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Type 2 Diabetes and You
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Type 2 Diabetes and You

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Learn about how Type II Diabetes affects your body. We discuss managing your Type II Diabetes through diet, exercise and healthy living. Also includes prevention and long term effects.

Learn about how Type II Diabetes affects your body. We discuss managing your Type II Diabetes through diet, exercise and healthy living. Also includes prevention and long term effects.

Published in Health & Medicine
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  • 1. © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression ─ All Rights Reserved
  • 2. Type II Diabetes strikes people of all ages, and early symptoms are subtle. In fact, about one out of three people with Type II Diabetes dont know they have it. This chronic condition thwarts the bodys ability to use the carbohydrates in food for energy. The result is elevated blood sugar. Over time, this excess sugar raises the risk for heart disease, loss of vision, nerve and organ damage, and other serious conditions.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 2
  • 3. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 3
  • 4. People with Type II Diabetes frequently have no symptoms. When symptoms do appear, one of the first may be an increase in thirst. This is often accompanied by additional problems, including dry mouth, increased appetite, frequent urination ─ sometimes as often as every hour -─ and unusual weight gain or loss.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 4
  • 5. As blood sugar levels become more abnormal, additional symptoms may include:  headaches,  blurred vision, and  fatigue.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 5
  • 6. In most cases, Type II Diabetes is not discovered until it takes a noticeable toll on one’s health. One red flag is troubling infections, such as:  Cuts or sores that are slow to heal.  Frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections.  Itchy skin, especially in the groin area.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 6
  • 7. Sexual dysfunction is common among people with diabetes. Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerve endings in the genitals, leading to a loss of feeling and making orgasm difficult. Other complications can include vaginal dryness and impotence in men.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 7
  • 8. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 8
  • 9. Some health habits and medical conditionsrelated to your lifestyle can increase the oddsof developing type II diabetes, including:  Smoking  A sedentary lifestyle  Being overweight, especially at the waist.  A diet high in red meat, processed meat, high-fat dairy products, and sweets  Abnormal cholesterol and blood fats, such as HDL or "good" cholesterol lower than 35 mg/dL or a triglyceride level over 250 mg/dLCategory: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 9
  • 10. Risk factors which are beyond your control include: Race or ethnicity: Hispanics, African Americans, Native Americans, and Asians have a higher than average risk. Family history of diabetes: Having a parent or sibling with diabetes boosts your risk. Age: Being 45 and older increases your risk of type II diabetes.The more risk factors you have, the greater your odds of developing Type II Diabetes. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 10
  • 11. Risk factors for women include: Having gestational diabetes when youre pregnant puts you at higher risk for developing Type II Diabetes later on. Women who give birth to a baby weighing over 9 pounds are also at risk. Having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome can also cause insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 11
  • 12. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 12
  • 13. In Type II Diabetes, the cells cannot absorbglucose properly. That means glucoselevels in the blood become elevated.If youve developed a condition calledinsulin resistance, the body makes excessinsulin, but the muscle, liver, and fat cellsdo not use or respond properly to theinsulin.With long-standing uncontrolledType IIDiabetes, the pancreas will reduce theamount of insulin produces. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 13
  • 14. In a healthy person, insulin helps turn food into energy ─ in an efficient manner. The stomach breaks down carbohydrates from food into sugars, including glucose. Glucose then enters the bloodstream, which stimulates the pancreas to release insulin in just the right amount. Insulin, a hormone, allows glucose to enter cells throughout the body, where it is used as fuel. Excess glucose is stored in the liver.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 14
  • 15. A simple blood test can diagnose diabetes. The A1C test gives a snapshot of your average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months. An A1C level of 6.5% or higher may indicate diabetes. With a fasting plasma glucose test, a result above 126 is considered diabetes. Your doctor may order an oral glucose challenge test with a two-hour blood test. In people with classic symptoms of diabetes, a random blood glucose level of greater than 200 can help diagnosis diabetes.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 15
  • 16. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 16
  • 17. Fortunately, controlling blood sugar levels by changing diet can also cut Fats, Oils, Sweets your risk of complications. People with Type II Diabetes should Dairy | Meat, Protein carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and Vegetables | Fruits protein intake, and reduce calories. Ask your doctor for a referral to a registered dietitian to help you with Breads, Grains, Starches healthy choices and an eating plan that will work for you.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 17
