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  • This is listed on the page where your slides are compiled as being chapter 5, but when I click it takes me to the page with chapter 2 on it. I was wondering if you had the Chapter 5 slide for India somewhere else or if you could upload it again.
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  • 1. Chapter 2
    Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent
  • 2. Section 1
    The Geography of Ancient Mesopotamia
  • 3. Mesopotamia
    Region where Tigris & Euphrates Rivers flow
    Name means: “land between two rivers”
    Rivers: provide water and means of travel
  • 4. Fertile Soil
    Rain & melting snow caused river flooding
    Soil picked up from mts.
    Rivers overflowed their banks causing flooding and spreading of silt onto land (good for growing crops)
  • 5. An Arid Climate
    Less than 10” of rain w/ hot summers
    Arid Climate
    Ancient people could still grow crops due to rivers and fertile soil
    3500 B.C.
    Widespread farming villages across Mesopotamia
  • 6. Flood & Droughts
    Floods were unpredictable
    Extent of floods dependent on amount of rain & snow melt
    Too little rain & snow melt meant no flood
    Would cause drought & people would starve
  • 7. Irrigation
    6000 B.C.
    People took steps to control water supply
    Built earth walls to hold back water during floods
    Built canals to carry water to the fields
    Constant challenge to keep canals free from muddy silt
  • 8. A Land of Few Resources
    No forests for wood in Mesopotamia
    Little stone and minerals
    Reed & Brick Houses
    Used to build homes
    Crumbled easily in bad weather & had to be repaired often
    Brick Walls
    Area was invaded easily because it was not surrounded by mts. or other natural barriers
    Mesopotamia often conquered or stolen from
    Built brick walls around their towns & villages
    Sometimes 25 feet thick w/ guard towers and surrounded by open ditches or moats
  • 9. Trading for Resources
    Obtained stone, wood, copper, and tin through trade
    Traded for luxuries such as gold, ivory, ebony, and precious stones
    Offered grain, dates, and other farm products
    Could do this due to a surplus of crops
    Jobs such as trading, digging canals, building walls, and farming were done over and over
    Community leaders organized groups of people to do the work at the right time
  • 10. Section 2
    The First Civilizations
  • 11. The Rise of Civilization
    Villages grew larger & larger
    Eventually became cities
    Workers Organized to solve problems
    Building & cleaning irrigation canals
    Society & culture grew more complex
    Changes led to civilization
    1st 3300 B.C. in Sumer
  • 12. Sumerian City-States
    Cities were:
    Centers of trade, learning, & religion
    Most people lived in countryside
    Over time cities ruled surrounding lands & villages
    Called a city-state
    Sumer had 12 city-states
    Babylon, Kish, Nippur, and Ur
    Fertile land; farmers grew lots of food; supported larger populations
  • 13. A Sumerian City
    Narrow, winding streets; walls surrounded cities, w/ gates to let people in
    Homes built of reeds and mud or brick
    Series of rooms arranged around a courtyard
  • 14. The Ziggurat: Center of the City
    Largest & most important structure in city
    Center of temple complex
    Like a city hall (priests ran irrigation system & other important aspects of city life)
    People paid for services with grain and other items
    Priests controlled grain surplus & city-state’s wealth
  • 15. Priests Become Leaders
    Played political role & religious role
    People went to them to ask the gods for help
    Sumerians believed in polytheism
    Believed in many gods and goddesses
    4 main gods: gods of the sky, winds, hills, and fresh water
    Each city-state worshipped their own main god
    Believed gods could prevent bad things from happening
    Each god had many priests who worked to satisfy the gods & claimed to have influence with them
    Because of this people accepted priests as leaders
  • 16. New Leaders in Sumer
    3000 B.C.
    City-states were attacked because of their wealth
    Some from far off lands
    During these times a powerful man was asked to rule them and protect the city
    At 1st just in time of war; eventually full time
    New leaders
    Took over some of priests jobs
    Maintained canals, managed grain surplus, & acted as judges
    Eventually became a king of people
    2375 B.C.
    Sumer became a kingdom under one king
    Priests were still important for pleasing the gods and keeping evil away
  • 17. Sumerian Society
    Social Classes created
    King & priests were part of upper class
    Believed to have links to gods
    Landowners, gov’t officials, & rich merchants were also part of upper class
    Middle class
    All other free people (farmers, artisans, etc.)
