GPRSGENERAL RADIO PACKETSERVICE PERSENTATION BYSUMIT SINGHB.E 2nd YEAR CSE
General Packet Radio Service is a radio technology for GSM networks that adds packet-switching protocols, shorter set-up time for ISP(Internet service protocol) connections, and offer the possibility to charge by amount of data sent rather than connect time. GPRS promises to support flexible data transmission rates typically up to 20 or 30 Kbps (with a theoretical maximum of 171.2 Kbps), as well as continuous connection to the network. A 2.5G enhancement to GSM, GPRS is the most significant step towards 3G, needing similar business model, and service and network architectures.
Introduction (1/3) The General Packet Radio System (GPRS) is a new service that provides actual packet radio access for mobile Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and time-division multiple access (TDMA) users. The main benefits of GPRS are that it reserves radio resources only when there is data to send and it reduces reliance on traditional circuit-switched network elements. The increased functionality of GPRS will decrease the incremental cost to provide data services, an occurrence that will, in turn, increase the penetration of data services among consumer and business users.
Introduction (2/3) In addition, GPRS will allow improved quality of data services as measured in terms of reliability, response time, and features supported. The unique applications that will be developed with GPRS will appeal to a broad base of mobile subscribers and allow operators to differentiate their services. These new services will increase capacity requirements on the radio and base-station subsystem resources. One method GPRS uses to alleviate the capacity impacts is sharing the same radio resource among all mobile stations in a cell, providing effective use of the scarce resources.
Introduction (3/3) In addition to providing new services for todays mobile user, GPRS is important as a migration step toward third- generation (3G) networks. GPRS will allow network operators to implement an IP- based core architecture for data applications, which will continue to be used and expanded upon for 3G services for integrated voice and data applications. In addition, GPRS will prove a testing and development area for new services and applications, which will also be used in the development of 3G services.
How GPRS works (1/2) To lessen the impact of the delay in implementing 3rd generation wireless systems, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is being introduced as an intermediate step to efficiently transport high-speed data over the current Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) and TDMA-based wireless network infrastructures. GPRS signaling and data traffic do not travel through the GSM network. The GSM network is only used for table look up, in the Location Register data bases, to obtain GPRS user profile data. GPRS uses 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots which can be shared by multiple users.
How GPRS works (2/2) It packetizes the user data and transports it over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone. From there, it interfaces to other Public Data Networks (PDNs), including the Internet. As a result, GPRS has the ability to offer speeds of 14,400 bps to 115,000 bps, which allow for comfortable Internet access using wireless devices. Because GPRS has a range of supported bandwidths, it allows for short "bursty" traffic, such as e-mail and web browsing, as well as large volumes of data. In addition, because GPRS supports Quality of Service, service providers can offer selective services to users. Finally, because GPRS has fast connection setup, the user has the perception of being "always on" for continuous operation.
Network Elements in GPRS Intra-PLMN backbone: an IP based network inter- connecting all the GPRS elements Charging Gateway (CG) Legal Interception Gateway (LIG) Domain Name System (DNS) Firewalls: Used for security reasons wherever a connection to an external network is required.
GPRS Network Internet GSM Network With GPRS CapabilityMS X.25 Network
GPRS ArchitecturePSTN MSC Intranet GPRS GGSN BSC PCU Network SGSN GGSNMS Internet Radius Charging WAP Server Gateway Server Mediation Billing
GPRS Components To ensure the interworking of the PLMN, PDN and the wireless networks (GSM or TDMA), two new major components are required. These components are called GPRS Support Nodes. There are two types of GPRS Support Nodes 1. Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) 2. Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
Serving GPRS Support Node(SGSN) Service access point for the mobile station Main functions Mobility management Registration Authentication
Serving GPRS Support Node(SGSN) Interacts with the mobile for packet data flow And related functions like compression and ciphering Protocols like SNDCP(Sub-network dependent convergence protocol) and LLC(logical link control) GTP(Gateway tunneling protocol for GTP tunneling to other support nodes
Serving GPRS Support Node(SGSN) An SGSN delivers packets to mobile stations within its service area. SGSNs send queries to Home Location Registers (HLRs) to obtain profile data of GPRS subscribers. SGSNs detect new GPRS mobile stations in a given service area; and, finally, SGSNs process registration of new mobile subscribers and keep a record of their location inside a given service area.
