of crops grown ▫ Wheat & barley were important  1st to grind wheat into flour & add yeast to make bread ▫ Vegetables were also grown ▫ Also grew materials for their clothes  1st to weave fibers from flax plants into linen
  • 9. Egyptian Houses• Used bricks made of mud & straw• Had narrow windows• Painted walls white to reflect the sun• Used sticks & palm branches for roofs• Woven reed mated covered the dirt floor• Wealthier people had fancier homes ▫ Tree-lined courtyards, pools with lotus blossoms & fish
  • 10. Geography Shapes Egyptian Life• Economy depended on farming• Also used natural resources for everyday need & developed economic activities
  • 11. Minin• Mined & quarried different metals & minerals ▫ Copper: used to make tools & weapons ▫ Iron: stronger metal choice ▫ Gold: prized by Egyptians ▫ White limestone: used to build important religious centers & artistic centers ▫ Turquoise & emeralds: precious stones used to make jewelry
  • 12. Fishing & Hunting• Rafts were made to go onto the Nile• Used nets & harpoons to catch fish• Hippopotamuses & crocodiles• Captured quail & nets ▫ Used boomerangs to knock down flying ducks and deese
  • 13. Transportation & Trade• Sails & oars were later added to reed boats ▫ Nile became a highway• Nile provided a surplus of food ▫ Began to trade with each other ▫ There was not money so people bartered
  • 14. Section 2Life in Ancient Egypt
  • 15. Work and Family Life• Surplus leads to economic expansion• Cities become centers of culture & power ▫ People learn different jobs  i.e. scribes
  • 16. Specialized Jobs• Complex civilizations led to new jobs ▫ Artisans: created stone or brick houses & temples; other made pottery, mats, furniture, clothing, sandals, or jewelry ▫ Traders: traded with other Africans; traded Egyptian products (scrolls, linen, gold & jewelry) for exotic woods, animal skins, & live beasts
  • 17. Rulers & Priests• Growth led to need for organization• Empire divided into 42 provinces• Army created for defense• Jobs: ▫ Priests: highest jobs; followed rituals & cared for temples; pleased the gods ▫ Slaves: bottom of society; most captured in war; worked on public building projects; some were domestic servants
  • 18. Women & Children• Best place to be a woman ▫ Had equal rights• Women ▫ Care for children and home ▫ Wove clothes ▫ Worked in fields or workshops• Children: ▫ Played w/ toys (dolls, animal figures, board games, etc.) ▫ Rough games: balls mad of leather or reeds ▫ Some went to school ▫ Most learned parents jobs ▫ Most married in their early teens
  • 19. Pets• Dogs ▫ Used on hunting trips ▫ Lapdogs• Cats ▫ Favored pet ▫ Even cat goddess, Bastet
  • 20. Expanding Knowledge• Came from priests studying the world to find ways to please the gods• Because of practical discoveries
  • 21. Writing• Hieroglyphs developed ▫ Over time included more than 6,000 symbols• Papyrus developed ▫ Easy to carry
  • 22. Math & Science• Developed 1st geometry ▫ Surveyors used it to restore property lines ▫ Used to design royal temples & monuments• Study of the sky allowed them to develop the 1st calendar
  • 23. Medicine• Prepared bodies for burial• Knowledge of the body helped w/ surgeries• Penicillin ▫ Antibiotic that changed modern medicine• Willow bark ▫ Similar to aspirin
  • 24. Life After Death• Positive view of life• Not just pharaoh or nobles could look forward to life after death ▫ Afterlife: life believed to follow death  Views of what made for a happy afterlife varied
  • 25. Many Gods• Polytheists• Worshiped gods that were related to the afterlife & to parts of nature• Many gods were worshipped in certain areas only
  • 26. Making Mummies• Bodies embalmed before they were placed in tombs ▫ All organs removed except the heart  Organs kept & treated ▫ Body was washed & purified ▫ Body packed and covered w/ natron  Body transformed into a mummy ▫ Linen was wrapped around the mummy ▫ Whole process took about 70 days
