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Barium X-ray : As the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum are soft tissue structures, they are not usually seen on a plain X-ray. By using barium to coat the inner lining of these areas, the Radiologist can see them clearly on the X-ray screen; and can watch the way the organs function during this study.
Barium is a chalky substance that can be suspended in water and is visible on X-rays
The cricoid cartilage, or simply cricoid ("ring-shaped"), is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea. It is very important to support the airway.
The Anatomy of the Trachea The trachea is a tubular structure which is located at the front of the neck Begins : the level of the C6 ( the thyroid cartilage). Bifurcating: into right and left main bronchi (the level of the T5 ) Length: 10 to 15cm Diameter :16-18 mm
The Anatomy of the Trachea Structure of the Trachea wall Anterior wall: cartilaginous rings (16 to 20 C-shaped ) Posterior wall: fibromuscular sheet (ligaments) Posterior : esophagus
Humidifies, filters and warms air before it enters the lungs
The tracheostomy bypasses these mechanisms so that the air is cooler, dryer, and not as clean. In response to these changes the body produces more mucous, which may require humidification to aid expulsion.
The neck contains important communications between the head and the body, including air and food passages, major blood vessels and nerves, and the spinal cord. Many vital structures are compressed into a narrow area which is engineered for maximal mobility to permit variation in head position relative to body.
Biopsy should be considered for neck masses with progressive growth, location within the supraclavicular fossa, or size greater than 3 cm.
Biopsy also should be considered if a patient with a neck mass develops symptoms associated with lymphoma. Frozen-section examination of the mass followed by neck dissection should be performed if the mass proves to be metastatic carcinoma.
The risk of having a malignant neck mass becomes greater with increasing age.
Lymph node groups with the most likely sites of the primary lesion. Diagnosis (metastatic lymph node)
Many inflammatory lymph nodes resolve with no treatment, although close observation is required.
A single course of therapy with a broad-spectrum antibiotic and reassessment in one to two weeks is a reasonable treatment choice when a patient with a neck mass has signs and symptoms of an inflammatory process (i.e., fever, painful mass, erythema) or a history of recent infection
The neck dissection is a surgical procedure for control of neck lymph node metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma ( SCC ) of the head and neck.
The aim of the procedure is to remove lymph nodes from one side of the neck into which cancer cells may have migrated.
The metastases may originate from SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the oral cavity, tongue, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, as well as the thyroid, parotid and posterior scalp.