Gateway GPRS Support Node(GGSN) GGSN connected to SGSN on one side and to outside world external networks such as Internet and X.25 A gateway it functions as a wall for these external networks to protect the GPRS network Data form external network, after verification of address forwarded to the SGSN Routes packets received from the mobile to the correct network. Acts as a router
Gateway GPRS Support Node(GGSN) GGSNs are used as interfaces to external PDNs. GGSNs maintain routing information that is necessary to tunnel the Protocol Data Units (PDUs) to the SGSNs that service particular mobile stations. Other functions include network and subscriber screening and address mapping. One or more GGSNs may support multiple SGSNs.
GPRS Network Enhancements In addition to the new GPRS components, existing GSM and TDMA network elements must also be enhanced in order to support GPRS. The following two pieces of equipment must be enhanced: Base Station System (BSS): must be enhanced to recognize and send user data to the SGSN that is serving the area. Home Location Register (HLR): must be enhanced to register GPRS user profiles and respond to queries originating from SGSNs regarding these profiles.
Border Gateway Interconnects different GPRS operators’ backbones Facilitates GPRS roaming Uses standard IP router technology
Legal Interception Gateway For use of the legal authorities Subscriber data and signaling can be intercepted
Domain Name System Translation of the IP host names to IP addresses SGSN uses DNS to get GGSN and SGSN IP addresses
Packet Control Unit New card implanted in the BSC to manage GPRS traffic Limitation in terms of the number of transceivers and base stations it can handle
GPRS Mobile Station Able to handle packet data Three classes Class A: connected to both GSM and GPRS networks and can use them simultaneously Class B: Connected to both the networks, but can use only one at a time Class C: can be connected to either one of the networks
Interfaces in the GPRSnetwork New interfaces. All of them known as G interfaces Gb: BSS and SGSN carries traffic and signaling information between BSS of GSM and GPRS Gn: SGSN and SGSN/GGSN of same network. Data and signaling of for intra-system functioning
Interfaces in the GPRSnetwork Gd: SMS-GSMC/SMS-IWMSC and SGSN for better use of SMS services Gp: between SGSN and GGSN of other public land mobile networks. Interface between two GPRS networks. Security and routing
Interfaces in the GPRSnetwork Gs: SGSN and MSC/VLR. Location data handling and paging requests through the MSC. Gr: SGSN and HLR. Subscriber data can be accessed by the SGSN from the HLR
Interfaces in the GPRSnetwork Gf: SGSN and EIR. Equipment information in EIR to SGSN Gi: GGSN and external networks. Not a standard interface. Depends on the type of network that is being connected to the GPRS network
Logical channels PBCCH: Packet Broadcast Control Channel(DL) Broadcast system information specific to packet data PCCCH; Packet Common Control Channel Contains logical channels for common control signaling
Logical channels PDTCH: Packet Data Traffic Channel Channel temporarily used for data transfer PACCH: Packet Associated Control Channel Used for signaling information transfer for a given mobile
Logical channels PAGCH: Packet Access Grant Channel(DL) Notifies that mobile about resource assignment before actual packet transfer PNCH: Packet Notification Channel(DL) Used for sending information to multiple mobile stations
Logical channels PPCH: Packet Paging Channel(DL) Pages a mobile station before packet transfer begins PRACH: Packet random Access Channel(UL) Used by the mobile station for initialization of the uplink packet transfer
Coding SchemesCoding schemes Data Rates Data Rates Kbps Kbps (excl header)CS1( half rate 9.05 8covolutioncoding for FEC)CS2 13.4 12CS3 15.6 14.4CS4 ( no 21.4 20coding)
Radio Resource and mobilityManagement GSM Idle Dedicated GPRS Idle Standby Ready
Key drivers for operators Increased revenues by moving in to the mobile data market Gain new subscribers requiring the data services without investing in to PCs to gain internet access Retain current subscribers by offering new services Reduce costs due to efficient use of network resources Easier migration to 3G
Evolution from GSM to 3G 3G EDGE GPRS 2.5G HSCSD GSM 2G
EDGEEnhanced Data for GSMEvolution Next step towards 3G for GSM/GPRS Networks Increased data rate up to 384 Kbps by bundling up to 8 channels with 48 Kbps/channel GPRS is based on modulation technique known as GMSK EDGE is based on a new modulation scheme that allows a much higher bit rate across the air-interface called 8PSK modulation. Since 8PSK will be used for UMTS, network operators will be required to introduce this at some stage before migration to 3G.
