CARBOHYDRATES Preferred energy source for the body Sweet Potato Corn Peas Whole grains (Rice, Millet, Rye, Oats, Wholewheat, Cereal, Bread, Pulses) Pasta Apples Oranges Berries Stone fruit Carrots Broccoli Brussels sprouts Spinach Green beans or peppers, Bananas Apples Pears Berries Melon Citrus fruit Milk (Lactose)
PROTEIN 1. Necessary for the growth, repair and maintenance of body tissues. 2. To produce enzymes, hormones & antibodies - vital for the regulation of metabolism & protection against disease. 3. Needs are higher during times of growth and development Lean meat Chicken Fish Cheese eggs Legumes Seafood Milk Tabbouli (cracked wheat and parsley salad) with nuts Soya beans with stir fried vegetables Sunflower seeds or sesame seeds
FAT 1. Fats offer fat soluble vitamins and the essential fatty acids. 2. Fats offer a concentrated source of energy, providing more than twice as much energy as the same weight of carbohydrate or protein. Meat (Saturated fats) Butter (Saturated fats) Cheese (Saturated fats) Coconut (Saturated fats) Palm oil (Saturated fats) Pastries (Trans fatty acids - Unsaturated fats) Biscuits (Trans fatty acids - Unsaturated fats) Baked goods (Trans fatty acids - Unsaturated fats) Canola (Monounsaturated Fats) Olive (Monounsaturated Fats) Macadamia (Monounsaturated Fats) Peanut Oils (Monounsaturated Fats) Avocados (Monounsaturated Fats) Safflower (Polyunsaturated Fats) Sesame (Polyunsaturated Fats) Sunflower (Polyunsaturated Fats) Corn (Polyunsaturated Fats) Grapeseed (Polyunsaturated fats) Linseed (Polyunsaturated fats) Soybean (Polyunsaturated fats) Walnut oils (Polyunsaturated fats) Almond (Monounsaturated fats) Hazelnut (Monounsaturated fats)
Dietary Fibre 1. Fibre promotes regular bowel movements by giving bulk to the faeces. 2. Fibre help to slow the rate of digestion of digestible carbohydrates and thus regulate blood glucose levels. Soluble fibre may decrease the absorption of dietary cholesterol. Oats Barley Vegetables Fruit Legumes Cereal (1 Cup for breakfast) Bread (wholegrain) 4 slices for breakfast Broccoli Carrots Peas Corn Nuts Seeds Vitamins 1. They are required by the body in small amounts on a daily basis. Vitamins help the body to use energy effectively and are involved in regulating the action of many other chemicals in our body such as enzymes and hormones. 2. They are vital for a healthy body.
Vitamin A 1. Strengthening the immune system and so fighting infection. 2. Growth and repair of cells 3. Growth and development of muscle, tendons, ligaments and bone Carrots Pumpkin Sweet potato Spinach Red capsicum Broccoli Watercress Parsley Mangoes Oranges Papaws Rockmelons Mandarins Apricots. Liver Kidney Fats ( Butter, Margarine, Reduced fat spreads) Full cream dairy products
Thiamin is essential for the body to be able to use carbohydrate to release energy. It is essential for the
brain, nervous system, digestive system and the heart.
2. Thiamin is the first in line of the B group vitamins - each of which functions in many different ways to help enzymes carry out many thousands of complex functions in the body - which is why they are also called coenzymes. The most important thing to remember about the B vitamins is that they work together.
Riboflavin differs from thiamine in not being available in as wide a variety of foods. This means a riboflavin
deficiency is most commonly caused by an imbalanced diet. Strict vegans are at risk of riboflavin deficiency. Riboflavin is an anti-oxidant agent. A deficiency of riboflavin may interfere with iron metabolism and produce anaemia.
2. Riboflavin acts as a co-enzyme to assist in the release of energy from nutrients in the body.
Milk and milk products
Meat and meat products
Breads and cereals
Eggs and yeast extracts
Broccoli (Small amount)
Peas (Small amount)
Spinach (Small amount)
Vitamin B3 1. Niacin is found in food as nicotinamide and nictonic acid. 2. With thiamin and riboflavin, niacin is essential for the production of energy from carbohydrate in the body tissues. 3. Needed for the manufacture of fatty acids in body tissue. 4. Helps keep skin healthy. Meat and poultry (key sources) Bread and cereals (Particularly wholegrain, and in yeast extracts) Potatoes (Small amount) Peas (Small amount) Avocado (Small amount) Broccoli (Small amount)
Vitamin B6 1. Hailed as "the woman's vitamin", B6 (or pyridoxine) is most popularly renowned as a vitamin for the relief of pre-menstrual tension (PMT). PMT is a complex problem and vitamin B6 may only provide relief of some symptoms for some women. 2. B6 reacts with our amino acids enabling them to be incorporated into our body tissues. 3. Vital for proper nerve and muscle function 4. Assists in the formation of the oxygen transporting protein, haemoglobin, in the blood. Avocados Bananas. Lentils Fish Meats (particularly liver) Poultry Breads and cereals (especially wholegrain)
Cell division, growth and reproduction of cells, proper brain function, maintaining mental and emotional
health, improving a depressed appetite, and it improves digestion and liver performance. As the name suggests 'folate' is found in foliage - otherwise known as green leafy vegetables.
