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Article presentation ii

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  • 1. ETSGuidelines for the assessment of English language learners
    ESL 501
    Article Presentation
    Summer Schoenberg
  • 2. Key Terms
    Construct – the skill or proficiency an assessment is intended to measure
    Response – any type of performance to be evaluated as part of an assessment
    Task – a specific test item, topic, problem, question, prompt, or assignment
    Testing accommodation – any change to standardized testing conditions intended to make the test more fair and accessible for an individual or subgroup that does not change the construct being measured
  • 3. LEP
    Section 9101 of Title IX states that an LEP student:
    Is between the ages of 3 and 21
    Is enrolled or preparing to enroll in an elementary or secondary school
    Has one of these three profiles:
    Not born in the US or speaks a native language other than English
    Native American or Alaska native that comes from an environment where a language other than English has had a significant impact on his or her level of English language proficiency
    Is migratory, has a native language other than English, and comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant
  • 4. Has difficulties in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language that are so severe as to deny the individual one of the following:
    The ability to meet the state’s proficient level of achievement on state assessments described in section 1111(b)(3) of the BCLB Act
    The ability to successfully achieve in classrooms where the language of instruction is English
    The opportunity to participate fully in society
  • 5. Factors Influencing the Assessment of ELLs
    Different Linguistic backgrounds
    Varying levels of proficiency in English
    Varying levels of proficiency in native language
    Varying degrees of formal schooling in native language
    Varying degrees of formal schooling in English
    Varying degrees of exposure to standardized testing
    Varying degrees of acculturation to US mainstream
  • 6. Steps within the Planning Process
    Test purpose – must be clear in order for valid interpretations to be made on the basis of test scores
    Defining the Instruction – definition of what the test is intended to measure
    Developing the assessment Specifications – define the content and explain how it will be assessed
    The state will provide content and performance standards
    Tests with more items will supply more reliable scores
    ELLs should have multiple ways to show what they know
    Assessments should include a variety of item and response types
  • 7. The weight of a task is decided by the importance of the assessed task in relation to other tasks
    Assessment specifications will describe how tasks will be presented and how students are then expected to respond
    Diagrams, or tables will help ELLs to better demonstrate what they know
    Each educational agency should be able to provide information about the cultural backgrounds of its test taking population
    Test material should include references to major groups in the tested population and be aware of cultural diversity in readings and illustrations
  • 8. Developing Test Items and Scoring Criteria
    Test items should link content and skill that the item is supposed to measure
    All test items should maintain specificity in their match to content guidelines
    Material should be appropriate and accessible to examinees and that it only measures the intended construct
    Item writers should not assume that students have had any previous experience with given tasks
    The criteria for the evaluation should also be made clear to the student
  • 9. Language should be simplified in directions and given orally or in a language other than English if that will provide for the best understanding of ELLs
    Clear and accessible language should be used
    Colloquialisms and idiomatic expressions should be avoided
    Sentence structures should be kept simple
    The use of negatives should be avoided
    Simple context should be used in regards to fictional context
    Presentation should clear and consistent
    ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness should be applied
  • 10. External Reviews of Test Materials
    Reviews offer an effective technique to improve the quality of assessments
    Reviewers are often chosen for their knowledge of the ELL population and specific challenges they may face
    Materials must pass committee reviews and should include content experts and professionals who are familiar with issues regarding different ELL populations
  • 11. Some examples of questions that should be addressed by reviewers:
    Does each task match the purpose of the assessment and the assessment specifications?
    Are the formats of both the assessment and the response materials appropriate?
    Do the tasks and scoring criteria meet standards for fairness?
  • 12. Evaluating the Tasks Through Tryouts
    Useful information is provided through field testing items
    Data collected during these tryouts is used to:
    Inform content and fairness reviews of the items,
    Evaluate the clarity of instructions to examinees,
    Assess whether ELLs of different proficiency levels can understand the text of the items
  • 13. Types of Item Tryouts can include:
  • 14. One-on-One Interviews
    Used to directly obtain information from students about their thought processes while answering the items
    Also used to obtain information a bout their understanding of complex language
  • 15. Small-Scale Pilot Tests
    Used to figure out how items will work and how students will respond to items
  • 16. Large-Scale Pilot Tests
    Used to obtain reliable and valid statistics that can be used when selecting items for test forms
    Statistics based on these responses are generally accurate indicators
  • 17. Limitations of Item Try-outs
    Differences in
    Demographics
    Curriculum
    Culture
    * all three may make comparisons difficult
  • 18. Scoring
    Rubrics are constructed after determining which English language skills are required for answering a given item
    English language skills should play in determining a score
    Scorers must have an understanding of the language or presentation style examinees use and will receive training of how to interpret responses and the scoring rubric in a linguistically sensitive way
  • 19. Testing Accommodations for ELLs
    Equity and validity in assessment in the main purpose in providing examinees with testing accommodations
    The ETS Guidelines specifically state, “ELLs should have the same opportunity as students who have English as their first language to demonstrate their knowledge or skills in a content area”
  • 20. Accommodations for ELLscan include changes made to:
    Presentation of test materials
    Students’ responses to test items
    Scheduling
    Test setting
    Testing modifications are a bit different and can alter what the assessment measures
  • 21. Accommodations
    ELLs currently do not have any type of documentation (like an Individualized Education Plan) that identifies them as being eligible for accommodations
    However, if the proficiency level of an ELL is low enough to not produce a valid assessment, the student will receive accommodations
  • 22. Accommodations
    When students receive accommodations in the classroom, the same accommodations are allowed in testing situations, as long as they are appropriate
    Students may receive:
    Direct linguistic support which makes adjustments to the actual language of a test such as translated texts
    Indirect linguistic support which involves changes in the testing environment such as extended time
  • 23. Statistics are used to evaluate assessment and scoring
    Test Scores need to be reliable and valid
    Methods of investigating validity include
    Analysis of internal test structure
    Relations to other variables/constructs
    Test speededness
    These investigations are done by the ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness

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