  • 27. Egyptian Tombs• Tombs held everyday objects any person might want or need ▫ Food, drink, clothing, & furniture  Living relatives were suppose to bring fresh food & drink daily, as well as prayers for persons soul
  • 28. Section 3The Pyramid Builders
  • 29. The Old Kingdom• King Narmer ▫ Legend says he united Upper & Lower Egypt ▫ Occurred in about 3100 B.C. ▫ History divided into Old, Middle, & New Kingdom ▫ Pyramids built during Old Kingdom
  • 30. The First Dynasties• Began when Egypt was unified• First three before Old Kingdom• Dynasty: a line of ruler from the same family ▫ When king died one of his children took place as ruler ▫ Succession: order in which members of a royal family inherit a throne• More than 30 dynasties ruled Egypt
  • 31. Pharaohs Rule• Pharaoh ▫ King of Egypt ▫ Ruled from capital city of Memphis ▫ Though to be child of the gods & a god himself ▫ Happy lives = pharaoh pleased gods ▫ Suffering = pharaoh angered gods; new pharaoh usually took over• Religion & Government were not separate ▫ Priests had a lot of power in government
  • 32. Kufu’s Great Pyramid• 1st rulers ▫ Buried in an underground tomb topped by mud bricks• Soon mud bricks replaced w/ small pyramids• King Djoser ▫ Built step pyramid
  • 33. The Great Pyramid• King Kufu ▫ Had great pyramid built  760 feet long 7 core was built from 2.3 million blocks of stone ▫ Hard work to build pyramid  Blocks of stone cut using copper saws & chisels  Stones pulled up ramps & put in place  Farmers did heavy labor  Hauled stone during flood season ▫ Took 20 years to build ▫ 20,000 Egyptians worked on it ▫ City of Giza was built for pyramid workers & for the people who fed, clothed, & housed them
  • 34. Grave Robbers• Pyramids stopped being built ▫ Pyramids drew attention to tombs; grave robbers broke into tombs to steal treasure buried there• Robbed Tomb ▫ Believed if tomb was robbed the person buried there could not have a happy afterlife• New Kingdom ▫ During this period pharaohs built secret tombs in the Valley of the Kings ▫ Treasures, however, were stolen from almost every tomb ▫ Only one not was that of Tutankhamen  Discovered in 1922
  • 35. Middle Kingdom• 2160 B.C. ▫ Central power of pharaohs began to break down ▫ Disunity, civil war, & invasion plagued Egypt for 100 years• Mentuhotep II ▫ 2055 B.C. brought stability back to Egypt ▫ Period known as Middle Kingdom
  • 36. Connect to Tradition• Amenemhet I ▫ Founded 12th Dynasty in 1985 B.C.  Not a member of the royal line  Claimed ancient prophecy supported his claim to the throne• Prophecy of Neferti dated from the time of Snefru (4th Dynasty pharaoh) ▫ Fortold of the coming of a king, Ameni, who would save Egypt from chaos• The Truth ▫ Amenemhet had this story written to connect him to Snefru & show his kingship was meant to be
  • 37. Strength & Prosperity• Egypt extended boundaries with military during 12th Dynasty ▫ Wanted to control Numbia’s resources• 1800 B.C. ▫ Reached 2nd cataract of the Nile ▫ Built fortresses to control new territory• Agriculture ▫ Boosted during Middle Kingdom ▫ Vast swamps were drained in area known as Faiyum  150,000 acres created  Increased food production• The arts flourished, trade expanded, & pharaohs were stable & orderly during the thriving 12th Dynasty
  • 38. Decline & Overthrow• 13th Dynasty ▫ Weaker rule ▫ Asiatics (people from Sinai Peninsula) immigrated to eastern Nile Delta ▫ Hyksos invaded from Palestine & Syria  Conquered Lower Egypt w/ the help of better weapons & horse-drawn chariots  Eventually drove out after 100 years in Egypt
  • 39. Section 4The New Kingdom & Kush
  • 40. A Woman Pharaoh• Period of most powerful rulers of Egypt• New capital city of Thebes created• Empire expanded• Queen Hatshepsut ▫ 1st woman pharaoh  Wife of pharaoh who died shortly after taking power  Ruled with stepson Thutmose III  Eventually declared herself only ruler  Wore a false beard reserved for pharaohs alone
