Chapter 4Ancient Egypt & Kush
Section 1Gift of the Nile
Geography of Ancient Egypt• Nile River has fed Egyptian civilization for over  5,000 years
The Longest River• Nile River ▫ Longest river ▫ Has cataracts (waterfalls) ▫ Branches into a delta (area near a river’s mo...
Black Land, Red Land• Egyptians ▫ Lived in narrow bands of land on each side of the Nile    Called black land because of ...
Land of Plenty• Ibises birds  ▫ Flew up from the south  ▫ Egyptians knew when these birds arrived annual    flood waters w...
Agricultural Techniques• Developed ways to control yearly flood• Irrigation canals  ▫ Dug to divert water to dry areas• Ca...
Egyptian Crops• Variety of crops grown ▫ Wheat & barley were important    1st to grind wheat into flour & add yeast to ma...
Egyptian Houses•   Used bricks made of mud & straw•   Had narrow windows•   Painted walls white to reflect the sun•   Used...
Geography Shapes Egyptian Life• Economy depended on farming• Also used natural resources for everyday need &  developed ec...
Minin• Mined & quarried different metals & minerals ▫ Copper: used to make tools & weapons ▫ Iron: stronger metal choice ▫...
Fishing & Hunting•   Rafts were made to go onto the Nile•   Used nets & harpoons to catch fish•   Hippopotamuses & crocodi...
Transportation & Trade• Sails & oars were later added to reed boats ▫ Nile became a highway• Nile provided a surplus of fo...
Section 2Life in Ancient Egypt
Work and Family Life• Surplus leads to economic expansion• Cities become centers of culture & power ▫ People learn differe...
Specialized Jobs• Complex civilizations led to new jobs ▫ Artisans: created stone or brick houses & temples;   other made ...
Rulers & Priests•   Growth led to need for organization•   Empire divided into 42 provinces•   Army created for defense•  ...
Women & Children• Best place to be a woman  ▫ Had equal rights• Women  ▫ Care for children and home  ▫ Wove clothes  ▫ Wor...
Pets• Dogs ▫ Used on hunting trips ▫ Lapdogs• Cats ▫ Favored pet ▫ Even cat goddess, Bastet
Expanding Knowledge• Came from priests studying the world to find  ways to please the gods• Because of practical discoveries
Writing• Hieroglyphs developed ▫ Over time included more than 6,000 symbols• Papyrus developed ▫ Easy to carry
Math & Science• Developed 1st geometry ▫ Surveyors used it to restore property lines ▫ Used to design royal temples & monu...
Medicine• Prepared bodies for burial• Knowledge of the body helped w/ surgeries• Penicillin ▫ Antibiotic that changed mode...
Life After Death• Positive view of life• Not just pharaoh or nobles could look forward to  life after death ▫ Afterlife: l...
Many Gods• Polytheists• Worshiped gods that were related to the afterlife  & to parts of nature• Many gods were worshipped...
Making Mummies• Bodies embalmed before they were placed in  tombs ▫ All organs removed except the heart    Organs kept & ...
Egyptian Tombs• Tombs held everyday objects any person might  want or need ▫ Food, drink, clothing, & furniture    Living...
Section 3The Pyramid Builders
The Old Kingdom• King Narmer ▫   Legend says he united Upper & Lower Egypt ▫   Occurred in about 3100 B.C. ▫   History div...
The First Dynasties• Began when Egypt was unified• First three before Old Kingdom• Dynasty: a line of ruler from the same ...
Pharaohs Rule• Pharaoh ▫   King of Egypt ▫   Ruled from capital city of Memphis ▫   Though to be child of the gods & a god...
Kufu’s Great Pyramid• 1st rulers  ▫ Buried in an underground tomb topped by mud    bricks• Soon mud bricks replaced w/ sma...
The Great Pyramid• King Kufu ▫ Had great pyramid built    760 feet long 7 core was built from 2.3 million blocks of     s...
Grave Robbers• Pyramids stopped being built  ▫ Pyramids drew attention to tombs; grave robbers    broke into tombs to stea...
