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  1. 1. Chapter 3 The Hebrew Kingdoms
  2. 2. Section 1 The Origins of the Hebrews
  3. 3. The Hebrew People in Canaan <ul><li>Torah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First 5 books of Hebrew Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given to Hebrews by God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives early history, laws, and beliefs of the Hebrews </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. From Ur to Canaan <ul><li>Abraham chosen by God to be father of Hebrew people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in Ur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commanded by God to leave Ur & go to Canaan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed this land would belong to his descendants because it was promised by God </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hebrews thought of this as the Promised Land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1800 B.C. Abraham, his family and their herds made their way to Canaan </li></ul>
  5. 5. Judaism & Monotheism <ul><li>Hebrews were monotheists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in a single, all-powerful God </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descended from the religion of the ancient Hebrews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Named after the tribe of Judah (1 of 12 tribes descended from Abraham) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hebrews believed in a covenant (binding agreement) between God & Abraham </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God would protect Abraham & descendant & give them a homeland </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Canaan to Egypt and Back <ul><li>Hebrews became the Israelites </li></ul>
  7. 7. Moses lead the Israelites <ul><li>Famine in Canaan </li></ul><ul><li>Israelites went to Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At first given places of honor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later enslaved and forced to work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>God commanded Moses to lead Israelites out of Egypt (Exodus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wandered Sinai Desert for 40 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 commandments given to Moses </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. An Agreement Confirmed <ul><li>Giving of commandments reaffirmed covenant w/ God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God would protect them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People would obey commandments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Return to the Promised Land <ul><li>Joshua picked to lead Israelites back into Canaan </li></ul><ul><li>The 12 Tribes of Israel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Israelites organized into 12 tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed fighting force united by a goal of reclaiming their land from the cities’ rulers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took 200 years for Israelites to win back Canaan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers became farmers & herders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 tribes divided land </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Judges Lead the Israelites <ul><li>During 200 years of war there was no single leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice sought from judges (highly respected members of the community) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 st judges: military leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Later judges: gave advice on legal matters & settled conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Judges played key role in keeping 12 tribes united </li></ul>
  11. 11. Section 2 Kingdoms & Captivity
  12. 12. The Kingdom of Israel <ul><li>Monotheist views set them apart from others in region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traded with & mixed with but did not adapt their culture or beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes threatened by other groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judges re-united tribes to fight during these times </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Philistines <ul><li>Invaded & conquered Israelite territory in 1029 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Israelites united under 1 king to fight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many feared 1 king would have too much power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judge Samuel shared concerns, but selected 1 st two kings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Saul & David <ul><li>Saul </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respected military leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought Philistines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philistines loosened control over Israelites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>David </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chosen by Saul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drove out Philistines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won control of Jerusalem & made it his capital </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Solomon <ul><li>Son of David </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd king of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Strong leader </li></ul><ul><li>Israel became powerful nation under rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built trade ties & created new trade alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building projects: Temple of Jerusalem </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Kingdom Divides <ul><li>With threats of attack ending kingdom divided </li></ul><ul><li>Israel & Judah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solomon’s Temple required high taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Son Rehoboam kept high taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern tribes refused to pledge loyalty until taxes lightened & labor on building projects lightened </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tribes of Judah & Bejamin remained loyal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom split into Israel & Judah </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Assyrians & Babylonians Take the land <ul><li>Assyrians forces Israel & Judah to pay tribute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assyrians conquered Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel had weak army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire fell to Babylonians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judah’s leaders resisted & Solomon’s temple was destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000s of Jews taken captive to Babylon </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Jewish Exiles Return to Judah <ul><li>Jews exiles spent 50 years in Babylon (time known as Babylonian Captivity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is when Israelites became known as Jews </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Beliefs During the Babylonian Captivity <ul><li>During captivity Jews struggled to keep id </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kept religious laws, holy days, & worship; helped keep spirits during captivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews also looked forward to time of their own king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waited for Messiah or heir to throne of David, a savior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>During difficult times Jews turned to prophets or spiritual leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warned people who strayed from Jewish code of conduct </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Temple is rebuilt <ul><li>539 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persians conquered Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus set up policy of religious toleration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus freed Jews from captivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many returned to Judah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebuilt Jerusalem & the Temple of Solomon </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Spread of Judaism Section 3
  22. 22. <ul><li>Judah laid in the path of conquering armies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syrians & Romans controlled the country </li></ul></ul>Ruled by Foreigners
  23. 23. <ul><li>198 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syria seized control of Judah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek culture & beliefs introduced to Jewish people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some adopted beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other observed Jewish religious beliefs & practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Syrian ruler allowed Jews to practice their religion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>175 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Syrian ruler ordered Jews priests to make offerings to Greek gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jews refused & statues of Greek Gods were placed in Temple in Jerusalem & it was made a crime to observe Jewish laws or study the Torah </li></ul></ul></ul>Syria Controls Judah
  24. 24. <ul><li>Revolt started to drive Syrians out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Judah Maccabee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His small army faced Syrian army; Jews army knowledge of the country side gave them an advantage </li></ul></ul></ul>Rebels Fight Syria
  25. 25. <ul><li>63 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans conquered Juda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews were allowed to have Jewish kings & religious leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kings appointed by Rome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A.D. 66 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zealots (group of Jews) led rebellion against Roman authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Captured fortress of Masada </li></ul></ul></ul>Rome Conquers Judea
  26. 26. <ul><li>Roman General Vespasian was sent in to crush uprising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews feared Temple would be destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yohanan ben Zakkai (Jews teacher) asked Vespasian to set aside a place for Jewish scholars to study (this school kept alive the traditions of the Jews) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A.D. 69 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vespasian became emperor of Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Son Titus was put in charge of troops in Judea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stormed Jerusalem & destroyed the second temple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some Zealots held out in Masada & nearly 1,000 committed suicide rather than be captured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over the course of the Jews rebellion ½ a million Jews were killed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A.D. 132 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd attempt made to break away from Roman rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angered by Roman emperor Hadrian’s plans to rebulid Jerusalem as a Roman city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>850,000 Jews died in 3 years of fighting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion was put down & Jews were banned from Jerusalem </li></ul></ul></ul>Resistance to Roman Rule
  27. 27. <ul><li>Centuries of Jewish exile & movement followed destruction of second Temple & Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as Diaspora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Jews were sent to Rome as slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Jews fled to Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish political state did not exist for more than 1,800 years </li></ul></ul>The Diaspora
  28. 28. <ul><li>Even scattered many Jews stayed faithful to their religious beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued to practice concepts of righteousness & justice </li></ul></ul>Judaism- An Ongoing Faith
  29. 29. <ul><li>Jews feared they would lose their id </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabbis tried to prevent this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built places for learning, prayer, and worship wherever Jews settled (called synagogues) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People would gather to hear rabbis read the Torah and interpretations on the Torah </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jews maintained a similar way of worship wherever they were in the world </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews also held onto their faith by carefully following the laws and observing the customs of their religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created Jewish schools where children studied the Torah & learned prayers </li></ul></ul>Teachers and the Law