Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
4 the larynx(anatomy)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

4 the larynx(anatomy)


Published on

Published in: Education

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. The Larynx (Anatomy and physiology) The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun –Yatsen University Aiyun jiang
  • 2. The Larynx
    • the meeting place of voice, swallow and airway.
    • The larynx is an arrangement of several cartilages held together by ligaments and muscles. It is connected above with the hypopharynx and below with the trachea.
    • Out side the cartilagous framework are the strap muscles of the neck.
    • Behind the larynx are the third,fourth, fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae.
  • 3.  
  • 4. The Larynx(Anatomy)
    • Framework
    • Cartilages (*cricoid)
    • (Joints)
    • Muscles(*abductor)
    • Membranes and ligaments
    • * Laryngeal cavity
    • Nerve
    • Blood supply
    • Lymphatic drainage
  • 5. cartilages
    • There are four cartilages:
    • thyroid, cricoid,
    • arytenoid, epiglottic.
    • (1)Thyroid:the largest and
    • most prominent .The
    • thyroid cartilage shields
    • the intrinsic part of the
    • larynx anteriorly and laterally.
    • It consists of two flat lamina which fused in the midline anteriorlly and open posteriorly. Extending upward from each lamina is the superior cornu , and extending downward is the inferior cornu. At its top, is the thyroid notch
  • 6. .
    • (2)Cricoid:The cricoid
    • looks like a signet
    • ring,with a broad ,
    • flat, posterior lamina.
    • * It is the only complete
    • ring of cartilage in the
    • larynx. And it differs
    • from all other tracheal rings that it forms a complete circle. So it is the only rigid area in the respiratory tree. It is very important in maintaining the normal lumen of respiratory tract
  • 7. .
    • (3)Arytenoid. are a
    • pair of small
    • pyramid-shape
    • cartilages . Perch
    • on top of the
    • lamina of cricoid
    • Each Arytenoids cartilage has two processes: a vocal process, to which the posterior end of vocal ligaments is attached, and a muscular process, to which the intrinsic laryngeal muscle is attached.
  • 8. .
    • (4)Epiglottic cartilage:a pear-shaped,curved plate of cartilages covered by mucosa on both surfaces.
    • The superior half is above the level of hyoid bone and projects freely into the oropharynx.
  • 9. joints
    • There are just two pair of joints in the larynx,the cricoarytenoid(CA) and cricothyroid(CT),all the internal adjustments of the vocal cords are medeated through them.
    • CA: Enables the vocal cords to drawn away from the midline(abduction) or brought to midline(adduction).
    • CT: It is important in pitch control and provides a mechanism for regulating the
    • lengthening of the vocal folds.
    • When these two cartilages are
    • pulled towards each other, the
    • vocal folds are lengthened, when
    • towards apart,the vocal folds are
    • shortened.
  • 10. .
  • 11. Muscles(1)
    • (1)Abductor Muscles:posterior cricoarytenoid muscle(PCA).
    • The major muscles responsible for the arytenoid rocking
    • and gliding apart, and for the abduction of the vocal
    • folds.
    • (2)Adductor muscles:
    • 1) interarytenoid muscles(IA): Their action is to pull the
    • upper tips of the arytenoids together.
    • 2)lateral cricoarytenoid muscles(LCA): adduct the
    • arytenoids and are also able to squeeze the anterior tips of
    • the vocalprocesses tightly in a condition of medial
    • compression.
  • 12. Muscles(2)
    • (3)Tensor Muscles: Cricothyroid muscles(CT). Originate
    • from the front of the cricoid cartilages and insert into
    • the thyroid cartilage.
    • *J ust remember PCA is responsible for abduction of VC , IA and LCA are responsible for adduction of VC,CT is responsible for tense of VC
  • 13. Membranes and Ligaments
    • (1)Conus elasticus:Its free edge thickens to form the vocal ligaments (which lie between the arytenoid and thyroid cartilages ) and False vocal folds ( which is above the true vocal folds)
    • (2)Thyrohyoid membrane:between the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage.
    • (3)Cricothyroid membrane:between the cricoid and thyroid cartilages.At this point the lumen of the airway is closest to the skin of the neck and therefore, most accessible in an emergency.
  • 14. .
  • 15. Laryngeal cavity
    • (1)supraglottis: the part of
    • the larynx above the level
    • of the vocal cords.
    • It consists of the epiglottis,
    • the aryepiglottic folds,
    • the ventricular band and
    • the laryngeal ventricle.
    • (2)glottis:the space between the vocal cords.
    • (3)subglottis: the part of the larynx below the level
    • of the vocal cords.
  • 16. .
  • 17. Blood supply
    • The superior thyroid artery through its branch, superior laryngeal artery
    • The inferior thyroid artery through its branch, inferior laryngeal artery
    • Provide most of the blood supply to the larynx
  • 18. .
  • 19. Nerve supply
    • the entire laryngeal nerve supply
    • is from the vagus
    • (1)recurrent laryngeal nerves
    • provide the motor supply
    • to the intrinsic muscles of
    • the larynx and the sensory
    • innervation to the subglottis.
    • (2)Superior laryngeal
    • nerve are the motor
    • nerves of the cricothyroid
    • muscles and provide the sensory supply to the supraglottis and glottis.
    • .
  • 20. Lymphati drainage
    • (1)the supraglottis:is richly supplied with lymphatic vessels which drain into the ipsilateral midjugular lymph nodes.
    • (2)the vocal cords have few lymphatic spaces and poor lymphatic drainage.
    • (3)the subglottis is richly supplied with lymphatic vessels which empty into the paratracheal nodes and the Delphian node.
    • so carcinoma metastasis of the supraglottis may occur in early stage of the tumor
    • carcinoma metastasis of the glottis is not common if the tumor doesn’t involve the supraglottis and subglottis
  • 21. Chracters of larynx in children
    • 1 、 location: high 2 、 cartilages:soft 3 、 pultaceous connect tissue , richly supplied
    • with lymphatic vessels
    • 4 、 lumen(space): narrow 5 、 curved epiglottis 6 、 short VC, high pitch
  • 22. Physiology of the Larynx
    • 1 Protection:To protect the lower respiratory passages(cough reflex, sphincteric action—three levels)
    • 2 Respiration: To conduct air to and from the lungs
    • 3 phonation: To function as a vocal organ
    • 4 To fix the chest in heavy physical effort