Middle Kingdom• 2160 B.C. ▫ Central power of pharaohs began to break down ▫ Disunity, civil war, & invasion plagued Egypt ...
Connect to Tradition• Amenemhet I  ▫ Founded 12th Dynasty in 1985 B.C.     Not a member of the royal line     Claimed an...
Strength & Prosperity• Egypt extended boundaries with military during 12th  Dynasty  ▫ Wanted to control Numbia’s resource...
Decline & Overthrow• 13th Dynasty ▫ Weaker rule ▫ Asiatics (people from Sinai Peninsula) immigrated   to eastern Nile Delt...
Section 4The New Kingdom & Kush
A Woman Pharaoh•   Period of most powerful rulers of Egypt•   New capital city of Thebes created•   Empire expanded•   Que...
Trade Grows• Empire expanded through war• Hatshepsut ▫ Used war as well as trade to expand empire    Sent traders to the ...
Hatshepsut’s Legacy• Erected the obelisk ▫ Four-sided shaft with a pyramid shaped top ▫ Carved from blocks of red granite ...
A Reforming Pharaoh• A New Belief ▫ Akhenaton became pharaoh    Worshiped sun god Aton      Closed temples of other gods...
• Reform Ends ▫ New religion did not last long    3 years after Akhenaton death relative Tutankhamen     became pharaoh  ...
A• Powerful throne in 1279 B.C.   Ramses II took Pharaoh   ▫ Reigned for 66 years • Empire Builder   ▫ Ramses the Great wa...
Egypt’s Decline•   Egypt never the same after Ramses died•   Gov’t became weak•   Foreign rulers took over•   Persians con...
Nubia & the Kush Civilization• When central power broke down at end of New  Kingdom separate ruling groups came to  domina...
Cultural Relations Between Egypt &Kush• Cultural exchanges took place during the times  when Egypt controlled Nubia ▫ Art ...
Kush Rises to Power• Kushite worshiped Amun ▫ Power struggle took place in western delta &   threatened Upper Egypt ▫ Rule...
Political and Commercial Relationswith Egypt• Piye united Egypt & Kush• Nubia est. own dynasty ▫ Piye rule marked beginnin...
The Decline of Kush• 704 B.C. ▫ Kushite Egyptain forces battled Assyrians in   Palestine    Supported ruler there who res...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Blog notes

299 views
222 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
299
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
24
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Blog notes

  1. 1. Chapter 4Ancient Egypt & Kush
  2. 2. Section 1Gift of the Nile
  3. 3. Geography of Ancient Egypt• Nile River has fed Egyptian civilization for over 5,000 years
  4. 4. The Longest River• Nile River ▫ Longest river ▫ Has cataracts (waterfalls) ▫ Branches into a delta (area near a river’s mouth where the water deposits silt) ▫ Flows north to Mediterranean Sea ▫ Use to flood every summer causing silt to be deposited along Nile’s shores  Silt was fertile & good for growing crops
  5. 5. Black Land, Red Land• Egyptians ▫ Lived in narrow bands of land on each side of the Nile  Called black land because of fertile soil  Red land was the desert region beyond the fertile region• Weather ▫ Always the same; 8 months sunny & hot, 4 months of winter were sunny but cooler• Deserts ▫ Acted out barrier to keep out enemies• Mediterranean Coast ▫ Swampy & lacked good harbors
  6. 6. Land of Plenty• Ibises birds ▫ Flew up from the south ▫ Egyptians knew when these birds arrived annual flood waters would soon follow  When waters drained away crops were planted in fertile soil
  7. 7. Agricultural Techniques• Developed ways to control yearly flood• Irrigation canals ▫ Dug to divert water to dry areas• Catch basins ▫ Areas where water would pool to be used at a later date• Removed earth was used to make embankments to protect areas from the flood• Shadoof ▫ Introduced in 1600 B.C. ▫ Used to move water between the Nile and a canal, a canal and a catch basin or a catch basin and a field