  • 41. Trade Grows• Empire expanded through war• Hatshepsut ▫ Used war as well as trade to expand empire  Sent traders to the Red Sea; ships brought back rare spices, scented wood, live monkeys, and potted trees to make incense
  • 42. Hatshepsut’s Legacy• Erected the obelisk ▫ Four-sided shaft with a pyramid shaped top ▫ Carved from blocks of red granite ▫ Hieroglyphs recorded her great deeds• After ruling for 15 years Hatshepsut disappeared ▫ Died peacefully or killed by Thutmose III ?• Thutmose III became pharaoh after her death ▫ Tried to destroy all records of her reign  Damaged temple & tomb restored by archaelogists
  • 43. A Reforming Pharaoh• A New Belief ▫ Akhenaton became pharaoh  Worshiped sun god Aton  Closed temples of other gods & promoted worship of one god (1st time in Egyptian history)  Priests who served other gods lost power; feared actions angered the old gods  New way of thinking affected art  Small steps towards realism began to appear
  • 44. • Reform Ends ▫ New religion did not last long  3 years after Akhenaton death relative Tutankhamen became pharaoh  Tut relied on advisors to help him rule ▫ Convinced him to reject new religion & worship old gods
  • 45. A• Powerful throne in 1279 B.C. Ramses II took Pharaoh ▫ Reigned for 66 years • Empire Builder ▫ Ramses the Great wanted to make Egypt powerful through war  Territory extended into African kingdom of Nubia & to eastern rim of Mediterranean Sea where empire bordered the empire of the Hittites ▫ Egyptian & Hittites were enemies  Ramses led army into battle against Hittites  No one won but Ramses claimed victory  Negotiated 1st known peace treaty ▫ Ramses built city of Pi-Ramses ▫ At Abu Simbel he built 4 66 foot statues of himself to guard his temple  Wanted statues to appear god like in statues ▫ Ramses was over 90 years old at end of his reign  66 years of rule made Egypt’s gov’t stable & brought peace
  • 46. Egypt’s Decline• Egypt never the same after Ramses died• Gov’t became weak• Foreign rulers took over• Persians conquered Egypt in 525 B.C.• Alexander the Great took over in 332 B.C. ▫ Began 300 years of Greek rule
  • 47. Nubia & the Kush Civilization• When central power broke down at end of New Kingdom separate ruling groups came to dominate Lower & Upper Egypt ▫ Where not able to exert control in Nubia  A Nubian kingdom called Kush came to power
  • 48. Cultural Relations Between Egypt &Kush• Cultural exchanges took place during the times when Egypt controlled Nubia ▫ Art influenced by Egyptian rule ▫ Young Kushite nobles learned Egyptian language in Egypt  Adopted customs & clothing styles  Brought back royal rituals & hieroglyphic writing system  Egyptian pyramids also copied in Kush
  • 49. Kush Rises to Power• Kushite worshiped Amun ▫ Power struggle took place in western delta & threatened Upper Egypt ▫ Rules of Thebes, center of Amun worship, invited Kushite king Piye to defend them  Piye sailed up the Nile to Thebes where he was declared pharaoh  Continued into Lower Egypt defeating enemies along the way ▫ After long war he ruled all of Egypt
  • 50. Political and Commercial Relationswith Egypt• Piye united Egypt & Kush• Nubia est. own dynasty ▫ Piye rule marked beginning of 25th Dynasty  Did not live in Egypt, lived in Kush capital city of Napata• Napata ▫ Located at head of a road to move goods by one of Nile’s cataracts  Led to trade along the Nile  Became for the spread of Egyptian goods and culture & other Kush trading partners
  • 51. The Decline of Kush• 704 B.C. ▫ Kushite Egyptain forces battled Assyrians in Palestine  Supported ruler there who resisted Assyrian rule ▫ Assyrians iron weapons better than Kush copper weapons  Assyrians won ▫ Sides fought off and on for years• 671 B.C. ▫ Assyrians invaded & conquered Egypt  Ended Kushite rule in Egypt