Wireless data communicationKey Technologies - GPRS Higher data transfer speeds Multislot MS and coding schemes Packet switched technology Radio interface (resource sharing) Core Network (IP based) Reused radio network (BTS and BSC) New core network and nodes (SGSN/GGSN) Always connected - always on-line
Connecting GPRS Nodes SMS Corporate HLR GW-MSC MSC/VLR Gr External BTS Gs Gd BSC IP network SS7 BTS Gi Network IP Network Router Frame (shared backbone) Gn BTS Relay Gb BSC Network Gi Firewall Network Firewall Router BTS External Firewall IP network Network Management and GPRS Services LAN Gp Other PLMNs ISP/Internet
Serving GPRS Support Node – SGSN Ciphering, authentication Mobility management Session management Logical link management towards the MS Charging data Packet routing & transfer Connection - HLR, MSC, BSC and SMS-MSC IP Network Gi (IP) SGSN Gn GGSN MS
Gateway GPRS Support Node – GGSN External interfaces (Mobile IP applications, Internet/Intranets) Access functionality ‘Traditional’ gateway functionality Subscriber addresses publish Routing IP Charging data Network Gi (IP) GGSN MS
WHAT IS MMS? Person Person Content Person Operator Operator Information EntertainmentPersonal Communication • News • Music• Sending photos • Sports • Quiz shows• Greetings • Weather • Comic strips• Mobile postcards • Stock updates• Voice messages • Cartoons • Travel• Exchanging icons, …
Multimedia Messaging - Anycombination of media types Music Images Graphics Video and Audio
rich content to encourage usageCartoons, Dating, Pop stars, Sports stars, Pets,Special occasions, Hobbies, Sports results, TV programmes,News, Weather, Holidays, Timetables, Family...
Content & ApplicationFun: Cartoon of the day, Cocktail recipes, Daily Horoscope,Games: Puzzles & Riddles, Cute’n’clever, Friends, PopQuiz,Photo & Film: Photo Gallery, Mobile Greeting Card,Chat & date: Mobile Chat, Love Horoscope, Love MatcherMusic: Karaoke, Fan Packages, Hit Lists, Music News
The Greeting Card solution:• Send Messages to your friends, family and loved ones: - Via the web to the mobile phone• Ease of use– self instructing -Drag ‘n’ drop• Animations, Sounds, Pictures & Text
Infra Soul Mobile SpiritualityFeatures : Product delivers Bhagavad-Gita /Qur’an /Bible verse as MMS MMS Bhagavad-Gita /Qur’an /Bible verse contains calligraphic image, melody reading out the verse, with the meaning and necessary text supporting it One time subscriber registration through the web
Content Based Conversion –example Different processing for text and drawing Naive ï Transcoding Optimal Adaptation Maintain Text
Location Based ServicesPositioning applicationWhere am IYellow PagesTrackingFleet managementBrand FinderGeo Coding, Content, Application Integration Positioning methods:– Cell/Sector , Time of Arrival-- Network Based AGPS– Terminal Based EOTD
Horizontal accuracy of location technologies UrbanTechnolog Rural Suburb Suburban Rural Urban extrem Indoor User Comments y Extreme an extreme e No change Cell shape and unless there is possibility of incorrectCell ID 1-35 1-10 50m- 50m- a micro/ pico- sector decides km 1-100 Km km 1-10 km 1km 1km cell accuracyCell ID Radial distance can beand No change improved for range ofTiming unless there is 500m, incorrect sectorAdvance 1-35 1-10 50m- 50m- a micro/ pico- may give possibility of km 1-100 Km km 1-10 km 1km 1km cell error Mobile needs to see atEOTD least 3 base station or 50m- 50- 50- 100- Slight unavailable if 3 BTS 150m 50-150m 150m 100-250m 150m 300m degradation are not available In-building coverage byGPS windows but 30- 50- not deep 10m 10m 20m 50-150m 100m 100m inside Urban canyon effect
Traffic Information APPLICATION OVERVIEWThis service both collects and distributes traffic information.Traffic information is very important need for city dwellers.Systems can estimate traffic information by samplingmobiles in automobiles on freeways anonymously todetermine average velocity of vehicles. If this is not possiblein locataion more static information can be collected from cityauthorities. All this information is mapped and sent to mobileusers who request it.• Stickiness : Daily traffic info. pushed during rushhours via SMS/MMS• Most people need to know the current traffic situtionon their route.• Hosting: Operator / ISP• WAP/Web/MMS/SMS:
Positioning based information, adve rtisements... Telecom & backhand IT infrastructure makes it possible!All Trademarks and Registered Trademarks are of respective holders
Telemetery Use of Computers in combination with telecommunication systems Positioning system and wireless link to deliver two way information
Application examples oftelemetryConvergence put to use ! Billboard Remote management Vending Machines • Download advertise- • storage tanks ment messages • irrigation systemsAll Trademarks and Registered Trademarks are of respective holders