  8. 8. Egyptian Crops• Variety of crops grown ▫ Wheat & barley were important  1st to grind wheat into flour & add yeast to make bread ▫ Vegetables were also grown ▫ Also grew materials for their clothes  1st to weave fibers from flax plants into linen
  9. 9. Egyptian Houses• Used bricks made of mud & straw• Had narrow windows• Painted walls white to reflect the sun• Used sticks & palm branches for roofs• Woven reed mated covered the dirt floor• Wealthier people had fancier homes ▫ Tree-lined courtyards, pools with lotus blossoms & fish
  10. 10. Geography Shapes Egyptian Life• Economy depended on farming• Also used natural resources for everyday need & developed economic activities
  11. 11. Minin• Mined & quarried different metals & minerals ▫ Copper: used to make tools & weapons ▫ Iron: stronger metal choice ▫ Gold: prized by Egyptians ▫ White limestone: used to build important religious centers & artistic centers ▫ Turquoise & emeralds: precious stones used to make jewelry
  12. 12. Fishing & Hunting• Rafts were made to go onto the Nile• Used nets & harpoons to catch fish• Hippopotamuses & crocodiles• Captured quail & nets ▫ Used boomerangs to knock down flying ducks and deese
  13. 13. Transportation & Trade• Sails & oars were later added to reed boats ▫ Nile became a highway• Nile provided a surplus of food ▫ Began to trade with each other ▫ There was not money so people bartered
  14. 14. Section 2Life in Ancient Egypt
  15. 15. Work and Family Life• Surplus leads to economic expansion• Cities become centers of culture & power ▫ People learn different jobs  i.e. scribes
  16. 16. Specialized Jobs• Complex civilizations led to new jobs ▫ Artisans: created stone or brick houses & temples; other made pottery, mats, furniture, clothing, sandals, or jewelry ▫ Traders: traded with other Africans; traded Egyptian products (scrolls, linen, gold & jewelry) for exotic woods, animal skins, & live beasts
  17. 17. Rulers & Priests• Growth led to need for organization• Empire divided into 42 provinces• Army created for defense• Jobs: ▫ Priests: highest jobs; followed rituals & cared for temples; pleased the gods ▫ Slaves: bottom of society; most captured in war; worked on public building projects; some were domestic servants
  18. 18. Women & Children• Best place to be a woman ▫ Had equal rights• Women ▫ Care for children and home ▫ Wove clothes ▫ Worked in fields or workshops• Children: ▫ Played w/ toys (dolls, animal figures, board games, etc.) ▫ Rough games: balls mad of leather or reeds ▫ Some went to school ▫ Most learned parents jobs ▫ Most married in their early teens
  19. 19. Pets• Dogs ▫ Used on hunting trips ▫ Lapdogs• Cats ▫ Favored pet ▫ Even cat goddess, Bastet
  20. 20. Expanding Knowledge• Came from priests studying the world to find ways to please the gods• Because of practical discoveries
  21. 21. Writing• Hieroglyphs developed ▫ Over time included more than 6,000 symbols• Papyrus developed ▫ Easy to carry
  22. 22. Math & Science• Developed 1st geometry ▫ Surveyors used it to restore property lines ▫ Used to design royal temples & monuments• Study of the sky allowed them to develop the 1st calendar
  23. 23. Medicine• Prepared bodies for burial• Knowledge of the body helped w/ surgeries• Penicillin ▫ Antibiotic that changed modern medicine• Willow bark ▫ Similar to aspirin
  24. 24. Life After Death• Positive view of life• Not just pharaoh or nobles could look forward to life after death ▫ Afterlife: life believed to follow death  Views of what made for a happy afterlife varied
  25. 25. Many Gods• Polytheists• Worshiped gods that were related to the afterlife & to parts of nature• Many gods were worshipped in certain areas only
  26. 26. Making Mummies• Bodies embalmed before they were placed in tombs ▫ All organs removed except the heart  Organs kept & treated ▫ Body was washed & purified ▫ Body packed and covered w/ natron  Body transformed into a mummy ▫ Linen was wrapped around the mummy ▫ Whole process took about 70 days