    Lowest class
    Slaves: had some rights; could conduct business, borrow money, & buy freedom
  • 18. Role of Women
    Women were included in all social classes
    Some were priestesses, owned land, worked as merchants and artisans, and raised children
  • 19. Sumerian Scientific Developments
    Good at solving problems
    Invented and developed knowledge to better their lives
    Early Inventions:
    The plow: helped farmers
    The wheel: transport goods & used to make pottery faster
    Developed arithmetic to keep records of crops and trade goods
    Number system based on 60
  • 20. Written language
    Invented writing to meet business needs
    Merchants needed records of exchange
    Also wanted to label goods
    Marked outside of containers with pictographs
    1st showed actual objects
    Later stood for ideas & sounds
    Eventually stopped using pictures & used wedge-shaped symbols
    Wedge-shaped writing called cuneiform
    Writing System was complex
    600 different symbols; took years to learn; few people were able to read and write
    Scribes: people to specialized in writing
    Professional record keepers
    Writing later used to write about wars, floods, & reigns of kings
  • 21. Section 3
    Empires of the Fertile Crescent
  • 22. The First Empire Builders
    3000 to 2000 B.C.
    Kings fought over Sumer land
    More land = more wealth and power to king
    No single king was able to control all of Mesopotamia
  • 23. The Akkadian Empire
    2371 B.C. took control of region
    1st creator of 1st empire (Akkadian Empire)
    Eventually ruled lands from Persian Gulf through Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea
    Area known as Fertile Crescent: rich soil and water made area good for farming
    Important because they change the way people live
    May bring peace, encourage trade, include people from several cultures (ideas, technology, & customs)
  • 24. The Babylonian Empire & Hammurabi
    Akkadian Empire fell apart due to attacks from outside people
    Amorites invaded Sumer & set capital in Babylon
    Hammurabi ruled Empire
    Created a code of law to control the lands & that people had to follow
    He reviewed all existing laws and drew up a single law & displayed it on a huge pillar in Babylon
  • 25. Hammurabi Code
    Goal: justice to everyone in empire
    Id wrongdoings & their punishment
    Society should be run by the rule of law & apply to everyone
    People have right to know laws and the punishment for not following them
  • 26. Assyrians & Chaldeans
    Assyria took control of F.C.
    Built powerful army and set out to control neighboring lands
    A Powerful Empire
    Used latest inventions for war
    Iron swords, iron-tipped spears, battering rams, ladders,& dug tunnels
    Ruled during height of Assyrian Empire
    Assyrians governed land by appoint governor to rule each land
    Sent tribute to Assyrian emperor
    Pay for protection give by Assyrian army
    Fail to pay & army destroyed cities in governors land & people where exiled
  • 27. Assyria Crumbles
    Medes & Chaldeans joined forces to defeat Assyrians
    Burned capital of Nineveh to the ground
  • 28. A New Babylonian Empire
    Chaldeans ruled former Assyrian empire
    Capital was Babylon
    Nebuchadnezzar II was emperor
    Rebuilt city of Babylon
    Added artificial mts. covered with trees and plants; appeared to be floating gardens
    Chaldeans were cruel rulers
    Destroyed Hebrews’ sacred temple in Jerusalem
    Held thousands of Hebrews captive
  • 29. Persia Controls Southwest Asia
    Controlled east of F.C.
    Area bounded by mts. ranges
    Nomads from Central Asia
    Created tiny kingdoms & thrived through trade
    Grew in power and threatened for control
  • 30. Cyrus Founds the Persian Empire
    Cyrus took control of Medes Empire
    Vision of conquering lands around Persia & uniting to form one empire
    Conquered Anatolia, lands once controlled by Assyrians & Chaldeans
    Needed way to control lands filled w/ different people
    Set up a policy of toleration
    Allowed people to keep their customs & beliefs
    Worship their own gods, speak their language, & practice their own way of life
    Had to pay tribute though
    Fewer revolts & people lived in peace
  • 31. Darius Expands the Empire
    Successor of Cyrus
    Ruled through hard means
    After his death rebellions broke out
    Strong leader who came to power & dealt with rebellions
    Looked to expand boundaries
    Expanded as far east as India (2,800 miles)
    New policies for huge empire
    Empire divided into 20 provinces
    Each had local gov’t
    Satraps (governors) carried out orders in provinces and collected taxes
    Military commander for each satrap
    Had spies (king’s eyes and ears) to be sure satraps followed orders
  • 32. Darius also built a Royal Road to help unite the empire
    1,775 miles long
    Royal messages sent along the road
    Mail and military troops also used road
    Darius set up a code of law based on Hammurabi’s model & minted coins (promoted business and made it easy to pay taxes)
    Planned a march against Egyptian rebels
    But died before that happened
    Son Xerxes dealt with Egypt