3. Essential for the body's growth and repair.
4. Essential for the body's growth and repair. It works with B12 in formation of red blood cells.
Vitamin C 1. It's the most popular vitamin. Our need for vitamin C is increased with the oral contraceptive pill and stress. 2. It helps to fight infection such as common cold and 'flu. 3. Assists in the formation of collagen (a substance which forms the tendons and ligaments which connect our bones and muscles). 4. It is essential for the metabolism of some amino acids and the formation of some hormones. 5. It enhances the absorption of iron from plant foods. Guava Red capsicum (more than twice the Vitamin C of an orange) Brussels sprouts Broccoli Green capsicum Cabbage Cauliflower Parsley Pawpaw Orange Strawberries Grapefruit Rockmelon Lemons Lychees Mangoes
Vitamin D 1. One of the interesting things about Vitamin D is the way it functions almost in the same way as a hormone, targeting the kidneys and intestines as well as the pancreas, brain, skin and bones. 2. Regulates absorption of calcium from the gut 3. Especially important in maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphorous in bone formation, 4. Maintains an adequate calcium level in the blood. 5. Vitamin D is produced by the body when it is exposed to sunlight. Fatty fish (Sardines, tuna, salmon, mackerel, herrings) Butter Table margarine Fish liver Oils Nuts Egg yolk.
Vitamin E 1. Every life form on the planet that consumes oxygen needs vitamin E to survive 2. Vitamin E is regarded as a potent stimulant of the immune system and can help the body defend itself against viral infection. 3. Vitamin E is an important anti-oxidant or "protector vitamin" found mainly in plant foods. 4. It protects cells from damage by free radicals which may be triggered by smoking or pollution. 5. It prolongs the life of red blood cells. Polyunsaturated seed oils Wheatgerm Polyunsaturated margarine Reduced-fat spreads Avocados Broccoli Asparagus and other leafy greens Egg yolk Tuna
Minerals 1. Minerals are the inorganic chemical elements in the diet and body. The human body needs at least 20 different minerals to function properly. 2. Other minerals needed in trace amounts include magnesium, zinc, manganese, selenium, iodine, sodium, copper and chromium. These help the production of enzymes and hormones. 3. While most of us focus on our vitamin intake, mineral deficiencies do occur with calcium, iron and zinc being the most common.
Minerals-Calcium 99% of our body's calcium is found in our skeleton and teeth, making it essential for bone strength. Calcium in the blood is important for blood clotting, muscle contraction and relaxation, and for the conduction of nerve impulses. Nuts Cereals Milk Cheese Spinach Cabbage Parsley Potato Almonds Peanuts Walnuts Sunflower seeds
In the mineral rankings, phosphorus takes second place to calcium as the most abundant mineral in our bodies. It is required for the production of energy from fats, carbohydrates and proteins and helps the body to use some of the B group of vitamins.
2. 85% of the body's phosphorus is in the skeleton where it improves bone strength. Phosphorus also occurs in all cells of the body where it plays an essential role in the release of energy from carbohydrates and assisting in maintaining the acid balance of the body.
Wholemeal bread and wholegrain cereals
Minerals- Iron 1. Iron is needed in red blood cells to form haemoglobin. It is essential in the transfer of oxygen to all body and muscular tissues. 2. Iron is also involved in the chemical reactions that produce energy. Cereal Pulses Cabbage Parsley Peas Potato Sweet Corn
Minerals-Magnesium 1. An important benefit of magnesium is its role in helping to prevent heart attacks and the build up of fatty plaque on the walls of blood vessels. It also plays an important role in the contraction of muscles. It has also reportedly been used in some cases to successfully treat neuromuscular disorders, PMS, depression and sensitivity to noise. 2. Magnesium is involved in the formation of proteins, fats, complex carbohydrates, and in the transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Cereals Spinach Potato Sweet Corn Nuts Pulses
In the event of sodium excess, we rely on potassium to correct any imbalance. In cases where
excessive salt consumption has lead to hypertension or high blood pressure, potassium in foods helps to treat the condition. It is also considered helpful in the prevention of strokes.
Too much potassium could lead to a sudden heart attack. If you have high blood pressure you can increase your potassium intake safely by simply eating more vegetables and fruit.
3. Potassium is the regulator that keeps our excess salt intake in check by maintaining the correct fluid levels in our cells. An imbalance, i.e. too much salt, can draw water out of the muscle cells, which is why potassium is especially important for sports people and for people with high blood pressure.
This essential trace mineral is a champion disease fighter and protector of the immune system. It is
essential for wound healing where it works with Vitamin C.
Mainly concerned with the daily absorption of vitamins, zinc helps the digestive system. Zinc may help to prevent and treat infertility and may help prevent and shorten colds, treat acne, and cold sores, and reduce body odour.
3. It has a role in the production of protein in the body and is important for normal sexual development, wound healing and growth.
Deficiencies of sodium are therefore rare. It is the balance between sodium and potassium
that governs our body cell function and fluid balance.
2. Sodium is the major mineral in the fluids surrounding the body's cells. Like potassium, it maintains the correct water balance in and around our cells. It also regulates blood volume and blood pressure and controls muscle contraction and relaxation.