  27. 27. Egyptian Tombs• Tombs held everyday objects any person might want or need ▫ Food, drink, clothing, & furniture  Living relatives were suppose to bring fresh food & drink daily, as well as prayers for persons soul
  28. 28. Section 3The Pyramid Builders
  29. 29. The Old Kingdom• King Narmer ▫ Legend says he united Upper & Lower Egypt ▫ Occurred in about 3100 B.C. ▫ History divided into Old, Middle, & New Kingdom ▫ Pyramids built during Old Kingdom
  30. 30. The First Dynasties• Began when Egypt was unified• First three before Old Kingdom• Dynasty: a line of ruler from the same family ▫ When king died one of his children took place as ruler ▫ Succession: order in which members of a royal family inherit a throne• More than 30 dynasties ruled Egypt
  31. 31. Pharaohs Rule• Pharaoh ▫ King of Egypt ▫ Ruled from capital city of Memphis ▫ Though to be child of the gods & a god himself ▫ Happy lives = pharaoh pleased gods ▫ Suffering = pharaoh angered gods; new pharaoh usually took over• Religion & Government were not separate ▫ Priests had a lot of power in government
  32. 32. Kufu’s Great Pyramid• 1st rulers ▫ Buried in an underground tomb topped by mud bricks• Soon mud bricks replaced w/ small pyramids• King Djoser ▫ Built step pyramid
  33. 33. The Great Pyramid• King Kufu ▫ Had great pyramid built  760 feet long 7 core was built from 2.3 million blocks of stone ▫ Hard work to build pyramid  Blocks of stone cut using copper saws & chisels  Stones pulled up ramps & put in place  Farmers did heavy labor  Hauled stone during flood season ▫ Took 20 years to build ▫ 20,000 Egyptians worked on it ▫ City of Giza was built for pyramid workers & for the people who fed, clothed, & housed them
  34. 34. Grave Robbers• Pyramids stopped being built ▫ Pyramids drew attention to tombs; grave robbers broke into tombs to steal treasure buried there• Robbed Tomb ▫ Believed if tomb was robbed the person buried there could not have a happy afterlife• New Kingdom ▫ During this period pharaohs built secret tombs in the Valley of the Kings ▫ Treasures, however, were stolen from almost every tomb ▫ Only one not was that of Tutankhamen  Discovered in 1922
  35. 35. Middle Kingdom• 2160 B.C. ▫ Central power of pharaohs began to break down ▫ Disunity, civil war, & invasion plagued Egypt for 100 years• Mentuhotep II ▫ 2055 B.C. brought stability back to Egypt ▫ Period known as Middle Kingdom
  36. 36. Connect to Tradition• Amenemhet I ▫ Founded 12th Dynasty in 1985 B.C.  Not a member of the royal line  Claimed ancient prophecy supported his claim to the throne• Prophecy of Neferti dated from the time of Snefru (4th Dynasty pharaoh) ▫ Fortold of the coming of a king, Ameni, who would save Egypt from chaos• The Truth ▫ Amenemhet had this story written to connect him to Snefru & show his kingship was meant to be
  37. 37. Strength & Prosperity• Egypt extended boundaries with military during 12th Dynasty ▫ Wanted to control Numbia’s resources• 1800 B.C. ▫ Reached 2nd cataract of the Nile ▫ Built fortresses to control new territory• Agriculture ▫ Boosted during Middle Kingdom ▫ Vast swamps were drained in area known as Faiyum  150,000 acres created  Increased food production• The arts flourished, trade expanded, & pharaohs were stable & orderly during the thriving 12th Dynasty
  38. 38. Decline & Overthrow• 13th Dynasty ▫ Weaker rule ▫ Asiatics (people from Sinai Peninsula) immigrated to eastern Nile Delta ▫ Hyksos invaded from Palestine & Syria  Conquered Lower Egypt w/ the help of better weapons & horse-drawn chariots  Eventually drove out after 100 years in Egypt
  39. 39. Section 4The New Kingdom & Kush
  40. 40. A Woman Pharaoh• Period of most powerful rulers of Egypt• New capital city of Thebes created• Empire expanded• Queen Hatshepsut ▫ 1st woman pharaoh  Wife of pharaoh who died shortly after taking power  Ruled with stepson Thutmose III  Eventually declared herself only ruler  Wore a false beard reserved for pharaohs alone