  • 18. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 18
  • 19. Routine exercise, such as strength trainingor walking, improves the bodys use ofinsulin and can lower blood sugar levels inpeople with type II diabetes. Being activealso helps reduce body fat, lower bloodpressure, and protect against heart disease.People with Type II Diabetes should try toget 30 minutes of moderate exercise onmost days of the week.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 19
  • 20. Strength Low- Stretching Walking Swimming Training Impact AerobicsCategory: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 20
  • 21. Stress can cause blood pressure to rise. It can also increase glucose levels in your blood as part of your "fight or flight" response. Or you may turn to food to cope with stress. All are bad when living with diabetes. Instead of letting stress take its toll, try practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, or visualization. Sometimes talking to a friend, family member, counselor, or member of the clergy can help. If youre still battling stress, reach out to your doctor.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 21
  • 22. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 22
  • 23. When people with Type II Diabetes areunable to control blood sugar sufficientlywith diet and exercise, medication maybe added. There are many types ofdiabetes pills available, and they areoften usedin combination. Some work bystimulating the pancreas to make moreinsulin, and others improvethe effectiveness of insulin, or block thedigestion of starches.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 23
  • 24. Your doctor may prescribe insulin early on in your treatment and in combination with pills. Insulin is also used in people with Type II Diabetes who develop "beta-cell failure." This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels. In this case, insulin therapy ─ injections or an insulin pump ─ must become part of the daily routine.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 24
  • 25. New drugs are available for people with Type II Diabetes. The following are some non-insulin injectable drugs.  Pramlintide (Symlin),  Exenatide (Byetta),  Liraglutide (Victoza) Whereas insulin pulls glucose into the cells, these medications cause the body to release insulin to control blood sugar levels.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 25
  • 26. Testing your blood glucose level will let you know how controlled your blood sugars are and if you need to take actions to change your treatment plan. How often and when you test will be based on how controlled your diabetes is, the type of therapy used to control your diabetes, and whether you are experiencing symptoms of fluctuating sugars.Talk with your doctor to find out how often you should use a glucose meter to check yourblood sugar. Some common testing times may be when waking up, before and after mealsand exercise, and at bedtime. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 26
  • 27. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 27
  • 28. The longer you have diabetes, the greater therisk of developing chronic kidney disease.Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure,accounting for 44% of new cases in 2008.Controlling risk factors such as uncontrolleddiabetes, high blood pressure, and highcholesterol reduces your risk of developingthis complication. Annual screening forkidney disease and medications, which slowthe development and progression of kidneydisease, are used to reduce your risk of kidneyfailure.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 28
  • 29. High blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye. This is known as diabetic retinopathy, and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss. It is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in people between the ages of 20 and 74.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 29
  • 30. Over time, uncontrolled diabetes and elevated blood sugars create a very real risk for nerve damage. Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain, and a pins and needles sensation ─ often in the fingers, hands, toes, or feet. The damage is not reversible, but treatments can help with the pain and numbness. Controlling your diabetes can help prevent further damage.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 30
  • 31. Diabetic nerve damage can make it difficult to feel your feet and detect injury. At the same time, hardening of the arteries results in poor blood flow to the feet. Foot sores and gangrene can occur, even from small injury. In severe cases, infections can go unchecked and result in an amputation.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 31
  • 32. Over time, untreated Type II Diabetes can damage many of the bodys systems. About two out of three people with diabetes die of heart disease. Having diabetes also puts you at a two to four times higher risk for stroke. People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, reducing blood flow and increasing risk of clots. This hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) raises the risk of heart attack and stroke.Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 32
  • 33. One of the most astonishing thingsabout Type II Diabetes is that such a Eat a healthy dietlife-altering condition is oftenpreventable. Exercise for 30 minutes, five daysTo lower your risk, follow these a weekguidelines for warding off heartdisease: Maintain a healthy weight.In people with pre-diabetes,lifestyle changes and medicationcan help prevent the progression to Talk to your doctor about beingType II Diabetes, screened for pre-diabetes. Category: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 33
  • 34. Thank you for visiting! Look for our other informational presentations. http://pain-and-depression.comCategory: Diabetes © 2012 Chronic Pain and Depression All Rights Reserved 34