  41. 41. Trade Grows• Empire expanded through war• Hatshepsut ▫ Used war as well as trade to expand empire  Sent traders to the Red Sea; ships brought back rare spices, scented wood, live monkeys, and potted trees to make incense
  42. 42. Hatshepsut’s Legacy• Erected the obelisk ▫ Four-sided shaft with a pyramid shaped top ▫ Carved from blocks of red granite ▫ Hieroglyphs recorded her great deeds• After ruling for 15 years Hatshepsut disappeared ▫ Died peacefully or killed by Thutmose III ?• Thutmose III became pharaoh after her death ▫ Tried to destroy all records of her reign  Damaged temple & tomb restored by archaelogists
  43. 43. A Reforming Pharaoh• A New Belief ▫ Akhenaton became pharaoh  Worshiped sun god Aton  Closed temples of other gods & promoted worship of one god (1st time in Egyptian history)  Priests who served other gods lost power; feared actions angered the old gods  New way of thinking affected art  Small steps towards realism began to appear
  44. 44. • Reform Ends ▫ New religion did not last long  3 years after Akhenaton death relative Tutankhamen became pharaoh  Tut relied on advisors to help him rule ▫ Convinced him to reject new religion & worship old gods
  45. 45. A• Powerful throne in 1279 B.C. Ramses II took Pharaoh ▫ Reigned for 66 years • Empire Builder ▫ Ramses the Great wanted to make Egypt powerful through war  Territory extended into African kingdom of Nubia & to eastern rim of Mediterranean Sea where empire bordered the empire of the Hittites ▫ Egyptian & Hittites were enemies  Ramses led army into battle against Hittites  No one won but Ramses claimed victory  Negotiated 1st known peace treaty ▫ Ramses built city of Pi-Ramses ▫ At Abu Simbel he built 4 66 foot statues of himself to guard his temple  Wanted statues to appear god like in statues ▫ Ramses was over 90 years old at end of his reign  66 years of rule made Egypt’s gov’t stable & brought peace
  46. 46. Egypt’s Decline• Egypt never the same after Ramses died• Gov’t became weak• Foreign rulers took over• Persians conquered Egypt in 525 B.C.• Alexander the Great took over in 332 B.C. ▫ Began 300 years of Greek rule
  47. 47. Nubia & the Kush Civilization• When central power broke down at end of New Kingdom separate ruling groups came to dominate Lower & Upper Egypt ▫ Where not able to exert control in Nubia  A Nubian kingdom called Kush came to power
  48. 48. Cultural Relations Between Egypt &Kush• Cultural exchanges took place during the times when Egypt controlled Nubia ▫ Art influenced by Egyptian rule ▫ Young Kushite nobles learned Egyptian language in Egypt  Adopted customs & clothing styles  Brought back royal rituals & hieroglyphic writing system  Egyptian pyramids also copied in Kush
  49. 49. Kush Rises to Power• Kushite worshiped Amun ▫ Power struggle took place in western delta & threatened Upper Egypt ▫ Rules of Thebes, center of Amun worship, invited Kushite king Piye to defend them  Piye sailed up the Nile to Thebes where he was declared pharaoh  Continued into Lower Egypt defeating enemies along the way ▫ After long war he ruled all of Egypt
  50. 50. Political and Commercial Relationswith Egypt• Piye united Egypt & Kush• Nubia est. own dynasty ▫ Piye rule marked beginning of 25th Dynasty  Did not live in Egypt, lived in Kush capital city of Napata• Napata ▫ Located at head of a road to move goods by one of Nile’s cataracts  Led to trade along the Nile  Became for the spread of Egyptian goods and culture & other Kush trading partners
  51. 51. The Decline of Kush• 704 B.C. ▫ Kushite Egyptain forces battled Assyrians in Palestine  Supported ruler there who resisted Assyrian rule ▫ Assyrians iron weapons better than Kush copper weapons  Assyrians won ▫ Sides fought off and on for years• 671 B.C. ▫ Assyrians invaded & conquered Egypt  Ended Kushite rule in Egypt

×